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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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Essentials of
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 JoVE Behavior

Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults

1Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Harvard Neurology Residency Program, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 52066

Adapted tango has demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. We describe the dissemination of adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and the implementation of adapted tango by the trainees in the community for improving mobility and balance in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Gene-environment Interaction Models to Unmask Susceptibility Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease

1Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-Santa Cruz


JoVE 50960

Lipoxygenase (LOX) isozymes can generate products that may increase or decrease neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. A gene-environment interaction study could identify LOX isozyme-specific effects. Using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of nigrostriatal damage in two LOX isozyme-deficient transgenic lines allows for comparison of the contribution of LOX isozymes on dopaminergic integrity and inflammation.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Development of a Unilaterally-lesioned 6-OHDA Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

1Centre for Neurobiology of Stress, Dept Biological Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough


JoVE 3234

A protocol for performing unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the medial forebrain bundle in mice is described. This method has a low mortality rate (13.3 %) with 89% of the surviving animals showing >95% loss of striatal dopamine and 90.63±-4.02 % ipsiversive rotational bias towards the side of the lesion.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Methods to Characterize Spontaneous and Startle-induced Locomotion in a Rotenone-induced Parkinson's Disease Model of Drosophila

1Department of Biology, Colby College


JoVE 51625

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, causing locomotion defects. Rotenone models Parkinson’s disease in Drosophila. This paper outlines two assays that characterize both spontaneous and startle-induced locomotion deficiencies caused by rotenone.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Controlling Parkinson's Disease With Adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation

1Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, 2Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience & Movement Disorders, Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, UCL Institute of Neurology


JoVE 51403

Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) is effective for Parkinson’s disease, improving symptoms and reducing power consumption compared to conventional deep brain stimulation (cDBS). In aDBS we track a local field potential biomarker (beta oscillatory amplitude) in real time and use this to control the timing of stimulation.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Sensorimotor Function in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati


JoVE 50303

In Parkinson's disease and movement disorders in general, sensitive and reliable behavioral assays are essential for testing novel potential therapeutics. Here, we describe a manageable battery of sensorimotor tests for mice that are sensitive to varying degrees of injury to the nigrostriatal system and useful for preclinical studies.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

The Use of Primary Human Fibroblasts for Monitoring Mitochondrial Phenotypes in the Field of Parkinson's Disease

1German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, DZNE, 2Laboratory of Functional Neurogenomics, Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen


JoVE 4228

Fibroblasts from patients carrying mutations in Parkinson's disease-causing genes represent an easily accessible ex vivo model to study disease-associated phenotypes. Live cell imaging gives the opportunity to study morphological and functional parameters in living cells. Here we describe the preparation of human fibroblasts and subsequent monitoring of mitochondrial phenotypes.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Neuropeptides in Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology


JoVE 3445

Dopamine replacement pharmacotherapy using L-DOPA is the most commonly used symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but is accompanied by side effects including involuntary abnormal movements, termed dyskinesia 1. Here, a protocol for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is presented that detects changes in rat brain neuropeptide levels related to dyskinesia.

 JoVE Biology

Application of a C. elegans Dopamine Neuron Degeneration Assay for the Validation of Potential Parkinson's Disease Genes

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama


JoVE 835

This video demonstrates how to use C. elegans to assess dopaminergic neuron neurodegeneration as a model for Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, genetic screens are used to identify factors that either enhance degeneration or are neuroprotective.

 JoVE Biology

Murine Model for Parkinson's Disease: from 6-OH Dopamine Lesion to Behavioral Test

1Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil


JoVE 1376

Parkinson disease is caused by loss of dopaminergic innervation to the striatum, which can be experimentally induced by 6-OH-dopamine. We describe how to perform a stereotaxic lesion and to monitor apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in mice. This model is useful and reliable for testing new therapies for Parkinson disease.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Identification of Disease-related Spatial Covariance Patterns using Neuroimaging Data

1Center for Neurosciences, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research


JoVE 50319

Multivariate techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) have been used to identify signature patterns of regional change in functional brain images. We have developed an algorithm to identify reproducible network biomarkers for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, assessment of disease progression, and objective evaluation of treatment effects in patient populations.

 JoVE Biology

High-throughput Functional Screening using a Homemade Dual-glow Luciferase Assay

1Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 50282

We present a rapid and inexpensive screening method for identifying transcriptional regulators using high-throughput robotic transfections and a homemade dual-glow luciferase assay. This protocol rapidly generates direct side-by-side functional data for thousands of genes and is easily modifiable to target any gene of interest.

