Stable Isotopic Profiling of Intermediary Metabolic Flux in Developing and Adult Stage Caenorhabditis elegans
Stable isotopic profiling by gas chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of intermediary metabolic flux is described in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods are detailed for assessing isotopic enrichment in carbon dioxide, organic acids, and amino acids following isotope exposure either during development on agar plates or during adulthood in liquid culture.
An automated microfluidic device was developed for circulating nucleated cell enrichment from peripheral blood via erythrocyte lysis that ensures isolation of high quality sample without cell loss.
This whole mount in situ hybridization protocol discusses critical steps that ensure reproducible high quality results for gene expression studies in E8.5-E11.5 day old mouse embryos.
We describe the procedure to prepare staged Drosophila embryos for the visualization of the embryonic nervous system during embryogenesis.
Non-radioactive in situ Hybridization Protocol Applicable for Norway Spruce and a Range of Plant Species
1Department of Evolutionary Functional Genomics, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, 2Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
We describe a modified DIG in situ hybridization protocol, which is fast and applicable on a wide range of plant species including Norway spruce. With just a few adjustments, including altered RNase treatment and proteinase K concentration, the protocol may be used in studies of different tissues and species.
Gene microarrays are powerful tools in gene expression profiling at a genome-wide level. This technology has application in a variety of biological disciplines including developmental biology and toxicology. In this video, we detail a protocol for global gene expression analysis using a comprehensive oligonucleotide microarray platform for the zebrafish.
This protocol allows one to identify factors that modulate functional beta cell mass to find potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes. The protocol consists of a streamlined method to assess islet replication and beta cell function in isolated rat islets following manipulation of gene expression with adenoviruses.
The Direct PCR approach presented here facilitates PCR amplification directly from small amounts of unpurified plant and animal tissue.
In order to study the changes of nociceptive intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) in painful neuropathies (PN), we developed protocols that could directly examine three-dimensional morphological changes observed in nociceptive IENFs. Three-dimensional analysis of IENFs has the potential to evaluate the morphological changes of IENF in PN.
The 3DNA software package is a popular and versatile bioinformatics tool with capabilities to analyze, construct, and visualize three-dimensional nucleic acid structures. This article presents detailed protocols for a subset of new and popular features available in 3DNA, applicable to both individual structures and ensembles of related structures.
Here we describe a growth assay for Staphylococcus aureus using hemoglobin as the sole source of available nutrient iron. This assay establishes the role of bacterial factors involved in hemoglobin-derived iron acquisition.
A Protocol for Comprehensive Assessment of Bulbar Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
1Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, 2ALS/ MN Clinic, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, 3Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 4Department of Neurology, Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 5Department of Neurology, University of Toronto
Objective assessments of the physiological mechanisms that support speech are needed to monitor disease onset and progression in persons with ALS and to quantify treatment effects in clinical trials. In this video, we present a comprehensive, instrumentation-based protocol for quantifying speech motor performance in clinical populations.
In this video-article we present a method for isolating single or multiple Drosophila da neurons from third instar larvae using the infrared capture (IR) class of Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM). RNA obtained from the isolated neurons can be readily used for downstream applications including qRT-PCR or microarray analyses.
1Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Donnelly Sequencing Centre, University of Toronto, 4Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, 5Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto
We have developed comprehensive, unbiased genome-wide screens to understand gene-drug and gene-environment interactions. Methods for screening these mutant collections are presented.
A simple, inexpensive, and effective method of preparing Drosophila embryos for live-imaging analysis is presented. Our protocol provides humidity and gas exchange and does not compress the Drosophila embryo. This method is suitable for GFP-based live imaging of Drosophila embryos using a stereomicroscope or upright compound microscope.
Multi-parameter Measurement of the Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Isolated Mouse Heart Mitochondria
A spectrofluorometric protocol for the measurement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in isolated mouse heart mitochondria is presented here. The assay involves the simultaneous measurement of mitochondria Ca2+ handling, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial volume. The procedure for obtaining high-quality and functional heart mitochondria is also described.
Whole mount in situ hybridization is one of the most widely used techniques in developmental biology. Here, we present a high-resolution double fluorescent in situ hybridization protocol for analyzing the precise expression pattern of a single gene and for determining the overlap of the expression domains of two genes. We include a propidium iodide nuclear counter-stain to highlight tissue organization.
