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  JoVE Developmental Biology


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October, 2006
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 JoVE Behavior

Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults

1Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Harvard Neurology Residency Program, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 52066

Adapted tango has demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. We describe the dissemination of adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and the implementation of adapted tango by the trainees in the community for improving mobility and balance in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

 JoVE Medicine

Gene-environment Interaction Models to Unmask Susceptibility Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease

1Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-Santa Cruz

JoVE 50960

Lipoxygenase (LOX) isozymes can generate products that may increase or decrease neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. A gene-environment interaction study could identify LOX isozyme-specific effects. Using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of nigrostriatal damage in two LOX isozyme-deficient transgenic lines allows for comparison of the contribution of LOX isozymes on dopaminergic integrity and inflammation.

 JoVE Medicine

Development of a Unilaterally-lesioned 6-OHDA Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

1Centre for Neurobiology of Stress, Dept Biological Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough

JoVE 3234

A protocol for performing unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the medial forebrain bundle in mice is described. This method has a low mortality rate (13.3 %) with 89% of the surviving animals showing >95% loss of striatal dopamine and 90.63±-4.02 % ipsiversive rotational bias towards the side of the lesion.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Methods to Characterize Spontaneous and Startle-induced Locomotion in a Rotenone-induced Parkinson's Disease Model of Drosophila

1Department of Biology, Colby College

JoVE 51625

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, causing locomotion defects. Rotenone models Parkinson’s disease in Drosophila. This paper outlines two assays that characterize both spontaneous and startle-induced locomotion deficiencies caused by rotenone.

 JoVE Medicine

Controlling Parkinson's Disease With Adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation

1Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, 2Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience & Movement Disorders, Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, UCL Institute of Neurology

JoVE 51403

Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) is effective for Parkinson’s disease, improving symptoms and reducing power consumption compared to conventional deep brain stimulation (cDBS). In aDBS we track a local field potential biomarker (beta oscillatory amplitude) in real time and use this to control the timing of stimulation.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Sensorimotor Function in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati

JoVE 50303

In Parkinson's disease and movement disorders in general, sensitive and reliable behavioral assays are essential for testing novel potential therapeutics. Here, we describe a manageable battery of sensorimotor tests for mice that are sensitive to varying degrees of injury to the nigrostriatal system and useful for preclinical studies.

 JoVE Medicine

The Use of Primary Human Fibroblasts for Monitoring Mitochondrial Phenotypes in the Field of Parkinson's Disease

1German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, DZNE, 2Laboratory of Functional Neurogenomics, Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen

JoVE 4228

Fibroblasts from patients carrying mutations in Parkinson's disease-causing genes represent an easily accessible ex vivo model to study disease-associated phenotypes. Live cell imaging gives the opportunity to study morphological and functional parameters in living cells. Here we describe the preparation of human fibroblasts and subsequent monitoring of mitochondrial phenotypes.

 JoVE Medicine

MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Neuropeptides in Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology

JoVE 3445

Dopamine replacement pharmacotherapy using L-DOPA is the most commonly used symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but is accompanied by side effects including involuntary abnormal movements, termed dyskinesia 1. Here, a protocol for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is presented that detects changes in rat brain neuropeptide levels related to dyskinesia.

 JoVE Biology

Application of a C. elegans Dopamine Neuron Degeneration Assay for the Validation of Potential Parkinson's Disease Genes

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama

JoVE 835

This video demonstrates how to use C. elegans to assess dopaminergic neuron neurodegeneration as a model for Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, genetic screens are used to identify factors that either enhance degeneration or are neuroprotective.

 JoVE Biology

Murine Model for Parkinson's Disease: from 6-OH Dopamine Lesion to Behavioral Test

1Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

JoVE 1376

Parkinson disease is caused by loss of dopaminergic innervation to the striatum, which can be experimentally induced by 6-OH-dopamine. We describe how to perform a stereotaxic lesion and to monitor apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in mice. This model is useful and reliable for testing new therapies for Parkinson disease.

