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Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
 JoVE Behavior

Irrelevant Stimuli and Action Control: Analyzing the Influence of Ignored Stimuli via the Distractor-Response Binding Paradigm

1Cognitive Psychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Trier University, 2Clinical Psychophysiology Unit, Institute of Psychobiology, Trier University

JoVE 51571

The distractor-response binding paradigm is described. It can be used to shed light on the influence irrelevant stimuli, competing with targets for a response, can have on human action. Both response retrieval effects and distractor inhibition effects can be analyzed within the paradigm.

 JoVE Behavior

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University

JoVE 52061

We aim to identify the neural correlates underlying sustained and transient thought suppression, and thought re-emergence in controls, at-risk and depressed individuals. Activation was greatest for controls compared to the at-risk and the depressed group in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during thought suppression and anterior cingulate cortex during thought re-emergence.

 JoVE Behavior

Using the Threat Probability Task to Assess Anxiety and Fear During Uncertain and Certain Threat

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 51905

Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.

 JoVE Behavior

Perceptual and Category Processing of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis' Dimension of Human Likeness: Some Methodological Issues

1Department of Neuropsychology, University of Zurich

JoVE 4375

Investigation of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis and affective experience requires an understanding of the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This protocol allows representation of the DHL and examination of categorical perception. Use of the same stimuli and fMRI to distinguish brain regions responsive to physical and category change is illustrated.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research

1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University

JoVE 51057

The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.

 JoVE Behavior

Uncovering Beat Deafness: Detecting Rhythm Disorders with Synchronized Finger Tapping and Perceptual Timing Tasks

1Movement to Health Laboratory (EuroMov), University of Montpellier, 2Institut Universitaire de France, 3Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, 4International Laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound Research (BRAMS)

JoVE 51761

Behavioral tasks that allow for the assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) are presented. Synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of an auditory stimuli and detecting rhythmic irregularities provides a means of uncovering rhythm disorders.

 JoVE Behavior

How to Detect Amygdala Activity with Magnetoencephalography using Source Imaging

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 50212

This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. It will cover 3 topics: 1) Designing a trace conditioning paradigm using backward masking to manipulate awareness. 2) Recording brain activity during the task using magnetoencephalography. 3) Using source imaging to recover signal from subcortical structures.

 JoVE Behavior

Measuring Neural and Behavioral Activity During Ongoing Computerized Social Interactions: An Examination of Event-Related Brain Potentials

1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University

JoVE 52060

Research on social exclusion has grown tremendously in recent years. As the field expands, it is imperative to develop sophisticated methodologies allowing for the simultaneous measurement of neural and behavioral outcomes during social exclusion. This protocol utilizes event-related brain potentials to record ongoing neural activity during computerized social interactions.

 JoVE Behavior

Eye Tracking, Cortisol, and a Sleep vs. Wake Consolidation Delay: Combining Methods to Uncover an Interactive Effect of Sleep and Cortisol on Memory

1Department of Psychology, Boston College, 2Department of Psychology, Wofford College, 3Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame

JoVE 51500

We present a protocol used to discover an interactive effect between sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing images. Specifically, the experimental design utilizes eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing – methods that can be used with both healthy and clinical participants.

 JoVE Behavior

Using Eye Movements to Evaluate the Cognitive Processes Involved in Text Comprehension

1Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago

JoVE 50780

The present article describes how to use eye tracking methodologies to study the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension. Descriptions of eye tracking equipment, how to develop experimental stimuli, and procedural recommendations are included. The information presented can be applied to most any study using verbal stimuli.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extinction Training During the Reconsolidation Window Prevents Recovery of Fear

1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University

JoVE 3893

Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).

 JoVE Behavior

The Crossmodal Congruency Task as a Means to Obtain an Objective Behavioral Measure in the Rubber Hand Illusion Paradigm

1Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, 3Department of Psychology, Macquarie University

JoVE 50530

We demonstrate how an objective measure can be employed in the widely employed rubber hand illusion paradigm. This measure is obtained by modifying the well-established crossmodal congruency task. This task allows the investigation of multisensory processes which are critical for modulations of body representations as in the rubber hand illusion.

