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Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an Oocyte as it undergoes Meiosis. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic Cell division. Polar bodies have practically no Cytoplasm. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
 JoVE Chemistry

From Constructs to Crystals – Towards Structure Determination of β-barrel Outer Membrane Proteins

1Department of Biological Sciences, Markey Center for Structural Biology, Purdue University, 2National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, 3National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institutes of Health


JoVE 53245

 JoVE Biology

Purification of Transcripts and Metabolites from Drosophila Heads

1Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 3Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, 4McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Genetics Institute, Center for Translational Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, University of Florida


JoVE 50245

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Method for Ovarian Follicle Encapsulation and Culture in a Proteolytically Degradable 3 Dimensional System

1Institute for BioNanotechnology in Advanced Medicine, Northwestern University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 3Center for Reproductive Research, Northwestern University, 4The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, 5Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University


JoVE 2695

 JoVE Bioengineering

Harmonic Nanoparticles for Regenerative Research

1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 2Physics Department, GAP-Biophotonics, University of Geneva, 3Laboratoire d'Optique Biomédicale (LOB), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de l'Ingénieur, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, 5School of Medicine and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, 6Nikon AG Instruments


JoVE 51333

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Measuring Physiological Responses of Drosophila Sensory Neurons to Lipid Pheromones Using Live Calcium Imaging

1Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 2Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 3Bioimaging and Biocomputing Facility, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 4Histology and Light Microscopy Core, Gladstone Institutes, 5Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa


JoVE 53392

 JoVE Medicine

Human Brown Adipose Tissue Depots Automatically Segmented by Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Registered Magnetic Resonance Images

1Chemical and Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Radiology & Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 52415

 Science Education: Essentials of Cell Biology

Detecting Reactive Oxygen Species

JoVE Science Education

Reactive oxygen species are chemically active, oxygen-derived molecules capable of oxidizing other molecules. Because of their reactive nature, there are many deleterious effects associated with unchecked ROS production, including structural damage to DNA and other biological molecules. However, ROS can also be mediators of physiological signaling. There is accumulating evidence that ROS play significant roles in everything from activation of transcription factors to the mediation of inflammatory toxicity that kills foreign pathogens and defend the body.In this video we will delve into the associations between ROS, metabolism and disease. After establishing their significance, we will discuss the principles and a protocol of a commonly used methodology for measuring ROS levels in cells: the use of non-fluorescent probes that become fluorescent upon oxidation. Lastly, we will review some current applications of this technique in cell biology research.

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 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

Purification of a Total Lipid Extract with Column Chromatography

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

The product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds. The compounds of interest may belong to one of several classes of compounds, such as alkanes, ketones, alcohols, or acids (Figure 1), and it may be useful to remove the compound classes to which it does not belong in order to get a clearer view of the compounds you are interested in. For example, a TLE may contain 1,000 compounds, but the Uk'37 sea surface temperature proxy is based on only two compounds (alkenones) and the TEX86 sea surface temperature proxy is based on only four (glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers). It would behoove the researcher to remove as many of the compounds they are not interested in. This makes the instrumental analysis of the compounds of interest (alkenones or GDGTs) less likely to be complicated by other extraneous compounds. In other cases, an upstream purification technique may have produced compounds you wish to now remove from the sample, such as the production of carboxylic acids during saponification in our

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 JoVE Neuroscience

In Vivo Functional Brain Imaging Approach Based on Bioluminescent Calcium Indicator GFP-aequorin

1Equipe: Imagerie Cérébrale Fonctionnelle et Comportements (ICFC), Institut des Neurosciences Paris-Saclay (Nero-PSI), UMR-9197, CNRS/Université Paris Sud, 2Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Graduate College, University of Iowa, 3Department of Anesthesia, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa


JoVE 53705

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 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Column Chromatography

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Jimmy Franco - Merrimack College

Column chromatography is one of the most useful techniques for purifying compounds. This technique utilizes a stationary phase, which is packed in a column, and a mobile phase that passes through the column. This technique exploits the differences in polarity between compounds, allowing the molecules to be facilely separated.1 The two most common stationary phases for column chromatography are silica gel (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3), with the most commonly used mobile phases being organic solvents.2 The solvent(s) chosen for the mobile phase are dependent on the polarity of the molecules being purified. Typically more polar compounds require more polar solvents in order to facilitate the passage of the molecules through the stationary phase. Once the purification process has been completed the solvent can be removed from the collected fractions using a rotary evaporator to yield the isolated material.

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 JoVE Biology

Reconstitution of a Transmembrane Protein, the Voltage-gated Ion Channel, KvAP, into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies

1Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, CNRS, UMR 168, PhysicoChimie Curie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, University of California, San Diego, 3Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Section, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health


JoVE 52281

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 JoVE Behavior

A Structured Rehabilitation Protocol for Improved Multifunctional Prosthetic Control: A Case Study

1Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 3Department of Neurorehabilitation Engineering, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, 4University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, 5University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien, 6Research & Development, Otto Bock Healthcare Products GmbH


JoVE 52968

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 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Performing 1D Thin Layer Chromatography

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Yuri Bolshan — University of Ontario Institute of Technology

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatographic method used to separate mixtures of non-volatile compounds. A TLC plate consists of a thin layer of adsorbent material (the stationary phase) fixed to an appropriate solid support such as plastic, aluminum, or glass1. The sample(s) and reference compound(s) are dissolved in an appropriate solvent and applied near the bottom edge of the TLC plate in small spots. The TLC plate is developed by immersing the bottom edge in the developing solvent consisting of an appropriate mobile phase. Capillary action allows the mobile phase to move up the adsorbent layer. As the solvent moves up the TLC plate, it carries with it the components of each spot and separates them based on their physical interactions with the mobile and stationary phases.

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