 JoVE Medicine

Identification of Disease-related Spatial Covariance Patterns using Neuroimaging Data

1Center for Neurosciences, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research

JoVE 50319

Multivariate techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) have been used to identify signature patterns of regional change in functional brain images. We have developed an algorithm to identify reproducible network biomarkers for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, assessment of disease progression, and objective evaluation of treatment effects in patient populations.

 JoVE Biology

High-throughput Functional Screening using a Homemade Dual-glow Luciferase Assay

1Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 50282

We present a rapid and inexpensive screening method for identifying transcriptional regulators using high-throughput robotic transfections and a homemade dual-glow luciferase assay. This protocol rapidly generates direct side-by-side functional data for thousands of genes and is easily modifiable to target any gene of interest.

 JoVE Biology

Metabolic Labeling of Leucine Rich Repeat Kinases 1 and 2 with Radioactive Phosphate

1Laboratory for Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven and Leuven Institute for Neuroscience and Disease (LIND)

JoVE 50523

Leucine rich repeat kinases 1 and 2 (LRRK1 and LRRK2) are multidomain proteins which encode both GTPase and kinase domains and which are phosphorylated in cells. Here, we present a protocol to label LRRK1 and LRRK2 in cells with 32P orthophosphate, thereby providing a means to measure their overall cellular phophorylation levels.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Directed Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

1Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine

JoVE 51737

We, based on knowledge from developmental biology and published research, developed an optimized protocol to efficiently generate A9 midbrain dopaminergic neurons from both human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, which would be useful for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Primary Culture of Mouse Dopaminergic Neurons

1CNRS, UMR-5203, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Montpellier, 2Inserm, U661, Montpellier, 3Universités de Montpellier

JoVE 51751

Dopaminergic neurons play a vital regulatory role in the brain. Their loss is associated with Parkinson's disease. In this video, we show how to generate primary cultures of central dopaminergic neurons from embryonic mouse mesencephalon. Such cultures are useful to study the extreme vulnerability of these neurons to various stresses.

 JoVE Medicine

Detection of Disease-associated α-synuclein by Enhanced ELISA in the Brain of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human A53T Mutated α-synuclein

1Neurodegenerative Diseases Unit, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, 2Indicia Production, 3AJ Roboscreen GmbH, 4Epidemiology Unit, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, 5Experimental Facilities, ANSES - French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety

JoVE 52752

An ELISA offering a novel quantitative approach is described. It specifically detects disease-associated α-synuclein (αSD) in a transgenic mouse model (M83) of synucleinopathy using several antibodies against either the Ser129 phosphorylated αS form or the C-terminal part of the protein.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Olfactory Assays for Mouse Models of Neurodegenerative Disease

1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Wright State University

JoVE 51804

Impairment in olfactory function is a common feature in many neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Huntington diseases. In the present article, we describe a set of tests for assessing olfaction discrimination and detection in mice that can be used to measure olfactory abilities in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases.

 JoVE Behavior

Getting to Compliance in Forced Exercise in Rodents: A Critical Standard to Evaluate Exercise Impact in Aging-related Disorders and Disease

1Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

JoVE 51827

Exercise may alleviate behavioral impairments associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of the mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated effects have increased in disease models, but the neurobiological background accompanying these diseases, specifically aging, is likely not considered. Here, we illustrate measures to increase the likelihood of a successful exercise paradigm in aged rats.

 JoVE Medicine

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri

JoVE 52319

This study successfully adapted human videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) methods for use with murine disease models for the purpose of facilitating translational dysphagia research.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Derivation of Adult Human Fibroblasts and their Direct Conversion into Expandable Neural Progenitor Cells

1Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Würzburg, 2Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University of Bonn, 3German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg

JoVE 52831

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells provides fascinating prospects for the derivation of autologous transplants. However, progression through a pluripotent state and laborious re-differentiation still hinders clinical translation. Here we describe the derivation of adult human fibroblasts and their direct conversion into induced neural progenitor cells and the subsequent differentiation into neural lineages.