 JoVE Behavior

Automated, Quantitative Cognitive/Behavioral Screening of Mice: For Genetics, Pharmacology, Animal Cognition and Undergraduate Instruction

1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 2Department of Psychology, Koç University, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Fairfield University

JoVE 51047

Fully automated system for measuring physiologically meaningful properties of the mechanisms mediating spatial localization, temporal localization, duration, rate and probability estimation, risk assessment, impulsivity, and the accuracy and precision of memory, in order to assess the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on foundational mechanisms of cognition in mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Operant Procedures for Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

1Department of Psychology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, 2Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia

JoVE 52387

The ability to assess executive functions such as behavioral flexibility in rats is useful for investigating the neurobiology of cognition in both intact animals and disease models. Here we describe automated tasks for assessing strategy shifting and reversal learning, which are particularly sensitive to disruptions in prefrontal cortical networks.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Measuring the Subjective Value of Risky and Ambiguous Options using Experimental Economics and Functional MRI Methods

1Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Psychology, New York University, 5Department of Economics, New York University

JoVE 3724

Using functional MRI and behavioral methods to determine the neural representation of the subjective value of risky and ambiguous options in the human brain.

 JoVE Behavior

Investigating the Effects of Antipsychotics and Schizotypy on the N400 Using Event-Related Potentials and Semantic Categorization

1Department of Psychology, McGill University, 2Department of Cognitive Science, McGill University, 3Douglas Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 4Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, McGill University

JoVE 52082

Using event-related EEG potentials (ERPs), we investigate the effects of antipsychotic medications on abnormal semantic brain activations in healthy individuals with schizotypal traits. We use ERPs to track distinct changes in brain activity, shedding insight into the cognitive processes associated with semantic categorization.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking

1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India

JoVE 2320

Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.

 JoVE Medicine

Dried Blood Spot Collection of Health Biomarkers to Maximize Participation in Population Studies

1Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard School of Public Health, 2Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 3Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University

JoVE 50973

Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease or health. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) collection meets this need, can be collected in the field with high response rates and analyzed for a variety of biomarkers.

 JoVE Behavior

Methods to Test Visual Attention Online

1Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, 2Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, 3Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester

JoVE 52470

To replicate laboratory settings, online data collection methods for visual tasks require tight control over stimulus presentation. We outline methods for the use of a web application to collect performance data on two tests of visual attention.

 JoVE Behavior

Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam

JoVE 50893

Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.

 JoVE Biology

Exploring Cognitive Functions in Babies, Children & Adults with Near Infrared Spectroscopy

1Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough

JoVE 1268

Here we describe a data collection and data analysis method for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a novel non-invasive brain imaging system used in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in studying child brain development. This method provides a universal standard of data acquisition and analysis vital to data interpretation and scientific discovery.

 JoVE Medicine

Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): Investigating Language Comprehension in Typically Developing Toddlers and Young Children with Autism

1Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut

JoVE 4331

A reliable home-based way to assess the language comprehension of very young typically developing children, as well as those with autism, is described. The method analyzes children's eye gaze while viewing side-by-side images but hearing an audio that matches only one image. Stimuli are designed with young participants in mind.

 JoVE Behavior

Measuring Attentional Biases for Threat in Children and Adults

1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University

JoVE 52190

Here we describe a touch-screen visual search paradigm that can be used to study threat detection across the lifespan. The paradigm has already been used in various studies demonstrating that both children and adults detect threatening stimuli like snakes, spiders, and angry faces faster than non-threatening stimuli.

 JoVE Neuroscience

How to Create and Use Binocular Rivalry

1Department of Psychology, New York University, 2Centre for Neural Science, New York University, 3Department of Psychology, Princeton University, 4Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University

JoVE 2030

Binocular rivalry occurs when the eyes are presented with different images at the same location: one image dominates while the other is suppressed, and dominance alternates periodically. Rivalry is useful for investigating perceptual selection and visual awareness. Here we describe several easy methods for creating and using binocular rivalry stimuli.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Creating Objects and Object Categories for Studying Perception and Perceptual Learning

1Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 2Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 3Department of Opthalmology, Georgia Health Sciences University, 4Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto Research Center, 5Pattern Recognition Systems, Palo Alto Research Center, 6Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 3358

We describe a novel methodology for creating naturalistic 3-D objects and object categories with precisely defined feature variations. We use simulations of the biological processes of morphogenesis and phylogenesis to create novel, naturalistic virtual 3-D objects and object categories that can then be rendered as visual images or haptic objects.

