The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
1Cognitive Psychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Trier University, 2Clinical Psychophysiology Unit, Institute of Psychobiology, Trier University
The distractor-response binding paradigm is described. It can be used to shed light on the influence irrelevant stimuli, competing with targets for a response, can have on human action. Both response retrieval effects and distractor inhibition effects can be analyzed within the paradigm.
Published May 14, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, stimulus-response binding, distractor-response binding, response retrieval, distractor inhibition, event file, action control, selection task
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Startle; electromyography; shock; addiction; uncertainty; fear; anxiety; humans; psychophysiology; translational
1Department of Neuropsychology, University of Zurich
Investigation of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis and affective experience requires an understanding of the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This protocol allows representation of the DHL and examination of categorical perception. Use of the same stimuli and fMRI to distinguish brain regions responsive to physical and category change is illustrated.
Published June 3, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Psychology, Neuropsychology, uncanny valley, functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, categorical perception, virtual reality, avatar, human likeness, Mori, uncanny valley hypothesis, perception, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, imaging, clinical techniques
1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University
The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.
Published September 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin
This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. It will cover 3 topics: 1) Designing a trace conditioning paradigm using backward masking to manipulate awareness. 2) Recording brain activity during the task using magnetoencephalography. 3) Using source imaging to recover signal from subcortical structures.
Published June 3, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Physiology, Anatomy, Psychology, Amygdala, Magnetoencephalography, Fear, awareness, masking, source imaging, conditional stimulus, unconditional stimulus, hippocampus, brain, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, fMRI, imaging, clinical techniques
1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University
Research on social exclusion has grown tremendously in recent years. As the field expands, it is imperative to develop sophisticated methodologies allowing for the simultaneous measurement of neural and behavioral outcomes during social exclusion. This protocol utilizes event-related brain potentials to record ongoing neural activity during computerized social interactions.
Published November 15, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), Social Exclusion, Neuroscience, N2, P3, Cognitive Control
1Department of Psychology, Boston College, 2Department of Psychology, Wofford College, 3Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame
We present a protocol used to discover an interactive effect between sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing images. Specifically, the experimental design utilizes eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing – methods that can be used with both healthy and clinical participants.
Published June 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, attention, consolidation, cortisol, emotion, encoding, glucocorticoids, memory, sleep, stress
1Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago
The present article describes how to use eye tracking methodologies to study the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension. Descriptions of eye tracking equipment, how to develop experimental stimuli, and procedural recommendations are included. The information presented can be applied to most any study using verbal stimuli.
Published January 10, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Eye movements, Eye tracking, Text comprehension, Reading, Cognition
1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University
Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).
Published August 24, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Psychology, Physiology, Fear conditioning, extinction, reconsolidation, emotional memory, spontaneous recovery, skin conductance response
1Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, 3Department of Psychology, Macquarie University
We demonstrate how an objective measure can be employed in the widely employed rubber hand illusion paradigm. This measure is obtained by modifying the well-established crossmodal congruency task. This task allows the investigation of multisensory processes which are critical for modulations of body representations as in the rubber hand illusion.
Published July 26, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Psychological Phenomena and Processes, Behavioral Sciences, rubber hand illusion, crossmodal congruency task, crossmodal congruency effect, multisensory processing, body ownership, peripersonal space, clinical techniques
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 2Department of Psychology, Koç University, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Fairfield University
Fully automated system for measuring physiologically meaningful properties of the mechanisms mediating spatial localization, temporal localization, duration, rate and probability estimation, risk assessment, impulsivity, and the accuracy and precision of memory, in order to assess the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on foundational mechanisms of cognition in mice.
Published February 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, genetics, cognitive mechanisms, behavioral screening, learning, memory, timing
1Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Psychology, New York University, 5Department of Economics, New York University
Using functional MRI and behavioral methods to determine the neural representation of the subjective value of risky and ambiguous options in the human brain.
Published September 19, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Molecular Biology, fMRI, magnetic resonance imaging, decision-making, value, uncertainty, risk, ambiguity
1Department of Psychology, McGill University, 2Department of Cognitive Science, McGill University, 3Douglas Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 4Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, McGill University
Using event-related EEG potentials (ERPs), we investigate the effects of antipsychotic medications on abnormal semantic brain activations in healthy individuals with schizotypal traits. We use ERPs to track distinct changes in brain activity, shedding insight into the cognitive processes associated with semantic categorization.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Electrical brain activity, Semantic categorization, Event-related brain potentials, Neuroscience, Cognition, Psychiatry, Antipsychotic medication, N400, Schizotypy, Schizophrenia.