 JoVE Behavior

Uncovering Beat Deafness: Detecting Rhythm Disorders with Synchronized Finger Tapping and Perceptual Timing Tasks

1Movement to Health Laboratory (EuroMov), University of Montpellier, 2Institut Universitaire de France, 3Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, 4International Laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound Research (BRAMS)

JoVE 51761

Behavioral tasks that allow for the assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) are presented. Synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of an auditory stimuli and detecting rhythmic irregularities provides a means of uncovering rhythm disorders.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolation, Culture and Long-Term Maintenance of Primary Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons From Embryonic Rodent Brains

1Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine

JoVE 52475

The causes of degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons during Parkinson’s disease are not fully understood. Cellular culture systems provide an essential tool for study of the neurophysiological properties of these neurons. Here we present an optimized protocol, which can be utilized for in vitro modeling of neurodegeneration.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Novel Whole-tissue Quantitative Assay of Nitric Oxide Levels in Drosophila Neuroinflammatory Response

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama

JoVE 50892

Levels of the inflammatory cell-signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) are commonly assayed using Griess reagent. In this protocol, we have created a modified Griess assay utilizing live Drosophila brain tissue in order to detect the secretion of NO in a simple, quantifiable and highly repeatable method.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Biopanning for Isolation of Morphology Specific Reagents against TDP-43 Variants in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

1School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 2Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center

JoVE 52584

Using atomic force microscopy in combination with biopanning technology we created a negative and positive biopanning system to acquire antibodies against disease-specific protein variants present in any biological material, even at low concentrations. We were successful in obtaining antibodies to TDP-43 protein variants involved in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

 JoVE Biology

Assaying the Kinase Activity of LRRK2 in vitro

1Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology

JoVE 3495

Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 is a large multidomain kinase, mutations in which are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. Analysis of the kinase activity of this protein has proven to be a crucial tool in understanding the biology and dysfunction of this protein. In this paper, in vitro assaying of the kinase activity of LRRK2 and a selection of its mutants is described, providing an experimental system to examine phosphorylation of putative substrates and potential dysfunction of LRRK2 in disease.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Targeted Training of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Aged and Parkinsonian Rats

1Department of Surgery-Division of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin

JoVE 2835

Voice disorders are debilitating in aging and Parkinson disease. The ultrasonic vocalizations of rats, also affected by these conditions, can be used to study these voice disorders, their neural substrates, and the nature of functional recovery with behavioral intervention.

 JoVE Biology

Viability Assays for Cells in Culture

1Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University

JoVE 50645

Therapeutic compounds are often first examined in vitro with viability assays. Blind cell counts by a human observer can be highly sensitive to small changes in cell number but do not assess function. Computerized viability assays, as described here, can assess both structure and function in an objective manner.

 JoVE Biology

Investigating the Spreading and Toxicity of Prion-like Proteins Using the Metazoan Model Organism C. elegans

1Department of Molecular Biosciences, Rice Institute for Biomedical Research, Northwestern University

JoVE 52321

Prion-like propagation of protein aggregates has recently emerged as being implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. The goal of this protocol is to describe, how to use the nematode C. elegans as a model system to monitor protein spreading and to investigate prion-like phenomena.

 JoVE Medicine

Quantification of Neurovascular Protection Following Repetitive Hypoxic Preconditioning and Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice

1Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine

JoVE 52675

This protocol describes repetitive hypoxic preconditioning, or brief exposures to systemic hypoxia that reduce infarct volumes and blood-brain barrier disruption following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. It also details dual quantification of infarct volume and blood-brain barrier disruption after stroke to assess the efficacy of neurovascular protection.