In this video-article we present a method for the isolation and purification of Drosophila peripheral neurons using a fast magnetic bead assisted cell sorting strategy. RNA obtained from the isolated cells can be readily used for downstream applications including microarray analyses.
1Regenerative Biology, Morgridge Institute for Research, 2Department of Cell & Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin, 3Department of Molecular, Cellular, & Regenerative Biology, University of California
Here we describe a method for preparation of both single read and paired end Illumina mRNA-Seq sequencing libraries for gene expression analysis based on T7 linear RNA amplification. This protocol requires only 10 nanograms of starting total RNA and generates highly consistent libraries representing whole transcripts.
Purification and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative Bacteria by Hot Aqueous-phenol Extraction
We describe a modified hot aqueous-phenol extraction method for purifying lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria. Once extracted, the LPS can be subsequently analyzed by SDS-PAGE and visualized by direct staining or Western immunoblot.
There is an increasing interest in understanding the immunological functions of specific subpopulations of cells in Peyer's patches (PPs), the primary inductive sites of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Here we outline parallel protocols for preparing PP single cell preparations for flow cytometric analysis and PP cryosections for immunostaining.
We describe a process using laser-capture microdissection to isolate and extract RNA from a homogeneous cell population, pyramidal neurons, in layer III of the superior temporal gyrus in postmortem human brains. We subsequently linearly amplify (T7-based) mRNA, and hybridize the sample to the Affymetrix human X3P microarray.
The in situ hybridization protocol described here allows a direct localization of mRNA and small RNA expression at the cellular level with high sensitivity and specificity. The procedure is optimized for paraffin-embedded plant tissue sections, is applicable to a wide range of plants and tissues, and can be completed within ten days.
Here we describe a protocol for the preparation of agar-embedded retinal slices that are suitable for electrophysiology and Ca2+ imaging. This method allows one to study ribbon-type synapses in retinal microcircuits using direct patch-clamp recordings of single presynaptic nerve terminals.
Passive mechanical testing of mouse carotid arteries is described, with special consideration for adapting to different specimen ages. The procedures include determining the in vivo length of the artery, mounting it in a pressure myograph, recording data, measuring the unloaded dimensions and analyzing the resulting data.
This video shall popularize a colloidal Coomassie G-250 staining protocol according to Kang et al. for the detection of average 4 ng protein in gels. The staining is completed within 2 hours and without any effort. We routinely use Kang's protocol for analytical purposes in gel-based proteomics.
1McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 3Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 4Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh
A method to rapidly and completely remove cellular components from an intact porcine heart through retrograde perfusion is described. This method yields a site specific cardiac extracellular matrix scaffold which has the potential for use in multiple clinical applications.
A simple and specific method was demonstrated for fluorescent labeling and enhanced detection of cell surface proteins without a fractionation step. Differential abundance in cell surface proteins was analyzed using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and Ettan™ DIGE technology.
The isolation of high quality, intact RNA is an essential step in many laboratory protocols. Here, we demonstrate RNA extraction from whole zebrafish embryos and cDNA synthesis for subsequent application in various experimental procedures including gene expression microarray analysis.
We provide an improved protocol for extracting high molecular weight DNA from hypersaline microbial mats. Microbial cells are separated from the mat matrix prior to DNA extraction and purification. This enhances the concentrations, quality, and size of the DNA. The protocol may be used for other refractory samples.
A rapid and affordable way to extract quality malaria parasite and vector DNA from mosquito specimens is described. Capitalizing on chelating properties of Chelex resin, the simple method enables genotyping of malaria parasites in mosquito mid-gut and salivary gland phases, as well as molecular identification of the Anopheles sibling species by PCR.
Combined Immunofluorescence and DNA FISH on 3D-preserved Interphase Nuclei to Study Changes in 3D Nuclear Organization
1Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York University Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, 3NYU Cancer Institute, 4Department of Pathology and Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine
Here we describe a protocol for simultaneous detection of histone modifications by immunofluorescence and DNA sequences by DNA FISH followed by 3D microscopy and analyses (3D immuno-DNA FISH).
Live Cell Cycle Analysis of Drosophila Tissues using the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer and Vybrant DyeCycle Violet DNA Stain
A protocol for cell cycle analysis of live Drosophila tissues using the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer is described. This protocol simultaneously provides information about relative cell size, cell number, DNA content and cell type via lineage tracing or tissue specific expression of fluorescent proteins in vivo.
