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Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
 JoVE Engineering

Construction and Characterization of External Cavity Diode Lasers for Atomic Physics

1Department of Quantum Science, The Australian National University

JoVE 51184

This is an instructional paper to guide the construction and diagnostics of external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs), including component selection and optical alignment, as well as the basics of frequency reference spectroscopy and laser linewidth measurements for applications in the field of atomic physics.

 JoVE Editorial

An interview with Nobel laureate Roy Glauber, Physics 2005

JoVE 1535

The field of quantum optics rests on the work of Roy Glauber, who helped elucidate the nature of light as both particles and waves. In this candid interview, the Nobel prize-winning physicist shares his thoughts about this strange and unintuitive behavior of light, balancing fatherhood with an academic career, and working at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he shockingly learned that he was helping to build The Bomb.

 JoVE Editorial

An Interview with Nobel Laureate Theodor Hansch, Physics 2005

JoVE 1537

Theodor Hänsch was a co-recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics for "contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb." In this video, Hänsch explains "in a nutshell" the frequency comb, its theories, its many applications, and the breakneck pace of the research leading up to the Nobel Prize.

 JoVE Editorial

An Interview with Nobel Laureate Douglas Osheroff, Physics 1996

JoVE 1540

At extremely low temperatures, the molecules of certain fluids are able to flow without internal friction or resistance - a phenomenon know as superfluidity. In this interview, Nobel Laureate Douglas Osheroff (Physics 1996) describes the somewhat arduous quest to prove the predicted superfluid state of helium-3. He also shares his thoughts on mentoring undergraduates and his philosophy on getting the most out of graduate school.

 JoVE Engineering

Setting Limits on Supersymmetry Using Simplified Models

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, 2CERN, 3Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories

JoVE 50419

This paper demonstrates a protocol for recasting experimental simplified model limits into conservative and aggressive limits on an arbitrary new physics model. Publicly available LHC experimental results can be recast in this manner into limits on almost any new physics model with a supersymmetry-like signature.

 JoVE Chemistry

Confocal Imaging of Confined Quiescent and Flowing Colloid-polymer Mixtures

1Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Houston

JoVE 51461

Confocal microscopy is used to image quiescent and flowing colloid-polymer mixtures, which are studied as model systems for attractive suspensions. Image analysis algorithms are used to calculate structural and dynamic metrics for the colloidal particles that measure changes due to geometric confinement.

 JoVE Engineering

Sputter Growth and Characterization of Metamagnetic B2-ordered FeRh Epilayers

1School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, 2Institute of Materials Research, University of Leeds, 3School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 5Department of Physics, Northeastern University

JoVE 50603

A method to prepare epitaxial layers of ordered alloys by sputtering is described. The B2-ordered FeRh compound is used as an example, as it displays a metamagnetic transition that depends sensitively on the degree of chemical order and the exact composition of the alloy.

 JoVE Engineering

Preparation and Use of Photocatalytically Active Segmented Ag|ZnO and Coaxial TiO2-Ag Nanowires Made by Templated Electrodeposition

1MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente

JoVE 51547

Procedures are outlined to prepare segmented and coaxial nanowires via templated electrodeposition in nanopores. As examples, segmented nanowires consisting of Ag and ZnO segments, and coaxial nanowires consisting of a TiO2 shell and a Ag core were made. The nanowires were used in photocatalytic hydrogen formation experiments.

 JoVE Engineering

Spatial Separation of Molecular Conformers and Clusters

1Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, CFEL, DESY, 2Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, 3The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, University of Hamburg

JoVE 51137

We present a technique that allows the spatial separation of different conformers or clusters present in a molecular beam. An electrostatic deflector is used to separate species by their mass-to-dipole moment ratio, leading to the production of gas-phase ensembles of a single conformer or cluster stoichiometry.

 JoVE Chemistry

In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

1Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

JoVE 51344

Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of novel materials. Coupled with analysis by in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), soft landing provides unprecedented insights into the interactions of well-defined species with surfaces.

