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Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Ethics in Psychology Research

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

When a researcher finds an interesting topic to study such as aggression, the goal is often to study it in a way that is as true to life as possible. However, researchers must act in an ethical manner.  To do this, they must balance their research goals with the best interests of the participants. Ethics often enter into the planning process when researchers identify all of the ways they can manipulate or measure a variable, but then make their final decision based on how they should manipulate or measure a variable. After receiving a poor grade on a test or paper, a college student may appear to take it out on (i.e., act in an aggressive manner toward) their roommates by being mean or nasty, screaming, throwing things, or even becoming physically violent. Aggression is an important human behavior to study and understand due to the implications it has for interpersonal violence. However, for safety reasons, a study cannot expose participants to the risk that serious types of violence presents. As a result, researchers must identify similar but benign behaviors that can help us understand more aggressive behaviors without harming participants.

 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Perspectives on Cognitive Psychology

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

As an Assistant Professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Johns Hopkins University, I teach Introduction to Cognitive Psychology. This large class primarily consists of freshman and sophomores majoring in related fields, like Psychology, Neuroscience, or Cognitive Science. One of the challenges I face in the classroom is teaching students to appreciate how data are obtained in the process of performing experiments. Students have difficulty in appreciating the chronology of experiments as they unfold in time. This JoVE collection in Cognitive Psychology makes the experimental timeline absolutely clear and encourages students to understand the trajectory and not just jump to conclusions. The videos also present experiments as paradigms—to illustrate how researchers can implement tasks in different ways—depending on the questions at hand. Most of these questions translate to the real world and the limits of our cognition. For example, the video Measuring Verbal Working Memory Span demonstrates our limited memory capacity, which explains the difficulty in remembering long shopping lists. These JoVE videos in Cognitive Psychology provide a perfect place fo

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Perspectives on Experimental Psychology

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

As the Department Chair of Psychology at Monmouth University, I teach primarily upper level undergraduate students who are interested in Experimental Methods. These classes don’t have the same inherent appeal to students. This JoVE Psychology collection will help students vicariously watch the experiments being performed from start to finish, allowing them to gain exposure to over a dozen topics that they may not experience otherwise. Importantly, the videos provide a context for seeing the experiments embedded in their natural states—in the actual research process. A few projects in this Science Education collection stand out. First, I consider the Ethics in Psychological Research video to be very useful in teaching, as it demonstrates how sensitive topics, such as interpersonal violence, can be studied in creative ways. Furthermore, students learn better with topics that they care about and can conceptualize in their personal lives. For example, Observational Research delves into the factors that go into homesickness, going beyond questionnaires and examining the relationship to what individuals actually leave around in their rooms. This design al

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Reliability in Psychology Experiments

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

In order to study something scientifically, a researcher needs to determine a way to quantify it. However, psychological constructs can be challenging to measure and quantify. This video examines reliability in the context of content analysis.  A recent study in the journal Pediatrics reported that 4-year-olds who watched a fast-paced cartoon had worse performance on cognitive tasks, such as following rules in a game, listening to direction from an adult, and delaying gratification, compared to other children who watched a slower paced cartoon.1 In addition to the pace of the cartoon, the content of the cartoon may also have deleterious effects on its young viewers. This video uses a simple two-group design, to exemplify the issue of reliability, in examining the question of whether the cartoon SpongeBob SquarePants has more inappropriate content than does the cartoon Caillou.

 JoVE Behavior

Irrelevant Stimuli and Action Control: Analyzing the Influence of Ignored Stimuli via the Distractor-Response Binding Paradigm

1Cognitive Psychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Trier University, 2Clinical Psychophysiology Unit, Institute of Psychobiology, Trier University


JoVE 51571

The distractor-response binding paradigm is described. It can be used to shed light on the influence irrelevant stimuli, competing with targets for a response, can have on human action. Both response retrieval effects and distractor inhibition effects can be analyzed within the paradigm.

 JoVE Behavior

A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Physiology, Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco


JoVE 52226

A novel cognitive paradigm is developed to elucidate behavioral and neural correlates of interference by to-be-ignored distractors versus interference by to-be-attended interruptors during a working memory task. In this manuscript, several variants of this paradigm are detailed, and data obtained with this paradigm in younger/older adult participants is reviewed.

 JoVE Behavior

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University


JoVE 52061

We aim to identify the neural correlates underlying sustained and transient thought suppression, and thought re-emergence in controls, at-risk and depressed individuals. Activation was greatest for controls compared to the at-risk and the depressed group in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during thought suppression and anterior cingulate cortex during thought re-emergence.

 JoVE Behavior

Using the Threat Probability Task to Assess Anxiety and Fear During Uncertain and Certain Threat

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison


JoVE 51905

Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.

