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Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Experimentation using a Confederate

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

When orchestrating an experiment, it is important that the experience elicits the most natural reactions from the participants as possible. Researchers accomplish much of this through their creation of the experimental settings. Many research projects focus on interactions between two or more people.  In these situations the environment or setting must often be less natural; often only one person can be a true participant and others in the study need to be “confederates,” that is, allegedly unbiased participants whom, in actuality, act according to the researcher’s directions. This video uses a two-group experiment to see if participants are more likely to imitate a person with more power versus similar power compared to the participant.  The video also highlights the use of research confederates. Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences.  A large number of participants helps to better ensure that the population under study is better represented, i.e. the margin of error accompanied by studying human behavior is sufficiently accou

 JoVE Biology

Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in Field Defects During Progression to Colon Cancer

1Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, 2Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, 3Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, 4Biomedical Diagnostics and Research, Tucson, AZ, 5Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson


JoVE 1931

 JoVE Neuroscience

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London


JoVE 52773

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Executive Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Attention, working-memory, planning, impulse control, inhibition, and mental flexibility are important components of human cognition that are often referred to as executive functions. Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. It is a disorder that lasts a lifetime, and is thought to affect 0.6% of the population. The symptoms of autism suggest a deficit in executive function, which may be assessed by specialized neuropsychological tests. By employing several tests that each emphasize different aspects of executive function, we can gain a more complete picture of the cognitive profile of the disorder. One such task, known as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), is a cognitively complex task used widely in research and clinical studies as a highly sensitive measure of deficits in executive function. It tests a person's ability to shift attention and tests their flexibility with changing rules and reinforcement.1 In the WCST, a participant is presented with four stimulus cards, incorporating three stimulus parameters: color, shape, and number. The participant is asked to sort

 JoVE Medicine

An Investigation of the Effects of Sports-related Concussion in Youth Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Head Impact Telemetry System

1Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto, 2Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 4Bloorview Kids Rehab, 5Toronto Rehab, 6Cognitive Neurology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 7Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto


JoVE 2226

 Science Education: Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Central Venous Catheter Insertion: Internal Jugular with Ultrasound Guidance

JoVE Science Education

Source: James W Bonz, MD, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Central venous access is necessary in a multitude of clinical situations including vascular access, vasopressor and caustic medication delivery, central venous pressure monitoring, intravascular device delivery (pacing wires, Swann-Ganz catheters), volume resuscitation, total parental nutrition, hemodialysis, and frequent phlebotomy. Safe reliable placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) in the internal jugular (IJ) vein using ultrasound guidance has become the standard of care. It is therefore imperative to understand the anatomy, the relationship between the IJ and the carotid artery, and their appearance on ultrasound. It is also necessary to have the psychomotor skills of vessel cannulation under ultrasound guidance. Seldinger technique is an introduction of a device into the body over a guidewire, which is inserted through a thin-walled needle. In the case of CVC insertion, the device is an intravascular catheter and the target vessel is a central vein. First, the target vessel is cannulated with an 18G thin walled needle. A guidewire is then passed thought the needle until it is appropriately positioned within the vessel. The needle is removed and a dilator is pa

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 JoVE In-Press

Using RNA-sequencing to Detect Novel Splice Variants Related to Drug Resistance in In Vitro Cancer Models

1Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 3Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, 4Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, 5Division of General and Transplant Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Universita’ di Pisa, 6Amsterdam Immunology and Rheumatology Center, VU University Medical Center, 7Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, 8Cancer Pharmacology Lab, AIRC Start-Up Unit, University of Pisa, 9Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CNR-Nano

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JoVE 54714

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 JoVE Cancer Research

Advanced Animal Model of Colorectal Metastasis in Liver: Imaging Techniques and Properties of Metastatic Clones

1Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 2Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology and Ludwig Center for Metastasis Research, The University of Chicago


JoVE 54657

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 JoVE Medicine

Generation of Organ-conditioned Media and Applications for Studying Organ-specific Influences on Breast Cancer Metastatic Behavior

1London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 3Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 4Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 5Lawson Health Research Institute


JoVE 54037

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 JoVE Medicine

Working with Human Tissues for Translational Cancer Research

1Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Department of Genomic Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 3Department of Pathology and Institutional Tissue Bank, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center


JoVE 53189

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 JoVE Behavior

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf


JoVE 53466

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine


JoVE 51763

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 JoVE Biology

Assessing Neural Stem Cell Motility Using an Agarose Gel-based Microfluidic Device

1Biomedical Engineering Department, Cornell University, 2Neurosurgical Laboratory for Translational Stem Cell Research, Weill Cornell Brain Tumor Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, 3Cell Morphology Department, Instituto de Investigacion Principe Felipe, 4Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University


JoVE 674

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