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Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the Vagus nerve, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Abdominal Exam IV: Acute Abdominal Pain Assessment

JoVE Science Education

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Abdominal pain is a frequent presenting concern in both the emergency department and the office setting. Acute abdominal pain is defined as pain lasting less than seven days, while an acute abdomen refers to the abrupt onset of severe abdominal pain with features suggesting a surgically intervenable process. The differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain is broad; thus, clinicians must have a systematic method of examination guided by a careful history, remembering that pathology outside of the abdomen can also cause abdominal pain, including pulmonary, cardiac, rectal, and genital disorders. Terminology for describing the location of abdominal tenderness includes the right and left upper and lower quadrants, and the epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric regions (Figures 1, 2). Thorough examination requires an organized approach involving inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation, with each maneuver performed purposefully and with a clear mental representation of the anatomy. Rather than palpating randomly across the abdomen, begin palpating remotely from the site of tenderness, moving systematically toward the tender region, and thi

 JoVE Behavior

Method for Simultaneous fMRI/EEG Data Collection during a Focused Attention Suggestion for Differential Thermal Sensation

1Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Laboratory of Neuroimaging Technology, University of California, Los Angeles, 3Yale School of Medicine, 4Korean Basic Science Institute


JoVE 3298

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction, therefore any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical, therefore while performing the examination each side should be compared to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a systematic fashion and go through the

 JoVE Neuroscience

Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

1Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 51749

 JoVE Medicine

Performing and Processing FNA of Anterior Fat Pad for Amyloid

1Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Current Address: Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine Detroit Medical Center, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Division of Neoplastic Diseases and Related Disorders, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 1747

 JoVE Cancer Research

Advanced Animal Model of Colorectal Metastasis in Liver: Imaging Techniques and Properties of Metastatic Clones

1Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 2Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology and Ludwig Center for Metastasis Research, The University of Chicago


JoVE 54657

 JoVE Medicine

Isolation, Characterization and Comparative Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Derived from Permanent Teeth by Using Two Different Methods

1Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran, 2Department of Endocrinology & Female Infertility, Reproductive Biomedicine Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran


JoVE 4372

 Science Education: Essentials of Sensation and Perception

The Rubber Hand Illusion

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Reaching for objects, walking without hitting obstacles, landing on a chair as you sit (instead of falling to the floor), these and all our physical actions depend on an ability to perceive our own bodies in space, to know where our limbs are relative to one another and relative to the rest of the world. One way that the human brain encodes this information is called proprioception, the brain relies on its own control and feedback signals to keep track of limbs. Along with proprioceptive inputs, the human brain incorporates vision, touch, and even sound in order to represent the parts of the body in space. How does it combine all this information? In 1998, Botvinick and Cohen described a striking illusion, called the Rubber Hand Illusion, that has been used to investigate how the human brain integrates sensory and proprioceptive inputs to represent the body in space.1 This video will demonstrate how to induce the Rubber Hand Illusion and it will describe how it has been used by subsequent studies.

 JoVE Bioengineering

The Arteriovenous (AV) Loop in a Small Animal Model to Study Angiogenesis and Vascularized Tissue Engineering

1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Postgraduate Studies, Baghdad University, 3Department of Plastic, Hand and Microsurgery, Sana Klinikum Hof GmbH


JoVE 54676

 JoVE Medicine

Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy for the Quantitative Assessment of Acute Ionizing Radiation Induced Skin Toxicity Using a Mouse Model

1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 2Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 4Ontario Cancer Institute / Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research


JoVE 53573

 JoVE In-Press

Automatic Detection of Highly Organized Theta Oscillations in the Murine EEG

1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, 2Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, 3Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 4Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55089

 JoVE Genetics

Detection of Inter-chromosomal Stable Aberrations by Multiple Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (mFISH) and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) in Irradiated Mice

1Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 2Department of Environmental Health, Fay W. Boozman School of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 3Surgical Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System


JoVE 55162

 JoVE Neuroscience

Local and Global Methods of Assessing Thermal Nociception in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Scholars Academy/MARC Scholar, University of Houston-Downtown, 3Genes and Development Graduate Program, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 4Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences


JoVE 3837

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