1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India
Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.
Published December 16, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, High-density EEG, ERP, ICA, gaze tracking, computer game, ecological validity
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard School of Public Health, 2Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 3Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University
Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease or health. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) collection meets this need, can be collected in the field with high response rates and analyzed for a variety of biomarkers.
Published January 28, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, dried blood spots (DBS), Biomarkers, cardiometabolic risk, Inflammation, standard precautions, blood collection
1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam
Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.
Published February 20, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, synesthesia, training, learning, reading, vision, memory, cognition
1Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough
Here we describe a data collection and data analysis method for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a novel non-invasive brain imaging system used in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in studying child brain development. This method provides a universal standard of data acquisition and analysis vital to data interpretation and scientific discovery.
Published July 28, 2009. Keywords: Neuroscience, infant, child, Near Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS, optical tomography, cognitive neuroscience, psychology, brain, developmental cognitive neuroscience, analysis
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut
A reliable home-based way to assess the language comprehension of very young typically developing children, as well as those with autism, is described. The method analyzes children's eye gaze while viewing side-by-side images but hearing an audio that matches only one image. Stimuli are designed with young participants in mind.
Published December 14, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Psychology, Behavior, Intermodal preferential looking, language comprehension, children with autism, child development, autism
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University
Here we describe a touch-screen visual search paradigm that can be used to study threat detection across the lifespan. The paradigm has already been used in various studies demonstrating that both children and adults detect threatening stimuli like snakes, spiders, and angry faces faster than non-threatening stimuli.
Published October 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Detection, threat, attention, attentional bias, anxiety, visual search
1Department of Psychology, New York University, 2Centre for Neural Science, New York University, 3Department of Psychology, Princeton University, 4Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University
Binocular rivalry occurs when the eyes are presented with different images at the same location: one image dominates while the other is suppressed, and dominance alternates periodically. Rivalry is useful for investigating perceptual selection and visual awareness. Here we describe several easy methods for creating and using binocular rivalry stimuli.
Published November 10, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, Binocular rivalry, continuous flash suppression, vision, visual awareness, perceptual competition, unconscious processing, neuroimaging
1Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 2Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 3Department of Opthalmology, Georgia Health Sciences University, 4Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto Research Center, 5Pattern Recognition Systems, Palo Alto Research Center, 6Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota
We describe a novel methodology for creating naturalistic 3-D objects and object categories with precisely defined feature variations. We use simulations of the biological processes of morphogenesis and phylogenesis to create novel, naturalistic virtual 3-D objects and object categories that can then be rendered as visual images or haptic objects.
Published November 2, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, machine learning, brain, classification, category learning, cross-modal perception, 3-D prototyping, inference
1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford
Mice can swim, but many strains appear to find this activity stressful. To overcome this problem mazes have been devised where escape from shallow water is used to motivate behaviour. These have been demonstrated to support learning at least as good as the traditional and widely used Morris water maze.
Published June 3, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Psychology, Mice, hippocampus, paddling pool, Alzheimer's, welfare, 3Rs, Morris water maze, paddling Y-maze, Barnes maze, animal model
1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH
Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.
Published September 22, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, fMRI, task design, data interpretation, cognitive neuroscience, visual oddball task, target detection
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Center for Innovative Care in Aging, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, 2Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research, Arizona State University, 3Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, 4Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health
We demonstrate: (1) procedures for collection of salivary samples in cognitive impaired older adults by family caregivers in the home setting, (2) procedures for measuring stress activity via salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, and (3) representative profiles. Protocols that allow researchers to study stress-linked processes advance our understanding of biological sensitivity and susceptibility.
Published December 18, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Saliva, Dementia, Behavioral Research, Aging, Stress, saliva, cortisol, alpha amylase, dementia, caregiving, stress
1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam
Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.
Published December 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Fear memory, reconsolidation, noradrenergic β-blocker, human fear conditioning, startle potentiation, translational research.
1Department of Psychology, Randolph-Macon College, 2Department of Psychology, Marshall University
The comparative species approach allows behavioral neuroscientists to explore various neurobiological factors associated with specific behaviors viewed as characteristic of a specific animal model. Taking advantage of naturally occurring differences in behavior between closely related species, this technique doesn’t require invasive techniques to manipulate the expression of the behavior.
Published September 19, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Peromyscus, mouse, paternal behavior, vasopressin, immunocytochemistry, microsequencing behavioral analysis
1Psychology Department, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 3Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
The present work provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for manually tracing the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. This protocol can be applied to research involving structural and/or combined structural-functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations of the MTL, in both healthy and clinical groups.