 JoVE Behavior

Perceptual and Category Processing of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis' Dimension of Human Likeness: Some Methodological Issues

1Department of Neuropsychology, University of Zurich


JoVE 4375

Investigation of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis and affective experience requires an understanding of the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This protocol allows representation of the DHL and examination of categorical perception. Use of the same stimuli and fMRI to distinguish brain regions responsive to physical and category change is illustrated.

 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Measuring Reaction Time and Donders' Method of Subtraction

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

The ambition of experimental psychology is to characterize the mental events that support the human ability to solve problems, perceive the world, and turn thoughts into words and sentences. But people cannot see or feel those mental events; they cannot be weighed, combined in test tubes, or grown in a dish. Wanting to study mental life, nonetheless, Franciscus Donders, a Dutch ophthalmologist in the early 1800s, came up with a property that he could measure—even back then: he measured the time it took for human subjects to perform simple tasks, reasoning that he could treat those measurements as proxies for the time it takes to complete the unobservable mental operations involved. In fact, Donders went one step further, developing a basic experimental paradigm known as the Method of Subtraction. It simply asks a researcher to design two tasks that are identical in nearly every way, excepting a mental operation hypothesized to be involved in one of the tasks and omitted in the other. The researcher then measures the time it takes to complete each task, and by subtracting the outcomes, he extracts an estimate of the time it takes to execute the one mental operation of interest. In this way, the method allows a researcher

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research

1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University


JoVE 51057

The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.

 JoVE Behavior

Uncovering Beat Deafness: Detecting Rhythm Disorders with Synchronized Finger Tapping and Perceptual Timing Tasks

1Movement to Health Laboratory (EuroMov), University of Montpellier, 2Institut Universitaire de France, 3Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, 4International Laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound Research (BRAMS)


JoVE 51761

Behavioral tasks that allow for the assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) are presented. Synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of an auditory stimuli and detecting rhythmic irregularities provides a means of uncovering rhythm disorders.

 JoVE Behavior

How to Detect Amygdala Activity with Magnetoencephalography using Source Imaging

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 50212

This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. It will cover 3 topics: 1) Designing a trace conditioning paradigm using backward masking to manipulate awareness. 2) Recording brain activity during the task using magnetoencephalography. 3) Using source imaging to recover signal from subcortical structures.

 JoVE Behavior

Measuring Neural and Behavioral Activity During Ongoing Computerized Social Interactions: An Examination of Event-Related Brain Potentials

1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University


JoVE 52060

Research on social exclusion has grown tremendously in recent years. As the field expands, it is imperative to develop sophisticated methodologies allowing for the simultaneous measurement of neural and behavioral outcomes during social exclusion. This protocol utilizes event-related brain potentials to record ongoing neural activity during computerized social interactions.

 JoVE Behavior

Eye Tracking, Cortisol, and a Sleep vs. Wake Consolidation Delay: Combining Methods to Uncover an Interactive Effect of Sleep and Cortisol on Memory

1Department of Psychology, Boston College, 2Department of Psychology, Wofford College, 3Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame


JoVE 51500

We present a protocol used to discover an interactive effect between sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing images. Specifically, the experimental design utilizes eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing – methods that can be used with both healthy and clinical participants.

 JoVE Behavior

Using Eye Movements to Evaluate the Cognitive Processes Involved in Text Comprehension

1Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago


JoVE 50780

The present article describes how to use eye tracking methodologies to study the cognitive processes involved in text comprehension. Descriptions of eye tracking equipment, how to develop experimental stimuli, and procedural recommendations are included. The information presented can be applied to most any study using verbal stimuli.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extinction Training During the Reconsolidation Window Prevents Recovery of Fear

1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University


JoVE 3893

Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).

 JoVE Behavior

The Crossmodal Congruency Task as a Means to Obtain an Objective Behavioral Measure in the Rubber Hand Illusion Paradigm

1Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, 3Department of Psychology, Macquarie University


JoVE 50530

We demonstrate how an objective measure can be employed in the widely employed rubber hand illusion paradigm. This measure is obtained by modifying the well-established crossmodal congruency task. This task allows the investigation of multisensory processes which are critical for modulations of body representations as in the rubber hand illusion.

 JoVE Behavior

Automated, Quantitative Cognitive/Behavioral Screening of Mice: For Genetics, Pharmacology, Animal Cognition and Undergraduate Instruction

1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 2Department of Psychology, Koç University, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Fairfield University


JoVE 51047

Fully automated system for measuring physiologically meaningful properties of the mechanisms mediating spatial localization, temporal localization, duration, rate and probability estimation, risk assessment, impulsivity, and the accuracy and precision of memory, in order to assess the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on foundational mechanisms of cognition in mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Operant Procedures for Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

1Department of Psychology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, 2Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia


JoVE 52387

The ability to assess executive functions such as behavioral flexibility in rats is useful for investigating the neurobiology of cognition in both intact animals and disease models. Here we describe automated tasks for assessing strategy shifting and reversal learning, which are particularly sensitive to disruptions in prefrontal cortical networks.

