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Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from Arginine by Nitric oxide synthase. Nitric oxide is one of the Endothelium-dependent relaxing factors released by the vascular endothelium and mediates Vasodilation. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic Guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of Cyclic gmp.
 JoVE Biology

En Face Detection of Nitric Oxide and Superoxide in Endothelial Layer of Intact Arteries

1Cardiovascular and Aging Research, Department of Medicine, Division of Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Fribourg, 2Kidney Control of Homeostasis, Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research, 3System Physiology, Department of Medicine, Division of Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Fribourg

JoVE 53718

 JoVE Bioengineering

Parallel-plate Flow Chamber and Continuous Flow Circuit to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Laminar Flow Shear Stress

1Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 3School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 3349

 JoVE Environment

Removal of Trace Elements by Cupric Oxide Nanoparticles from Uranium In Situ Recovery Bleed Water and Its Effect on Cell Viability

1Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Orthopedics & Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Wyoming, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, 4Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 5Center for Environmental Medicine, Colorado State University, 6College of Pharmacy, California Northstate University

JoVE 52715

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Science

Determination Of NOx in Automobile Exhaust Using UV-VIS Spectroscopy

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

In the troposphere, ozone is naturally formed when sunlight splits nitrogen dioxide (NO2):

NO2 + sunlight → NO + O

O + O2 O3 Ozone (O3) can go on to react with nitric oxide (NO) to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen: NO + O3 → NO2 + O2 This results in no net gain of ozone (O3). However, with the anthropogenic production of ozone forming precursors (NO, NO2, and volatile organic compounds) through the combustion of fossil fuels, elevated levels of ozone in the troposphere have been found. Motor vehicle exhaust is a significant source of these ozone forming precursors: NO, NO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For example, mobile sources make up nearly 60% of NO + NO2 emissions. At the high temperatures found in a car’s combustion chamber, nitrogen and oxygen from the air react to form nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2):

 JoVE Medicine

Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets

1Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Hypertension Research Group (CRIUCPQ), Laval University, 2Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 3Université Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4Hôpital Lariboisière, Physiologie clinique Explorations Fonctionnelles, 5INSERM U 965, 6Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tours

JoVE 52571

 Science Education: Essentials of Analytical Chemistry

Introduction to Mass Spectrometry

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Khuloud Al-Jamal - King's College London

Mass spectrometry is an analytical chemistry technique that enables the identification of unknown compounds within a sample, the quantification of known materials, the determination of the structure, and chemical properties of different molecules.

A mass spectrometer is composed of an ionization source, an analyzer, and a detector. The process involves the ionization of chemical compounds to generate ions. When using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), samples containing elements of interest are introduced into argon plasma as aerosol droplets. The plasma dries the aerosol, dissociates the molecules, and then removes an electron from the components to be detected by the mass spectrometer. Other ionization methods such as electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) are used to analyze biological samples. Following the ionization procedure, ions are separated in the mass spectrometer according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and the relative abundance of each ion type is measured. Finally, the detector commonly consists in an electron multiplier where the collision of ions with a charged anode leads to a cascade of increasing number of electrons, which can b

 JoVE Bioengineering

Rapid Scan Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Opens New Avenues for Imaging Physiologically Important Parameters In Vivo

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Denver, 2Magnetic Imaging Group, Applied Physics Division, Physical Measurements Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 3Department of Radiology, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth University, 4Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, 5Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Denver, 6Department of Engineering, University of Denver

JoVE 54068

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