Published July 2, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Anatomy, Segmentation, Medial Temporal Lobe, MRI, Manual Tracing, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Perirhinal Cortex, Entorhinal Cortex, Parahippocampal Cortex
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Computer Science and Center for Advanced Research in Education (CARE), University of Chile
Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind.
Published March 27, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Behavior, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Neurobiology, Ophthalmology, Psychology, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Technology, Industry, virtual environments, action video games, blind, audio, rehabilitation, indoor navigation, spatial cognitive map, Audio-based Environment Simulator, virtual reality, cognitive psychology, clinical techniques
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Providence VA Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 2Department of Psychology, University of Georgia
This protocol describes the complementary neuroimaging techniques of resting state structural connectivity, task-induced deactivation, and structural connectivity analyses to examine the default network in post-traumatic stress disorder. The use of synergistic methods could potentially lead to improved diagnostics and assessments of severity, outcome, and other relevant clinical factors.
Published July 1, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, default mode network, neuroimaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, structural connectivity, functional connectivity, posttraumatic stress disorder
1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum
Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.
Published June 2, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, pigeon, single unit recording, learning, memory, extinction, spike sorting, operant conditioning, reward, electrophysiology, animal cognition, model species
1Research School of Psychology, Australian National University, 2School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, 3McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University
We discuss a novel method forviewpoint-rotation of visual stimuli, and demonstrate using a mirror stereoscopethe three-dimensional percept of rotation-in-depth. The technique can be used to investigate the role of stereoscopic cues in encoding viewpoint-rotated figures.
Published December 4, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, stereo, curvature, shape, viewpoint, 3D, object recognition, rotation-in-depth (RID)
1Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
In this protocol, a novel application of scent discrimination is described. The Dig task is a reasonably inexpensive task that can be used to assess frontally-mediated cognition following brain damage.
Published January 4, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Behavior, cognitive assessment, dig task, scent discrimination, olfactory, brain injury, traumatic brain injury, TBI, brain damage, rats, animal model
1Department of Psychology, University of Guelph
The current study evaluates a novel procedure for assessing the reinforcing effects of palatable solutions in laboratory rats: intraoral self-administration. To this end, operant responding (i.e. lever pressing) for intraoral infusions of sweet solutions at different concentrations was measured on continuous and progressive ratios schedules of reinforcement.
Published February 6, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Administration, Oral, Conditioning, Operant, Reinforcement (Psychology), Reinforcement Schedule, Taste, Neurosciences, Intraoral infusions, operant chambers, self-administration, high fructose corn syrup, progressive ratio, breakpoint, addiction
1Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Cortisol (CORT) accumulates in the growing hair shaft of humans and nonhuman primates. We describe methods for extracting and analyzing hair CORT with high precision and sensitivity. Measurement of hair CORT is particularly well-suited for assessing chronic stress over periods of weeks to months.
Published January 24, 2014. Keywords: Basic Protocol, cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, hair, stress, humans, monkeys
1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati
In Parkinson's disease and movement disorders in general, sensitive and reliable behavioral assays are essential for testing novel potential therapeutics. Here, we describe a manageable battery of sensorimotor tests for mice that are sensitive to varying degrees of injury to the nigrostriatal system and useful for preclinical studies.
Published June 17, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Basal Ganglia Diseases, Parkinsonian Disorders, Parkinson Disease, Genetics, Behavioral, Psychopharmacology, sensory, motor, mouse, movement disorders, beam, cylinder, animal model
1Departments of Paediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Trinity College
Inchworming is a highly repetitive synchronous digging motion displayed by BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice when placed in a testing cage with sufficient sawdust bedding. The procedure is a modification of the juvenile social interaction protocol and is used here to assess repetitive motor stereotypies relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Published July 5, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, mice, inbred C57BL, social behavior, animal models, autism, BTBR, motor stereotypy, repetitive
1Biomedical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University
We present a Turing-like Handshake test administered through a telerobotic system in which the interrogator is holding a robotic stylus and interacting with another party (human or artificial). We use a forced choice method, and extract a measure for the similarity of the artificial model to a human handshake.
Published December 15, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, Turing test, Human Machine Interface, Haptics, Teleoperation, Motor Control, Motor Behavior, Diagnostics, Perception, handshake, telepresence
1Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Department of Psychology, Concordia University
Circadian rhythms in voluntary wheel-running activity in mammals are tightly coupled to the molecular oscillations of a master clock in the brain. As such, these daily rhythms in behavior can be used to study the influence of genetic, pharmacological, and environmental factors on the functioning of this circadian clock.
