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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
 JoVE Neuroscience

A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research

1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University


JoVE 51057

The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.

 JoVE Behavior

A Novel Procedure for Evaluating the Reinforcing Properties of Tastants in Laboratory Rats: Operant Intraoral Self-administration

1Department of Psychology, University of Guelph


JoVE 50956

The current study evaluates a novel procedure for assessing the reinforcing effects of palatable solutions in laboratory rats: intraoral self-administration. To this end, operant responding (i.e. lever pressing) for intraoral infusions of sweet solutions at different concentrations was measured on continuous and progressive ratios schedules of reinforcement.

 JoVE Behavior

The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task: A Task of Attention and Impulse Control for Rodents

1Department of Neuroscience, Oberlin College


JoVE 51574

This protocol describes the 5-choice serial reaction time task, which is an operant based task used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. Test day challenges, which are modifications of the standard task, increase flexibility of the task and can be combined with other manipulations to more fully characterize behavior.

 JoVE Behavior

Automated, Quantitative Cognitive/Behavioral Screening of Mice: For Genetics, Pharmacology, Animal Cognition and Undergraduate Instruction

1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 2Department of Psychology, Koç University, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Fairfield University


JoVE 51047

Fully automated system for measuring physiologically meaningful properties of the mechanisms mediating spatial localization, temporal localization, duration, rate and probability estimation, risk assessment, impulsivity, and the accuracy and precision of memory, in order to assess the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on foundational mechanisms of cognition in mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida


JoVE 50336

We present a user-friendly, high-throughput operant system for the evaluation of pain behaviors in awake, conscious rodents. The Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) can assess pain through a reward/conflict paradigm thus providing a more humane way of testing. This protocol will yield more clinically relevant and translational data from rodents.

 JoVE Behavior

A Procedure to Study the Effect of Prolonged Food Restriction on Heroin Seeking in Abstinent Rats

1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioural Neurobiology/Groupe de Recherche en Neurobiologie Comportementale, Concordia University


JoVE 50751

A procedure that allows a demonstration of robust augmentation of drug seeking in food-restricted rats is described. Following heroin self-administration training, rats go through an abstinence period, in a drug-free environment, during which they are mildly food restricted. Drug seeking is then tested in the drug-associated environment.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording Single Neurons' Action Potentials from Freely Moving Pigeons Across Three Stages of Learning

1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum


JoVE 51283

Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.

 JoVE Behavior

A Fully Automated Rodent Conditioning Protocol for Sensorimotor Integration and Cognitive Control Experiments

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, 2Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 3Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University


JoVE 51128

A fully automated protocol for rodent operant conditioning is proposed. The protocol relies on precise temporal control of behavioral events to investigate the extent to which this control influences neural activity underlying sensorimotor integration and cognitive control experiments.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Procedure for Studying the Footshock-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Laboratory Rats

1Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough


JoVE 2265

Animal models of relapse, known as reinstatement procedures, have been used extensively to study the role of stress in relapse to drug seeking. Here, we report on a method for inducing the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory rats via acute exposures to mild, intermittent electric footshock.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A General Method for Evaluating Incubation of Sucrose Craving in Rats

1Department of Psychology and Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Western Washington University


JoVE 3335

Responding for food or drug-paired cues increases over the course of a period of abstinence and this may relate to an increased susceptibility to relapse behaviors. Here we detail a procedure for evaluating this "incubation of craving" in rats that have self-administered sucrose.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Progressive-ratio Responding for Palatable High-fat and High-sugar Food in Mice

1CRCHUM and the Montreal Diabetes Research Center, University of Montreal


JoVE 3754

The present report details the protocol employed to measure the rewarding effects of high-fat food in mice using a progressive ratio operant conditioning task.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Novel Apparatus and Method for Drug Reinforcement

1College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin


JoVE 1998

Operant drug self-administration and conditioned place preference (CPP) procedures are expansively used in research to model various components of drug reinforcement, consumption, and addiction in humans. In this report, we combined traditional CPP and self-administration methods as a novel approach to studying drug reinforcement and addiction in rats.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Aplysia Ganglia Preparation for Electrophysiological and Molecular Analyses of Single Neurons

1Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, Florida


JoVE 51075

Marine snail Aplysia californica has been widely used as a neurobiology model for the studies on cellular and molecular basis of behavior. Here a methodology is described for exploring the nervous system of Aplysia for the electrophysiological and molecular analyses of single neurons of identified neural circuitry.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Behavioral Determination of Stimulus Pair Discrimination of Auditory Acoustic and Electrical Stimuli Using a Classical Conditioning and Heart-rate Approach

1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University


JoVE 3598

The application of a classical fear conditioning behavioral paradigm for auditory prosthetic research in rats is described. This paradigm provides a mechanism for identifying both detection of, and discrimination between, distinct acoustic and electrical stimuli using heart-rate as an outcome measure.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Assessment of Ultrasonic Vocalizations During Drug Self-administration in Rats

1College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, 2The Waggoner Center of Addiction and Alcohol Research, University of Texas at Austin, 3Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 4Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, 5Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin


JoVE 2041

Drug self-administration and ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are used as behavioral assessments in animal research, but rarely in combination. The purpose of this article is to describe the advantages of recording USVs during drug self-administration procedures to assess affective responses to drug experience.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Tactile Conditioning And Movement Analysis Of Antennal Sampling Strategies In Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.)

1Biological Cybernetics, CITEC - Cognitive Interaction Technology - Center of Excellence, Bielefeld University


JoVE 50179

In this protocol we show how to condition harnessed honey bees to tactile stimuli and introduce a 2D motion capture technique for analyzing the kinematics of fine-scale antennal sampling pattern.

 JoVE Biology

Testing Visual Sensitivity to the Speed and Direction of Motion in Lizards

1Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behaviour, Macquarie University


JoVE 127

Testing visual sensitivity in lizards using an operant conditioning paradigm that employs video playback of random-dot kinematograms and computer-generated invertebrates.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extracellularly Identifying Motor Neurons for a Muscle Motor Pool in Aplysia californica

1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 50189

In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool.

 JoVE Neuroscience

An In Vitro Preparation for Eliciting and Recording Feeding Motor Programs with Physiological Movements in Aplysia californica

1Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 4320

We describe a technique to extracellularly record and stimulate from nerves, muscles, and individual identified neurons in vitro while eliciting and observing different types of feeding behaviors in the feeding apparatus of Aplysia.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

1CullenWebb Animal Neurology & Ophthalmology Center, Riverview, NB, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Calgary


JoVE 2138

Locomotion is often examined as a behavioural outcome in various models of disease in fields such as neuroscience and orthopedics. This video paper intends to describe a method for collecting ground reaction forces and kinematics from rats during unrestrained locomotion.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Surgical Implantation of Chronic Neural Electrodes for Recording Single Unit Activity and Electrocorticographic Signals

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3NeuroNexus Technologies


JoVE 3565

We provide useful information for surgeons who are learning the process of implanting chronic neural recording electrodes. Techniques for both penetrating and surface electrode systems are described in a rodent animal model.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Selective Viral Transduction of Adult-born Olfactory Neurons for Chronic in vivo Optogenetic Stimulation

1Laboratory for Perception and Memory, Institut Pasteur and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)


JoVE 3380

Adult-born neurons of the olfactory bulb can be optogenetically controlled using Channelrhodopsin2-expressing lentiviral injection in the rostral migratory stream and chronic photostimulation with an implanted miniature LED.

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