 JoVE Biology

Metabolic Labeling of Leucine Rich Repeat Kinases 1 and 2 with Radioactive Phosphate

1Laboratory for Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven and Leuven Institute for Neuroscience and Disease (LIND)


JoVE 50523

Leucine rich repeat kinases 1 and 2 (LRRK1 and LRRK2) are multidomain proteins which encode both GTPase and kinase domains and which are phosphorylated in cells. Here, we present a protocol to label LRRK1 and LRRK2 in cells with 32P orthophosphate, thereby providing a means to measure their overall cellular phophorylation levels.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Directed Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

1Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine


JoVE 51737

We, based on knowledge from developmental biology and published research, developed an optimized protocol to efficiently generate A9 midbrain dopaminergic neurons from both human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, which would be useful for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Primary Culture of Mouse Dopaminergic Neurons

1CNRS, UMR-5203, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Montpellier, 2Inserm, U661, Montpellier, 3Universités de Montpellier


JoVE 51751

Dopaminergic neurons play a vital regulatory role in the brain. Their loss is associated with Parkinson's disease. In this video, we show how to generate primary cultures of central dopaminergic neurons from embryonic mouse mesencephalon. Such cultures are useful to study the extreme vulnerability of these neurons to various stresses.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Olfactory Assays for Mouse Models of Neurodegenerative Disease

1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Wright State University


JoVE 51804

Impairment in olfactory function is a common feature in many neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Huntington diseases. In the present article, we describe a set of tests for assessing olfaction discrimination and detection in mice that can be used to measure olfactory abilities in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases.

 JoVE Behavior

Getting to Compliance in Forced Exercise in Rodents: A Critical Standard to Evaluate Exercise Impact in Aging-related Disorders and Disease

1Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center


JoVE 51827

Exercise may alleviate behavioral impairments associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of the mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated effects have increased in disease models, but the neurobiological background accompanying these diseases, specifically aging, is likely not considered. Here, we illustrate measures to increase the likelihood of a successful exercise paradigm in aged rats.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Novel Whole-tissue Quantitative Assay of Nitric Oxide Levels in Drosophila Neuroinflammatory Response

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama


JoVE 50892

Levels of the inflammatory cell-signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) are commonly assayed using Griess reagent. In this protocol, we have created a modified Griess assay utilizing live Drosophila brain tissue in order to detect the secretion of NO in a simple, quantifiable and highly repeatable method.

 JoVE Biology

Assaying the Kinase Activity of LRRK2 in vitro

1Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology


JoVE 3495

Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 is a large multidomain kinase, mutations in which are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. Analysis of the kinase activity of this protein has proven to be a crucial tool in understanding the biology and dysfunction of this protein. In this paper, in vitro assaying of the kinase activity of LRRK2 and a selection of its mutants is described, providing an experimental system to examine phosphorylation of putative substrates and potential dysfunction of LRRK2 in disease.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Targeted Training of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Aged and Parkinsonian Rats

1Department of Surgery-Division of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin


JoVE 2835

Voice disorders are debilitating in aging and Parkinson disease. The ultrasonic vocalizations of rats, also affected by these conditions, can be used to study these voice disorders, their neural substrates, and the nature of functional recovery with behavioral intervention.

 JoVE Biology

Viability Assays for Cells in Culture

1Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University


JoVE 50645

Therapeutic compounds are often first examined in vitro with viability assays. Blind cell counts by a human observer can be highly sensitive to small changes in cell number but do not assess function. Computerized viability assays, as described here, can assess both structure and function in an objective manner.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Isolation of Cortical Microglia with Preserved Immunophenotype and Functionality From Murine Neonates

1Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center


JoVE 51005

One key to successful investigation of microglial biology is the preservation of microglial immunofunction ex vivo during isolation from CNS tissue. Isolating microglia via rotary shaking results in highly pure and immunofunctional cell cultures as assessed by fluorescent imaging, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA following microglia activation with the proinflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CSK4 (Pam).

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Intra-Operative Behavioral Tasks in Awake Humans Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery

1Nayef Al-Rodhan Laboratories for Cellular Neurosurgery and Neurosurgical Technology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurosurgery , Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 2156

Deep brain stimulation surgery offers a unique opportunity to examine information encoding in the awake human brain. This article will describe intra-operative methods used to perform cognitive and behavioral tasks while simultaneously acquiring physiological data such as EMG, single-unit neuronal activity and/or local field potentials.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Oral Administration of Rotenone using a Gavage and Image Analysis of Alpha-synuclein Inclusions in the Enteric Nervous System

1Institute of Anatomy, Technische Universität Dresden


JoVE 2123

Parkinson's disease has been related to the exposure to pesticides. Here we show a method to deliver pesticides using a gastric tube at the desired concentration and a method to analyze their effect in alpha-synuclein accumulation in the enteric nervous system.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System

1Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI) and the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University


JoVE 3387

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive tool to gain insight on the physiology and function of the human nervous system. Here, we present our TMS techniques to study cortical excitability of the upper limb and lumbar musculature.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Assessing Neurodegenerative Phenotypes in Drosophila Dopaminergic Neurons by Climbing Assays and Whole Brain Immunostaining

1Department of Biomolecular Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center


JoVE 50339

Here we describe two assays that have been established to study age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Drosophila: the climbing/startle-induced negative geotaxis assay which allows to study the functional effects of DA neurons degeneration and the tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining which is used to identify and count DA neurons in whole brain mounts.