 JoVE Engineering

High-Sensitivity Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Giga-Pascal Pressures: A New Tool for Probing Electronic and Chemical Properties of Condensed Matter under Extreme Conditions

1Faculty of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Leipzig

JoVE 52243

Nuclear magnetic resonance is one of the most important spectroscopic tools. Here, the development of a new approach under high pressure, currently up to 10.1 GPa, is presented. This opens a new window into condensed matter physics and chemistry, where high-pressure research is of great importance.

 JoVE Engineering

Scanning-probe Single-electron Capacitance Spectroscopy

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 2Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry/Physics, Mercyhurst University, 3Department of Physics, Saint Louis University, 4Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JoVE 50676

Scanning-probe single-electron capacitance spectroscopy facilitates the study of single-electron motion in localized subsurface regions. A sensitive charge-detection circuit is incorporated into a cryogenic scanning probe microscope to investigate small systems of dopant atoms beneath the surface of semiconductor samples.

 JoVE Engineering

Ambient Method for the Production of an Ionically Gated Carbon Nanotube Common Cathode in Tandem Organic Solar Cells

1Physics Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, 2The NanoTech Institute, The University of Texas at Dallas, 3Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science

JoVE 52380

A method of fabricating, in ambient conditions, organic photovoltaic tandem devices in a parallel configuration is presented. These devices feature an air-processed, semi-transparent, carbon nanotube common cathode.

 JoVE Engineering

Synthesis and Operation of Fluorescent-core Microcavities for Refractometric Sensing

1Department of Physics, University of Alberta

JoVE 50256

Fluorescent-core microcavity sensors employ a high-index quantum-dot coating in the channel of silica microcapillaries. Changes in the refractive index of fluids pumped into the capillary channel cause shifts in the microcavity fluorescence spectrum that can be used to analyze the channel medium.

 JoVE Engineering

The Generation of Higher-order Laguerre-Gauss Optical Beams for High-precision Interferometry

1School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham

JoVE 50564

Large laser-interferometers are being constructed to create a new type of astronomy based on gravitational waves. Their sensitivities, as for many other high-precision experiments, are approaching fundamental noise limits such as the atomic vibration of their components. We are pioneering technologies to overcome these limits using novel laser beam shapes.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Visualizing Protein-DNA Interactions in Live Bacterial Cells Using Photoactivated Single-molecule Tracking

1Microbiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, 2Biological Physics Research Group, Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford

JoVE 51177

Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) combined with single-molecule tracking allows direct observation and quantification of protein-DNA interactions in live Escherichia coli cells.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication and Testing of Microfluidic Optomechanical Oscillators

1Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 51497

Parametric optomechanical excitations have recently been experimentally demonstrated in microfluidic optomechanical resonators by means of optical radiation pressure and stimulated Brillouin scattering. This paper describes the fabrication of these microfluidic resonators along with methodologies for generating and verifying optomechanical oscillations.

 JoVE Biology

Internalization and Observation of Fluorescent Biomolecules in Living Microorganisms via Electroporation

1Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, 2Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Center

JoVE 52208

Studies of biomolecules in vivo are crucial for understanding molecular function in a biological context. Here we describe a novel method allowing the internalization of fluorescent biomolecules, such as DNA or proteins, into living microorganisms. Analysis of in vivo data recorded by fluorescence microscopy is also presented and discussed.

 JoVE Engineering

Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy At Ultra-low Temperatures

1Institute for Solid State Research, IFW-Dresden, 2Institute of Metal Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3Diamond Light Source LTD, 4Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, 5CNR-SPIN, and Dipartimento di Fisica "E. R. Caianiello", Università di Salerno, 6Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

JoVE 50129

The overall goal of this method is to determine the low-energy electronic structure of solids at ultra-low temperatures using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation.