Testing visual sensitivity in lizards using an operant conditioning paradigm that employs video playback of random-dot kinematograms and computer-generated invertebrates.
Isolation of lymphocytes using the Miltenyi MACs kit is a reliable way to purify cells from whole lymphoid tissue homogenates. Cells purified using the Miltenyi system are typically ≥ 96% pure. Here, we demonstrate the steps taken to isolate CD4+ T cells, one of the many kits offered by Miltenyi.
1Institute for Physiological Chemistry, Department of Biochemical Endocrinology, University of Duisburg-Essen, 2Institute for Anatomy, Department of Neuroanatomy, University of Duisburg-Essen, 3Morphoplant GmbH, 4ARCONS Institute for Applied Research and Didactics
The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a unique, naturally immunodeficient supportive culture environment to study angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. This video article demonstrates the different steps in chick ex ovo culture, application of potentially angiogenic substances and successful inoculation of tumor cells and tissues on the surface of the CAM.
Drosophila melanogaster larvae provide an ideal model system to investigate the mechanisms of axonal transport within larval segmental nerves. Using this procedure, 3rd instar larvae carrying various mutations can be compared to wild type larvae.
How niches and stem cells form during development is an important question with practical implications. In the Drosophila ovary, germ line stem cells and their somatic niches form during larval development. This video demonstrates how to dissect, stain and mount female gonads from late third instar (LL3) Drosophila larvae.
Use of Fluorescent Immuno-Chemistry for the detection of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish (I. punctatus) samples
Here we describe a procedure allowing the labeling of Edwardsiella ictaluri in situ in histological sections from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus using indirect immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies Ed9 as a primary, and fluorescent FitC labeled antibodies as a secondary. This allowed for the detection of the bacterium using fluorescent microscopy.
Xenopus embryonic ectoderm has become an attractive model for studies of cell polarity. An assay is described, in which subcellular distribution of fluorescent proteins is assessed in ectoderm cells. This protocol will help address questions related to spatial control of signaling.
A Calcium Bioluminescence Assay for Functional Analysis of Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and Tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) G Protein-coupled Receptors
This protocol provides instructions for clonal-cell line selection and a calcium bioluminescence assay to analyze the structure-activity relationships of synthesized arthropod neuropeptides on their cognate GPCRs. This assay can be used for receptor deorphanization and structure-activity relationship studies for synthetic analog design and peptide/drug-lead discovery.
Here we describe a plasmid overexpression screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using an arrayed plasmid library and a high-throughput yeast transformation protocol with a liquid handling robot.
1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, 2Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kettering University, 43Scan, 5Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University
The full process from brain specimen preparation to serial sectioning imaging using the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope, to data visualization and analysis is described. This technique is currently used to acquire mouse brain data, but it is applicable to other organs, other species.
This manuscript describes three complementary protocols for assessing the toxicity of polyglutamine (polyQ)-expansion proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These protocols can easily be modified to monitor the toxicity of other misfolded proteins in yeast.
We demonstrate how to set up an in vitro ischemia/reperfusion model and how to evaluate the effect of stem cell therapy on postischemic cardiac cells.
A method to immunostain and visualize chordotonal organs in larvae and pupae of Drosophila melanogaster is described.
Here we describe a basic protocol for fluorescent labeling of different elements of heart tubes from larva and adult Drosophila melanogaster. These specimens are well-suited for imaging via fluorescent or confocal microscopy. This technique permits detailed structural analysis of the features of the hearts from a powerful model organism.
This protocol describes a procedure to study the respiration of mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscles. This method was adapted from Scorrano et al. (2007). The mitochondrial isolation procedure requires about 2 hours. The mitochondrial respiration can be completed in about 1 hour.
1Department of GI-, Thorax- and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden, 2Molecular Diabetology, Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, 3Department of Pathology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden
The supply of type 2 diabetic islets for research is insufficient. Here we share our protocol for isolating islets from patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy. This approach represents a unique venue for obtaining islets from type 2 diabetic and clinically matched non-diabetic subjects in adequate numbers for basic and clinical studies.
We describe a protocol to identify key roles of host signaling molecules in lytic replication of a model herpesvirus, gamma herpesvirus 68 (γHV68). Utilizing genetically modified mouse strains and embryonic fibroblasts for γHV68 lytic replication, the protocol permits both phenotypic characterization and molecular interrogation of virus-host interactions in viral lytic replication.