 JoVE Behavior

Shallow Water (Paddling) Variants of Water Maze Tests in Mice

1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford

JoVE 2608

Mice can swim, but many strains appear to find this activity stressful. To overcome this problem mazes have been devised where escape from shallow water is used to motivate behaviour. These have been demonstrated to support learning at least as good as the traditional and widely used Morris water maze.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Social Cognition in Non-human Primates Using a Network of Computerized Automated Learning Device (ALDM) Test Systems

1CNRS, Federation 3C, and Laboratory of Cognitive Psychology, Aix-Marseille University

JoVE 52798

Fagot & Paleressompoulle1 have published an automated learning device (ALDM) aimed at testing individual cognitive abilities in semi-free ranging monkeys. The main goal of our protocol is to use a network of ALDM test units to study social cognition in non-human primates.

 JoVE Behavior

Testing Sensory and Multisensory Function in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

1Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 52677

We describe how to implement a battery of behavioral tasks to examine the processing and integration of sensory stimuli in children with ASD. The goal is to characterize individual differences in temporal processing of simple auditory and visual stimuli and relate these to higher order perceptual skills like speech perception.

 JoVE Behavior

Transferring Cognitive Tasks Between Brain Imaging Modalities: Implications for Task Design and Results Interpretation in fMRI Studies

1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH

JoVE 51793

Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.

 JoVE Medicine

Collecting Saliva and Measuring Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-amylase in Frail Community Residing Older Adults via Family Caregivers

1Center for Innovative Care in Aging, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, 2Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research, Arizona State University, 3Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, 4Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

JoVE 50815

We demonstrate: (1) procedures for collection of salivary samples in cognitive impaired older adults by family caregivers in the home setting, (2) procedures for measuring stress activity via salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, and (3) representative profiles. Protocols that allow researchers to study stress-linked processes advance our understanding of biological sensitivity and susceptibility.

 JoVE Behavior

Disrupting Reconsolidation of Fear Memory in Humans by a Noradrenergic β-Blocker

1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam

JoVE 52151

Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Using a Comparative Species Approach to Investigate the Neurobiology of Paternal Responses

1Department of Psychology, Randolph-Macon College, 2Department of Psychology, Marshall University

JoVE 3173

The comparative species approach allows behavioral neuroscientists to explore various neurobiological factors associated with specific behaviors viewed as characteristic of a specific animal model. Taking advantage of naturally occurring differences in behavior between closely related species, this technique doesn’t require invasive techniques to manipulate the expression of the behavior.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Comprehensive Protocol for Manual Segmentation of the Medial Temporal Lobe Structures

1Psychology Department, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 3Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 50991

The present work provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for manually tracing the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. This protocol can be applied to research involving structural and/or combined structural-functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations of the MTL, in both healthy and clinical groups.

 JoVE Medicine

Development of an Audio-based Virtual Gaming Environment to Assist with Navigation Skills in the Blind

1Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Computer Science and Center for Advanced Research in Education (CARE), University of Chile

JoVE 50272

Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind.

 JoVE Medicine

Developing Neuroimaging Phenotypes of the Default Mode Network in PTSD: Integrating the Resting State, Working Memory, and Structural Connectivity

1Providence VA Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 2Department of Psychology, University of Georgia

JoVE 51651

This protocol describes the complementary neuroimaging techniques of resting state structural connectivity, task-induced deactivation, and structural connectivity analyses to examine the default network in post-traumatic stress disorder. The use of synergistic methods could potentially lead to improved diagnostics and assessments of severity, outcome, and other relevant clinical factors.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording Single Neurons' Action Potentials from Freely Moving Pigeons Across Three Stages of Learning

1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum

JoVE 51283

Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.

 JoVE Behavior

Measuring Sensitivity to Viewpoint Change with and without Stereoscopic Cues

1Research School of Psychology, Australian National University, 2School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, 3McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University

JoVE 50877

We discuss a novel method forviewpoint-rotation of visual stimuli, and demonstrate using a mirror stereoscopethe three-dimensional percept of rotation-in-depth. The technique can be used to investigate the role of stereoscopic cues in encoding viewpoint-rotated figures.

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Dig Task: A Simple Scent Discrimination Reveals Deficits Following Frontal Brain Damage

1Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

JoVE 50033

In this protocol, a novel application of scent discrimination is described. The Dig task is a reasonably inexpensive task that can be used to assess frontally-mediated cognition following brain damage.

 JoVE Behavior

A Novel Procedure for Evaluating the Reinforcing Properties of Tastants in Laboratory Rats: Operant Intraoral Self-administration

1Department of Psychology, University of Guelph

JoVE 50956

The current study evaluates a novel procedure for assessing the reinforcing effects of palatable solutions in laboratory rats: intraoral self-administration. To this end, operant responding (i.e. lever pressing) for intraoral infusions of sweet solutions at different concentrations was measured on continuous and progressive ratios schedules of reinforcement.