 JoVE Engineering

Flame Experiments at the Advanced Light Source: New Insights into Soot Formation Processes

1Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, 2Chemical Sciences Division, Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 3Physikalische Chemie I, Universität Bielefeld

JoVE 51369

Gas sampling from laboratory-scale flames with online analysis of all species by mass spectrometry is a powerful method to investigate the complex mixture of chemical compounds occurring during combustion processes. Coupled with tunable soft ionization via synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation, this technique provides isomer-resolved information and potentially fragment-free mass spectra.

 JoVE Engineering

Reservoir Condition Pore-scale Imaging of Multiple Fluid Phases Using X-ray Microtomography

1Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London

JoVE 52440

We present a methodology for the imaging of multiple fluid phases at reservoir conditions by the use of x-ray microtomography. We show some representative results of capillary trapping in a carbonate rock sample.

 JoVE Engineering

The Preparation of Electrohydrodynamic Bridges from Polar Dielectric Liquids

1Applied Water Physics, Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, 2IRCAM GmbH, 3Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz University of Technology

JoVE 51819

Horizontal and vertical electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges are simple and powerful tools for exploring the interaction of high intensity electric fields and polar dielectric liquids. The construction of basic apparatus and operational examples, including thermographic images, for three liquids (e.g., water, DMSO, and glycerol) is presented.

 JoVE Medicine

Detection of Architectural Distortion in Prior Mammograms via Analysis of Oriented Patterns

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2Department of Radiology, University of Calgary

JoVE 50341

We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms. Oriented structures are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect sites of radiating tissue patterns. Each site is characterized and classified using measures to represent spiculating patterns. The methods should assist in the detection of breast cancer.

 JoVE Biology

Acquiring Fluorescence Time-lapse Movies of Budding Yeast and Analyzing Single-cell Dynamics using GRAFTS

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JoVE 50456

We present a simple protocol to obtain fluorescence microscopy movies of growing yeast cells, and a GUI-based software package to extract single-cell time series data. The analysis includes automated lineage and division time assignment integrated with visual inspection and manual curation of tracked data.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators

1Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 2Department of Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics, University of Southern California

JoVE 4164

We describe the use of a carbon dioxide laser reflow technique to fabricate silica resonant cavities, including free-standing microspheres and on-chip microtoroids. The reflow method removes surface imperfections, allowing long photon lifetimes within both devices. The resulting devices have ultra high quality factors, enabling applications ranging from telecommunications to biodetection.

 JoVE Engineering

Writing and Low-Temperature Characterization of Oxide Nanostructures

1Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh

JoVE 51886

Oxide nanostructures provide new opportunities for science and technology. The interfacial conductivity between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 can be controlled with near-atomic precision using a conductive atomic force microscopy technique. The protocol for creating and measuring conductive nanostructures at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces is demonstrated.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Measurement of Tension Release During Laser Induced Axon Lesion to Evaluate Axonal Adhesion to the Substrate at Piconewton and Millisecond Resolution

1Institute of Biophysics, National Research Council of Italy, 2Dipartimento di Sistemi e Informatica, Università di Firenze, 3Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia

JoVE 50477

We measured the tension release in an axon that was partially lesioned with a laser dissector by simultaneous force spectroscopy measurement performed on an optically-trapped probe adhered to the membrane of the axon. The developed experimental protocol evaluates the axon adhesion to the culture substrate.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication of Spatially Confined Complex Oxides

1Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

JoVE 50573

We describe the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), photolithography and wire-bonding techniques to create micrometer scale complex oxides devices. The PLD is utilized to grow epitaxial thin films. Photolithography and wire-bonding techniques are introduced to create practical devices for measurement purposes.

 JoVE Chemistry

Dependence of Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Results on Pulse Energies and Timing Parameters Using Soil Simulants

1Department of Math and Sciences, Alvernia University, 2Applied Research Associates (ARA), Inc.

JoVE 50876

LIBS detection capabilities on soil simulants were tested using a range of pulse energies and timing parameters. Calibration curves were used to determine detection limits and sensitivities for different parameters. Generally, the results showed that there was not a significant reduction in detection capabilities using lower pulse energies and non-gated detection.