 JoVE Behavior

Signal Attenuation as a Rat Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University

JoVE 52287

The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Isolation of Cortical Microglia with Preserved Immunophenotype and Functionality From Murine Neonates

1Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center

JoVE 51005

One key to successful investigation of microglial biology is the preservation of microglial immunofunction ex vivo during isolation from CNS tissue. Isolating microglia via rotary shaking results in highly pure and immunofunctional cell cultures as assessed by fluorescent imaging, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA following microglia activation with the proinflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CSK4 (Pam).

 JoVE Neuroscience

Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in the Rat Hippocampus After Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus

1Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London

JoVE 52457

The mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery needs investigation. The methods presented in this manuscript describe an experimental approach to examine the cellular events triggered by DBS by analyzing the gene expression profile of candidate genes that can facilitate neurogenesis post DBS surgery.

 JoVE Medicine

Intra-Operative Behavioral Tasks in Awake Humans Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery

1Nayef Al-Rodhan Laboratories for Cellular Neurosurgery and Neurosurgical Technology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurosurgery , Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 2156

Deep brain stimulation surgery offers a unique opportunity to examine information encoding in the awake human brain. This article will describe intra-operative methods used to perform cognitive and behavioral tasks while simultaneously acquiring physiological data such as EMG, single-unit neuronal activity and/or local field potentials.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Oral Administration of Rotenone using a Gavage and Image Analysis of Alpha-synuclein Inclusions in the Enteric Nervous System

1Institute of Anatomy, Technische Universität Dresden

JoVE 2123

Parkinson's disease has been related to the exposure to pesticides. Here we show a method to deliver pesticides using a gastric tube at the desired concentration and a method to analyze their effect in alpha-synuclein accumulation in the enteric nervous system.

 JoVE Medicine

Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System

1Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI) and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University

JoVE 3387

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive tool to gain insight on the physiology and function of the human nervous system. Here, we present our TMS techniques to study cortical excitability of the upper limb and lumbar musculature.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Assessing Neurodegenerative Phenotypes in Drosophila Dopaminergic Neurons by Climbing Assays and Whole Brain Immunostaining

1Department of Biomolecular Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center

JoVE 50339

Here we describe two assays that have been established to study age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Drosophila: the climbing/startle-induced negative geotaxis assay which allows to study the functional effects of DA neurons degeneration and the tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining which is used to identify and count DA neurons in whole brain mounts.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Quantitative Analysis of Climbing Defects in a Drosophila Model of Neurodegenerative Disorders

1Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, 2Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University

JoVE 52741

We present an optimized inexpensive and reliable negative geotaxis assay in Drosophila melanogaster as a model for neurodegenerative disorders. Being more sensitive to mild locomotor defects, this assay will help screen for potential genetic interactions and drug targets.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Environmental Modulations of the Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons in Adult Mice

1Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne

JoVE 52329

This protocol describes two different environmental manipulations and a concurrent brain infusion protocol to study environmentally-induced brain changes underlying adaptive behavior and brain repair in adult mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University

JoVE 50426

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has shown initial therapeutic effects in several neurological conditions. The main mechanism underlying these therapeutic effects is the modulation of cortical excitability. Therefore, online monitoring of cortical excitability would help guide stimulation parameters and optimize its therapeutic effects. In the present article we review the use of a novel device that combines simultaneous tDCS and EEG monitoring in real time.

 JoVE Medicine

Heterotopic Mucosal Engrafting Procedure for Direct Drug Delivery to the Brain in Mice

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 2Department of Otology and Laryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 51452

A mouse model of human endoscopic skull base reconstruction has been developed that creates a semipermeable interface between the brain and nose using nasal mucosal grafts. This method allows researchers to study delivery to the central nervous system of high molecular weight therapeutics which are otherwise excluded by the blood-brain barrier when administered systemically.