 JoVE Biology

Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair

1Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

JoVE 50882

Cortisol (CORT) accumulates in the growing hair shaft of humans and nonhuman primates. We describe methods for extracting and analyzing hair CORT with high precision and sensitivity. Measurement of hair CORT is particularly well-suited for assessing chronic stress over periods of weeks to months.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Sensorimotor Function in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, 2Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati

JoVE 50303

In Parkinson's disease and movement disorders in general, sensitive and reliable behavioral assays are essential for testing novel potential therapeutics. Here, we describe a manageable battery of sensorimotor tests for mice that are sensitive to varying degrees of injury to the nigrostriatal system and useful for preclinical studies.

 JoVE Behavior

Inchworming: A Novel Motor Stereotypy in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J Mouse Model of Autism

1Departments of Paediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Trinity College

JoVE 50791

Inchworming is a highly repetitive synchronous digging motion displayed by BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice when placed in a testing cage with sufficient sawdust bedding. The procedure is a modification of the juvenile social interaction protocol and is used here to assess repetitive motor stereotypies relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

 JoVE Behavior

The Forced Swim Test as a Model of Depressive-like Behavior

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2School of Behavioral Sciences, Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, 3Department of Education and Psychology, The Open University of Israel, 4School of Health and Life Sciences, Hadassah Academic College

JoVE 52587

This protocol describes the forced swim test, which is used for the study of depressive-like behavior in rodents. This procedure involves placing an animal in a container filled with water that eventually will lead to the exhibition of immobility behavior, which is considered to reflect behavioral despair.

 JoVE Neuroscience

One Dimensional Turing-Like Handshake Test for Motor Intelligence

1Biomedical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University

JoVE 2492

We present a Turing-like Handshake test administered through a telerobotic system in which the interrogator is holding a robotic stylus and interacting with another party (human or artificial). We use a forced choice method, and extract a measure for the similarity of the artificial model to a human handshake.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording and Analysis of Circadian Rhythms in Running-wheel Activity in Rodents

1Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Department of Psychology, Concordia University

JoVE 50186

Circadian rhythms in voluntary wheel-running activity in mammals are tightly coupled to the molecular oscillations of a master clock in the brain. As such, these daily rhythms in behavior can be used to study the influence of genetic, pharmacological, and environmental factors on the functioning of this circadian clock.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Hippocampal Insulin Microinjection and In vivo Microdialysis During Spatial Memory Testing

1Behavioral Neuroscience, University at Albany

JoVE 4451

Modulation of hippocampally-dependent spatial working memory by direct intrahippocampal microinjection, accompanied and followed by in vivo microdialysis for metabolites in conscious, behaving animals.

 JoVE Behavior

A Fully Automated Rodent Conditioning Protocol for Sensorimotor Integration and Cognitive Control Experiments

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, 2Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 3Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University

JoVE 51128

A fully automated protocol for rodent operant conditioning is proposed. The protocol relies on precise temporal control of behavioral events to investigate the extent to which this control influences neural activity underlying sensorimotor integration and cognitive control experiments.

 JoVE Behavior

Handwriting Analysis Indicates Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Neuroleptic Naïve Adolescents at High Risk for Psychosis

1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, 2NeuroScript LLC, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego

JoVE 50852

Handwriting analysis software significantly improves upon existing instruments measuring movement disorders. Individuals at risk for psychosis and healthy controls completed handwriting tasks to test for dyskinesia. Results suggest that youth at risk for psychosis exhibit dyskinesia and that handwriting analysis could significantly contribute to wider dissemination of early identification efforts

 JoVE Neuroscience

Correlating Behavioral Responses to fMRI Signals from Human Prefrontal Cortex: Examining Cognitive Processes Using Task Analysis

1Department of Psychology, Centre for Vision Research, York University, 2Department of Biology, Centre for Vision Research, York University

JoVE 3237

The goal of our research is to correlate behavior to brain activity. Accurate behavioral measures and imaging techniques allow us to elucidate brain-behavior relationships.

 JoVE Neuroscience

MPI CyberMotion Simulator: Implementation of a Novel Motion Simulator to Investigate Multisensory Path Integration in Three Dimensions

1Department of Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, 2Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, Collège de France - CNRS, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University

JoVE 3436

An efficient way to gain insight into how humans navigate themselves in three dimensions is described. The method takes advantage of a motion simulator capable of moving observers in ways unattainable by traditional simulators. Results confirm that movement in the horizontal plane is underestimated, while vertical movement is overestimated.

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