 JoVE Behavior

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University


JoVE 50426

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has shown initial therapeutic effects in several neurological conditions. The main mechanism underlying these therapeutic effects is the modulation of cortical excitability. Therefore, online monitoring of cortical excitability would help guide stimulation parameters and optimize its therapeutic effects. In the present article we review the use of a novel device that combines simultaneous tDCS and EEG monitoring in real time.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Heterotopic Mucosal Engrafting Procedure for Direct Drug Delivery to the Brain in Mice

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 2Department of Otology and Laryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School


JoVE 51452

A mouse model of human endoscopic skull base reconstruction has been developed that creates a semipermeable interface between the brain and nose using nasal mucosal grafts. This method allows researchers to study delivery to the central nervous system of high molecular weight therapeutics which are otherwise excluded by the blood-brain barrier when administered systemically.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Image-guided Convection-enhanced Delivery into Agarose Gel Models of the Brain

1University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Semmes-Murphey Clinic, 3University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4Restorative Neurosciences Foundation


JoVE 51466

Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been proposed as a treatment option for a wide range of neurological diseases. In order to prepare health care professionals for adoption of CED, accessible training models are needed. We describe the use of agarose gel as such a model of the human brain for testing, research, and training.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolating Nasal Olfactory Stem Cells from Rodents or Humans

1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University


JoVE 2762

We describe here a method for biopsying olfactory mucosa from rat and human nasal cavities. These biopsies can be used for either identifying molecular anomalies in brain diseases or isolating multipotent adult stem cells that can be utilized for cell transplantation in animal models of brain trauma/disease.

 JoVE Behavior

Handwriting Analysis Indicates Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Neuroleptic Naïve Adolescents at High Risk for Psychosis

1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, 2NeuroScript LLC, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego


JoVE 50852

Handwriting analysis software significantly improves upon existing instruments measuring movement disorders. Individuals at risk for psychosis and healthy controls completed handwriting tasks to test for dyskinesia. Results suggest that youth at risk for psychosis exhibit dyskinesia and that handwriting analysis could significantly contribute to wider dissemination of early identification efforts

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of Neuronal Co-cultures with Single Cell Precision

1Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften, ISAS, 2Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, 3Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton


JoVE 51389

Protocols for single neuron microfluidic arraying and water masking for the in-chip plasma patterning of biomaterial coatings are described. Highly interconnected co-cultures can be prepared using minimal cell inputs.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Flow Cytometry Protocols for Surface and Intracellular Antigen Analyses of Neural Cell Types

1Emmy Noether-Group for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Freiburg, 2Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine and Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, 3School of Life Sciences, Keele University, 4Center for Biological Signaling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg


JoVE 52241

We provide a detailed description of a protocol for flow cytometric analysis of surface antigens and/or intracellular antigens in neural cell types. Critical aspects of experimental planning, step-by-step methodological procedures, and fundamental principles of flow cytometry are explained in order to enable neurobiologists to exploit this powerful technology.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, 2UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, 3Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University


JoVE 3677

We have developed a device (Twister) to study the regulation of tonic muscle activity during active postural maintenance. Twister measures torsional resistance and muscular responses in standing subjects during twisting of the body axis. The device can be flexibly configured to study various aspects of tonic control across the neck, trunk, and/or hips.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessing Forelimb Function after Unilateral Cervical SCI using Novel Tasks: Limb Step-alternation, Postural Instability and Pasta Handling

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, 3The J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida


JoVE 50955

Three new behavioral tests (forelimb step-alternation, postural instability test, pasta handling test) for evaluating forelimb function after cervical spinal cord injury in rodents are described.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

High Content Screening in Neurodegenerative Diseases

1Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, 2Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam


JoVE 3452

We describe a methodology combining automated cell culturing with high-content imaging to visualize and quantify multiple cellular processes and structures, in a high-throughput manner. Such methods can aid in the further functional annotation of genomes as well as identify disease gene networks and potential drug targets.