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

From Theory to Design: The Role of Creativity in Designing Experiments

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

Research studies come into being when a researcher speculates about human thought, emotions, or behavior, and has a theory that offers a potential explanation. Often the researcher’s theory is firmly situated in everyday common experiences that may not naturally lend themselves to direct empirical study. For example, researchers speculated that perception of a person on Facebook is influenced by the appearances and comments of the person’s Facebook friends.1 It is difficult to test this theory using real-life Facebook profiles. Instead, researchers must use their creativity to design a study—in this case, using fake profiles that look highly realistic—to test their theory.  This video demonstrates how researchers test a central tenet of a popular social psychology theory. Specifically, this video shows a test of whether engaging in a self-expanding activity leads a person to feel a greater sense of self-efficacy.2 Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences. A large number

 JoVE Neuroscience

Measuring the Subjective Value of Risky and Ambiguous Options using Experimental Economics and Functional MRI Methods

1Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Psychology, New York University, 5Department of Economics, New York University


JoVE 3724

Using functional MRI and behavioral methods to determine the neural representation of the subjective value of risky and ambiguous options in the human brain.

 JoVE Behavior

Investigating the Effects of Antipsychotics and Schizotypy on the N400 Using Event-Related Potentials and Semantic Categorization

1Department of Psychology, McGill University, 2Department of Cognitive Science, McGill University, 3Douglas Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 4Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, McGill University


JoVE 52082

Using event-related EEG potentials (ERPs), we investigate the effects of antipsychotic medications on abnormal semantic brain activations in healthy individuals with schizotypal traits. We use ERPs to track distinct changes in brain activity, shedding insight into the cognitive processes associated with semantic categorization.

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

The Factorial Experiment

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A factorial design is a common type of experiment where there are two or more independent variables. This video demonstrates a 2 x 2 factorial design used to explore how self-awareness and self-esteem may influence the ability to decipher nonverbal signals. This video leads students through the basics of a factorial design including, the nature of a factorial design and what distinguishes it from other designs, the benefits of factorial design, the importance and nature of interactions, main effect and interaction hypotheses, and how to conduct a factorial experiment.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking

1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India


JoVE 2320

Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.

 JoVE Medicine

Dried Blood Spot Collection of Health Biomarkers to Maximize Participation in Population Studies

1Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard School of Public Health, 2Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 3Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University


JoVE 50973

Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease or health. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) collection meets this need, can be collected in the field with high response rates and analyzed for a variety of biomarkers.

 JoVE Behavior

Methods to Test Visual Attention Online

1Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, 2Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, 3Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester


JoVE 52470

To replicate laboratory settings, online data collection methods for visual tasks require tight control over stimulus presentation. We outline methods for the use of a web application to collect performance data on two tests of visual attention.

 JoVE Behavior

Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam


JoVE 50893

Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.

 JoVE Biology

Exploring Cognitive Functions in Babies, Children & Adults with Near Infrared Spectroscopy

1Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough


JoVE 1268

Here we describe a data collection and data analysis method for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a novel non-invasive brain imaging system used in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in studying child brain development. This method provides a universal standard of data acquisition and analysis vital to data interpretation and scientific discovery.

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Self-report vs. Behavioral Measures of Recycling

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

One of the challenges in measuring an experimental variable is identifying the technique that will produce the more accurate measurement. The most common way to measure a dependent variable is self-report—asking the participant to describe his/her feelings, thoughts, or behaviors. Yet, people may not be honest. To truly know something about a participant, it may be necessary to see what they actually do in a situation. This video uses a multi-group experiment to see if feeling close to others results in more favorable attitudes toward environmental consciousness measured both by self-report and behavioral observation. Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences. A large number of participants helps to better ensure that the population under study is better represented, i.e., the margin of error accompanied by studying human behavior is sufficiently accounted for. In this video, we demonstrate this experiment using just one participant. However, as represented in the results, we used a total of 186 participants to reach the experiment’s conclusions.

 JoVE Medicine

Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): Investigating Language Comprehension in Typically Developing Toddlers and Young Children with Autism

1Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut


JoVE 4331

A reliable home-based way to assess the language comprehension of very young typically developing children, as well as those with autism, is described. The method analyzes children's eye gaze while viewing side-by-side images but hearing an audio that matches only one image. Stimuli are designed with young participants in mind.

 JoVE Behavior

Measuring Attentional Biases for Threat in Children and Adults

1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University


JoVE 52190

Here we describe a touch-screen visual search paradigm that can be used to study threat detection across the lifespan. The paradigm has already been used in various studies demonstrating that both children and adults detect threatening stimuli like snakes, spiders, and angry faces faster than non-threatening stimuli.