 JoVE Medicine

Image-guided Convection-enhanced Delivery into Agarose Gel Models of the Brain

1University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Semmes-Murphey Clinic, 3University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4Restorative Neurosciences Foundation

JoVE 51466

Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been proposed as a treatment option for a wide range of neurological diseases. In order to prepare health care professionals for adoption of CED, accessible training models are needed. We describe the use of agarose gel as such a model of the human brain for testing, research, and training.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolating Nasal Olfactory Stem Cells from Rodents or Humans

1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University

JoVE 2762

We describe here a method for biopsying olfactory mucosa from rat and human nasal cavities. These biopsies can be used for either identifying molecular anomalies in brain diseases or isolating multipotent adult stem cells that can be utilized for cell transplantation in animal models of brain trauma/disease.

 JoVE Behavior

Handwriting Analysis Indicates Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Neuroleptic Naïve Adolescents at High Risk for Psychosis

1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, 2NeuroScript LLC, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego

JoVE 50852

Handwriting analysis software significantly improves upon existing instruments measuring movement disorders. Individuals at risk for psychosis and healthy controls completed handwriting tasks to test for dyskinesia. Results suggest that youth at risk for psychosis exhibit dyskinesia and that handwriting analysis could significantly contribute to wider dissemination of early identification efforts

 JoVE Behavior

The Double-H Maze: A Robust Behavioral Test for Learning and Memory in Rodents

1Section of Neuroelectronic Systems, Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Freiburg, 2Laboratoire d'Imagerie et de Neurosciences Cognitives, UMR 7364 Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 3Faculté de Psychologie, Neuropôle de Strasbourg

JoVE 52667

The goal of this protocol is to investigate spatial cognition in rodents. The double-H water maze is a novel test, which is particularly useful to elucidate the different components of learning, consolidation and memory, as well as the interplay of memory systems.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of Neuronal Co-cultures with Single Cell Precision

1Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften, ISAS, 2Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, 3Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton

JoVE 51389

Protocols for single neuron microfluidic arraying and water masking for the in-chip plasma patterning of biomaterial coatings are described. Highly interconnected co-cultures can be prepared using minimal cell inputs.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Flow Cytometry Protocols for Surface and Intracellular Antigen Analyses of Neural Cell Types

1Emmy Noether-Group for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Freiburg, 2Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine and Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, 3School of Life Sciences, Keele University, 4Center for Biological Signaling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg

JoVE 52241

We provide a detailed description of a protocol for flow cytometric analysis of surface antigens and/or intracellular antigens in neural cell types. Critical aspects of experimental planning, step-by-step methodological procedures, and fundamental principles of flow cytometry are explained in order to enable neurobiologists to exploit this powerful technology.

 JoVE Medicine

Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, 2UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, 3Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University

JoVE 3677

We have developed a device (Twister) to study the regulation of tonic muscle activity during active postural maintenance. Twister measures torsional resistance and muscular responses in standing subjects during twisting of the body axis. The device can be flexibly configured to study various aspects of tonic control across the neck, trunk, and/or hips.

 JoVE Medicine

In Vivo Dynamics of Retinal Microglial Activation During Neurodegeneration: Confocal Ophthalmoscopic Imaging and Cell Morphometry in Mouse Glaucoma

1Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Utah, 2Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Utah

JoVE 52731

Microglia activation and microgliosis are key responses to chronic neurodegeneration. Here, we present methods for in vivo, long-term visualization of retinal CX3CR1-GFP+ microglial cells by confocal ophthalmoscopy, and for threshold and morphometric analyses to identify and quantify their activation. We monitor microglial changes during early stages of age-related glaucoma.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessing Forelimb Function after Unilateral Cervical SCI using Novel Tasks: Limb Step-alternation, Postural Instability and Pasta Handling

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, 3The J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida

JoVE 50955

Three new behavioral tests (forelimb step-alternation, postural instability test, pasta handling test) for evaluating forelimb function after cervical spinal cord injury in rodents are described.

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