Published January 24, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Neurobiology, Physiology, Anatomy, Psychology, Psychiatry, Behavior, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, locomotor activity, mouse, rat, hamster, light-dark cycle, free-running activity, entrainment, circadian period, circadian rhythm, phase shift, animal model
1Behavioral Neuroscience, University at Albany
Modulation of hippocampally-dependent spatial working memory by direct intrahippocampal microinjection, accompanied and followed by in vivo microdialysis for metabolites in conscious, behaving animals.
Published January 11, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, rodents, microdialysis, microinjection, brain, surgery, anesthesia, memory, behavior, insulin, animal model
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, 2Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 3Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University
A fully automated protocol for rodent operant conditioning is proposed. The protocol relies on precise temporal control of behavioral events to investigate the extent to which this control influences neural activity underlying sensorimotor integration and cognitive control experiments.
Published April 15, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, operant conditioning, cognitive function, sensorimotor integration, decision making, Neurophysiology
1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, 2NeuroScript LLC, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego
Handwriting analysis software significantly improves upon existing instruments measuring movement disorders. Individuals at risk for psychosis and healthy controls completed handwriting tasks to test for dyskinesia. Results suggest that youth at risk for psychosis exhibit dyskinesia and that handwriting analysis could significantly contribute to wider dissemination of early identification efforts
Published November 21, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Schizophrenia, Disorders with Psychotic Features, Psychology, Clinical, Psychopathology, behavioral sciences, Movement abnormalities, Ultra High Risk, psychosis, handwriting, computer tablet, dyskinesia
1Department of Psychology, Centre for Vision Research, York University, 2Department of Biology, Centre for Vision Research, York University
The goal of our research is to correlate behavior to brain activity. Accurate behavioral measures and imaging techniques allow us to elucidate brain-behavior relationships.
Published June 20, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, fMRI, eyetracking, BOLD, attention, inhibition, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI
1Department of Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, 2Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, Collège de France - CNRS, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University
An efficient way to gain insight into how humans navigate themselves in three dimensions is described. The method takes advantage of a motion simulator capable of moving observers in ways unattainable by traditional simulators. Results confirm that movement in the horizontal plane is underestimated, while vertical movement is overestimated.
Published May 10, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Motion simulator, multisensory integration, path integration, space perception, vestibular, vision, robotics, cybernetics
1College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, 2The Waggoner Center of Addiction and Alcohol Research, University of Texas at Austin, 3Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 4Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, 5Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin
Drug self-administration and ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are used as behavioral assessments in animal research, but rarely in combination. The purpose of this article is to describe the advantages of recording USVs during drug self-administration procedures to assess affective responses to drug experience.
Published July 22, 2010. Keywords: JoVE Neuroscience, ultrasound, behavior, self-administration, emotionality, anticipation, reward
1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University
A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.
Published September 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Behavioral neuroscience, alcoholism, relapse, addiction, Pavlovian conditioning, ethanol, reinstatement, discrimination, conditioned approach
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford
Deficits in muscular strength occur in many clinical conditions such as motor neuron disease. The inverted screen and weight lifting tests described here measure strength in mice almost exclusively, with minimal influence of factors such as coordination.
Published June 2, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Behavior, Psychology, Mice, strength, motor, inverted screen, weight lifting, animal model
1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota
This article aims to describe a basic protocol for combining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) measurements to investigate the effects of bilateral stimulation on primary motor cortex metabolism.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transcranial direct current stimulation, primary motor cortex, GABA, glutamate, stroke
1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.
Published August 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Brain, behavior, RNA, transcription, nucleus accumbens, cocaine, high-throughput qPCR, experience-dependent plasticity, gene regulatory networks, microdissection
1School of Psychology, University of Ottawa
This video describes Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and motion-sensitive video recording methods to monitor choice behavior by bumblebees.
Published November 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, bumblebee, unlearned behaviors, floral choice, visual perception, Bombus spp, information processing, radio-frequency identification, motion-sensitive video
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 3Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, 4Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 5Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University
It is unclear how top-down signals from the ventral visual stream affect movement. We developed a paradigm to test motor behavior towards a target on a 3D depth inversion illusion. Significant differences are reported in both deliberate, goal-directed movements and automatic actions under illusory and veridical viewing conditions.
Published April 16, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, vision for action, vision for perception, motor control, reach, grasp, visuomotor, ventral stream, dorsal stream, illusion, space perception, depth inversion