 JoVE Engineering

Characterization of Recombination Effects in a Liquid Ionization Chamber Used for the Dosimetry of a Radiosurgical Accelerator

1Department of Medical Physics, Centre Oscar Lambret

JoVE 51296

A growing number of radiation therapy devices offer the advantage of delivering the dose through very small beams to the tumor, allowing for increased conformity and higher doses per fraction. Many different detectors can be used for the dosimetry of these small fields. In the present study, the effect of ion recombination is investigated for a liquid ionization chamber using a stereotactic radiation therapy system.

 JoVE Engineering

Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Characterization of Plasmonic Photoconductive Terahertz Emitters

1Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan

JoVE 50517

We describe methods for the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of plasmonic photoconductive emitters, which offer two orders of magnitude higher terahertz power levels compared to conventional photoconductive emitters.

 JoVE Chemistry

Origami Inspired Self-assembly of Patterned and Reconfigurable Particles

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 50022

We describe experimental details of the synthesis of patterned and reconfigurable particles from two dimensional (2D) precursors. This methodology can be used to create particles in a variety of shapes including polyhedra and grasping devices at length scales ranging from the micro to centimeter scale.

 JoVE Biology

Fluorescence Imaging with One-nanometer Accuracy (FIONA)

1Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Center for the Physics of Living Cells, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 51774

Single fluorophores can be localized with nanometer precision using FIONA. Here a summary of the FIONA technique is reported, and how to carry out FIONA experiments is described.

 JoVE Engineering

Patterning via Optical Saturable Transitions - Fabrication and Characterization

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Utah, 2Department of Chemistry, The University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 52449

We report that the diffraction limit of conventional optical lithography can be overcome by exploiting the transitions of organic photochromic derivatives induced by their photoisomerization at low light intensities.1-3 This paper outlines our fabrication technique and two locking mechanisms, namely: dissolution of one photoisomer and electrochemical oxidation.

 JoVE Engineering

Simulation of the Planetary Interior Differentiation Processes in the Laboratory

1Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington

JoVE 50778

The high-pressure and high-temperature experiments described here mimic planet interior differentiation processes. The processes are visualized and better understood by high-resolution 3D imaging and quantitative chemical analysis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Polished and Reinforced Thinned-skull Window for Long-term Imaging of the Mouse Brain

1Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University, 4Section of Neurobiology, University of California, San Diego

JoVE 3742

We present a method to form an imaging window in the mouse skull that spans millimeters and is stable for months without inflammation of the brain. This method is well suited for longitudinal studies of blood flow, cellular dynamics, and cell/vascular structure using two-photon microscopy.

 JoVE Engineering

Synthesis and Microdiffraction at Extreme Pressures and Temperatures

1High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2GeoSoilEnviroCARS, University of Chicago, 3High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington

JoVE 50613

The laser heated diamond anvil cell combined with synchrotron micro-diffraction techniques allows researchers to explore the nature and properties of new phases of matter at extreme pressure and temperature (PT) conditions. Heterogeneous samples can be characterized in situ under high pressure by 2D mapping and combined powder, single-crystal and multigrain diffraction approaches.

 JoVE Engineering

Concurrent Quantitative Conductivity and Mechanical Properties Measurements of Organic Photovoltaic Materials using AFM

1Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago

JoVE 50293

Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are inherently inhomogeneous at the nanometer scale. Nanoscale inhomogeneity of OPV materials affects performance of photovoltaic devices. In this paper, we describe a protocol for quantitative measurements of electrical and mechanical properties of OPV materials with sub-100 nm resolution.

 JoVE Engineering

Characterization of Surface Modifications by White Light Interferometry: Applications in Ion Sputtering, Laser Ablation, and Tribology Experiments

1Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 3MassThink LLC

JoVE 50260

White light microscope interferometry is an optical, noncontact and quick method for measuring the topography of surfaces. It is shown how the method can be applied toward mechanical wear analysis, where wear scars on tribological test samples are analyzed; and in materials science to determine ion beam sputtering or laser ablation volumes and depths.