 JoVE Biology

Isolating Potentiated Hsp104 Variants Using Yeast Proteinopathy Models

1Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 52089

Yeast proteinopathy models are valuable tools to assess the toxicity and aggregation of proteins implicated in disease. Here, we present methods for screening Hsp104 variant libraries for toxicity suppressors. This protocol could be adapted to screen any protein library for toxicity suppressors of any protein that is toxic in yeast.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Quantitative Autonomic Testing

1Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School


JoVE 2502

Standardized, comprehensive and fully quantitative testing of autonomic functions is described. The autonomic tests consist of evaluation of all three major autonomic domains including cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor. The severity and distribution of dysautonomia is quantitated using Composite Autonomic Severity Scores.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Drug-induced Sensitization of Adenylyl Cyclase: Assay Streamlining and Miniaturization for Small Molecule and siRNA Screening Applications

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, 2Quantitative Biology, Eli Lilly and Company


JoVE 51218

Persistent activation of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors results in sensitization of adenylyl cyclase signaling. To identify the essential molecular pathways, nonbiased approaches are necessary; however, this strategy requires the development of a scalable cell-based cAMP sensitization assay. Herein, we describe a sensitization assay for small molecule and siRNA screening.

 JoVE Biology

Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos

1Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Science, University of Torino, 2Laboratory of Endothelial Molecular Biology, Vesalius Research Center, VIB


JoVE 51328

Here we report a protocol to measure oxidative stress in living zebrafish embryos. This procedure allows reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection in both whole embryo tissues and single-cell populations. This protocol will accomplish both qualitative and quantitative analyses.

 JoVE Biology

Methods to Assess Subcellular Compartments of Muscle in C. elegans

1MRC/ARUK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Nottingham


JoVE 52043

Skeletal muscle is essential for locomotion and is the bodies’ main protein store. Muscle health measurements within C. elegans are described. Prospective changes to muscle structure and function are assessed using localized GFP and cationic dyes.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of Primary Neurons for Visualizing Neurites in a Frozen-hydrated State Using Cryo-Electron Tomography

1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 4National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 50783

To preserve neuronal processes for ultrastructural analysis, we describe a protocol for plating of primary neurons on electron microscopy grids followed by flash freezing, yielding samples suspended in a layer of vitreous ice. These samples can be examined with a cryo-electron microscope to visualize structures at the nanometer scale.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Deep Brain Stimulation with Simultaneous fMRI in Rodents

1Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, 2Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, 4Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina, 5School of Medicine, University of North Carolina


JoVE 51271

This protocol describes a standard method for simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging and deep brain stimulation in the rodent. The combined use of these experimental tools allows for the exploration of global downstream activity in response to electrical stimulation at virtually any brain target.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Method for Systematic Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Neural Recording Electrodes

1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University


JoVE 51084

Different electrode coatings affect neural recording performance through changes to electrochemical, chemical and mechanical properties. Comparison of electrodes in vitro is relatively simple, however comparison of in vivo response is typically complicated by variations in electrode/neuron distance and between animals. This article provides a robust method to compare neural recording electrodes.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Systemic Injection of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mice with Chronic EAE

1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, UK, 2NIHR Biomedical Research Center, University of Cambridge, UK


JoVE 51154

The transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) holds great promises in regenerative neurology. The systemic delivery of NPCs has turned into effective, low invasive, and therapeutically very efficacious protocol to deliver stem cells in the brain and spinal cord of rodents and nonhuman primates affected by experimental chronic inflammatory damage of the central nervous system.

 JoVE Behavior

Methods to Explore the Influence of Top-down Visual Processes on Motor Behavior

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 3Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, 4Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 5Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University


JoVE 51422

It is unclear how top-down signals from the ventral visual stream affect movement. We developed a paradigm to test motor behavior towards a target on a 3D depth inversion illusion. Significant differences are reported in both deliberate, goal-directed movements and automatic actions under illusory and veridical viewing conditions.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Sex Stratified Neuronal Cultures to Study Ischemic Cell Death Pathways

1Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine


JoVE 50758

Primary disassociated embryonic hippocampal neuronal cultures are useful for investigating the signaling mechanisms involved in neuron death. Sexing the embryos before the isolation and dissociation of the hippocampus allows the preparation of separate male and female cultures, which enables the researcher to identify and investigate sex-specific cell signaling.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Dual Tracer PET-MRI Protocol for the Quantitative Measure of Regional Brain Energy Substrates Uptake in the Rat

1Research Center on Aging and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Université de Sherbrooke, 2Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Center, Étienne-Le Bel Clinical Research Center, Université de Sherbrooke, 3Department of Computer Science, Université de Sherbrooke, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke


JoVE 50761

Small-animal positron emission tomography enables the assessment of the brain's two main energy substrates: glucose and ketones. In the present method, 11C-acetoacetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose are injected sequentially in each animal, and their uptake is measured quantitatively in specific brain regions determined from the magnetic resonance images.

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