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication And Characterization Of Photonic Crystal Slow Light Waveguides And Cavities

1School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews

JoVE 50216

Use of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities has been widely adopted by the photonics community in many differing applications. Therefore fabrication and characterization of these devices are of great interest. This paper outlines our fabrication technique and two optical characterization methods, namely: interferometric (waveguides) and resonant scattering (cavities).

 JoVE Engineering

Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry With Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Synchrotron Radiation

1Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 50164

A molecular beam coupled to tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer at a synchrotron provides a convenient tool to explore the electronic structure of isolated gas phase molecules and clusters. Proton transfer mechanisms in DNA base dimers were elucidated with this technique.

 JoVE Engineering

High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 50559

A procedure for studying transient flows near boundaries using high-resolution, high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) is described here. PIV is a non-intrusive measurement technique applicable to any optically accessible flow by optimizing several parameter constraints such as the image and recording properties, the laser sheet properties, and analysis algorithms.

 JoVE Chemistry

Template Directed Synthesis of Plasmonic Gold Nanotubes with Tunable IR Absorbance

1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto

JoVE 50420

Solution-suspendable gold nanotubes with controlled dimensions can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using a hydrophobic polymer core. Gold nanotubes and nanotube arrays hold promise for applications in plasmonic biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photo-thermal heating, ionic and molecular transport, microfluidics, catalysis and electrochemical sensing.

 JoVE Engineering

Development of Whispering Gallery Mode Polymeric Micro-optical Electric Field Sensors

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University

JoVE 50199

A high-sensitivity photonic micro sensor was developed for electric field detection. The sensor exploits the optical modes of a dielectric sphere. Changes in the external electric field perturb the sphere morphology leading to shifts in its optical modes. The electric field strength is measured by monitoring these optical shifts.

 JoVE Engineering

Investigating Single Molecule Adhesion by Atomic Force Spectroscopy

1Physik-Department E22a, Technische Universität München, 2IMETUM, Technische Universität München

JoVE 52456

A protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. Procedures and examples to determine the adhesion force and free energy of these molecules on solid supports and bio-interfaces are provided.

 JoVE Biology

Studying DNA Looping by Single-Molecule FRET

1School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology

JoVE 51667

This study presents a detailed experimental procedure to measure looping dynamics of double-stranded DNA using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The protocol also describes how to extract the looping probability density called the J factor.

 JoVE Engineering

Novel 3D/VR Interactive Environment for MD Simulations, Visualization and Analysis

1Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Merced

JoVE 51384

A new computational system featuring GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics simulation and 3D/VR visualization, analysis and manipulation of nanostructures has been implemented, representing a novel approach to advance materials research and promote innovative investigation and alternative methods to learn about material structures with dimensions invisible to the human eye.

 JoVE Biology

Sample Preparation for Single Virion Atomic Force Microscopy and Super-resolution Fluorescence Imaging

1Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Utah, 2Center for Cell and Genome, University of Utah

JoVE 51366

The attachment of virions to a surface is a requirement for single virion imaging by Super-resolution fluorescence imaging or atomic force microscopy (AFM). Here we demonstrate a sample preparation method for controlled adhesion of virions to glass surfaces suitable for use in AFM and super-resolution fluorescence imaging.

 JoVE Engineering

Ultrahigh Density Array of Vertically Aligned Small-molecular Organic Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta

JoVE 50706

We report a simple method for fabricating an ultrahigh density array of vertically ordered small-molecular organic nanowires. This method allows for synthesis of complex heterostructured hybrid nanowire geometries, which can be inexpensively grown on arbitrary substrates. These structures have potential applications in organic electronics, optoelectronics, chemical sensing, photovoltaics and spintronics.

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Microfluidic-based Hydrodynamic Trap for Single Particles

1Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 2517

In this article, we present a microfluidic-based method for particle confinement based on hydrodynamic flow. We demonstrate stable particle trapping at a fluid stagnation point using a feedback control mechanism, thereby enabling confinement and micromanipulation of arbitrary particles in an integrated microdevice.

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