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Experimentation using a Confederate

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

When orchestrating an experiment, it is important that the experience elicits the most natural reactions from the participants as possible. Researchers accomplish much of this through their creation of the experimental settings. Many research projects focus on interactions between two or more people.  In these situations the environment or setting must often be less natural; often only one person can be a true participant and others in the study need to be “confederates,” that is, allegedly unbiased participants whom, in actuality, act according to the researcher’s directions. This video uses a two-group experiment to see if participants are more likely to imitate a person with more power versus similar power compared to the participant.  The video also highlights the use of research confederates. Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences.  A large number of participants helps to better ensure that the population under study is better represented, i.e. the margin of error accompanied by studying human behavior is sufficiently accou

 JoVE Neuroscience

How to Create and Use Binocular Rivalry

1Department of Psychology, New York University, 2Centre for Neural Science, New York University, 3Department of Psychology, Princeton University, 4Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University


JoVE 2030

Binocular rivalry occurs when the eyes are presented with different images at the same location: one image dominates while the other is suppressed, and dominance alternates periodically. Rivalry is useful for investigating perceptual selection and visual awareness. Here we describe several easy methods for creating and using binocular rivalry stimuli.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Creating Objects and Object Categories for Studying Perception and Perceptual Learning

1Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 2Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 3Department of Opthalmology, Georgia Health Sciences University, 4Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto Research Center, 5Pattern Recognition Systems, Palo Alto Research Center, 6Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota


JoVE 3358

We describe a novel methodology for creating naturalistic 3-D objects and object categories with precisely defined feature variations. We use simulations of the biological processes of morphogenesis and phylogenesis to create novel, naturalistic virtual 3-D objects and object categories that can then be rendered as visual images or haptic objects.

 JoVE Behavior

Shallow Water (Paddling) Variants of Water Maze Tests in Mice

1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford


JoVE 2608

Mice can swim, but many strains appear to find this activity stressful. To overcome this problem mazes have been devised where escape from shallow water is used to motivate behaviour. These have been demonstrated to support learning at least as good as the traditional and widely used Morris water maze.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment of Social Cognition in Non-human Primates Using a Network of Computerized Automated Learning Device (ALDM) Test Systems

1CNRS, Federation 3C, and Laboratory of Cognitive Psychology, Aix-Marseille University


JoVE 52798

Fagot & Paleressompoulle1 have published an automated learning device (ALDM) aimed at testing individual cognitive abilities in semi-free ranging monkeys. The main goal of our protocol is to use a network of ALDM test units to study social cognition in non-human primates.

 JoVE Behavior

Testing Sensory and Multisensory Function in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

1Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 52677

We describe how to implement a battery of behavioral tasks to examine the processing and integration of sensory stimuli in children with ASD. The goal is to characterize individual differences in temporal processing of simple auditory and visual stimuli and relate these to higher order perceptual skills like speech perception.

 JoVE Behavior

Transferring Cognitive Tasks Between Brain Imaging Modalities: Implications for Task Design and Results Interpretation in fMRI Studies

1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH


JoVE 51793

Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.

 JoVE Medicine

Collecting Saliva and Measuring Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-amylase in Frail Community Residing Older Adults via Family Caregivers

1Center for Innovative Care in Aging, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, 2Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research, Arizona State University, 3Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, 4Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health


JoVE 50815

We demonstrate: (1) procedures for collection of salivary samples in cognitive impaired older adults by family caregivers in the home setting, (2) procedures for measuring stress activity via salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, and (3) representative profiles. Protocols that allow researchers to study stress-linked processes advance our understanding of biological sensitivity and susceptibility.

 JoVE Behavior

Disrupting Reconsolidation of Fear Memory in Humans by a Noradrenergic β-Blocker

1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam


JoVE 52151

Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Using a Comparative Species Approach to Investigate the Neurobiology of Paternal Responses

1Department of Psychology, Randolph-Macon College, 2Department of Psychology, Marshall University


JoVE 3173

The comparative species approach allows behavioral neuroscientists to explore various neurobiological factors associated with specific behaviors viewed as characteristic of a specific animal model. Taking advantage of naturally occurring differences in behavior between closely related species, this technique doesn’t require invasive techniques to manipulate the expression of the behavior.

 JoVE Behavior

Measurement of Neurophysiological Signals of Ignoring and Attending Processes in Attention Control

1Department of Psychiatry, University of California Los Angeles, 2Attention Research Institute, 3Departments of Psychiatry, Radiology, Neurology, Biomedical Physics, Psychology and Bioengineering, University of California Los Angeles


JoVE 52958

Attention control comprises enhancement of target signals and attenuation of distractor signals. We describe an approach to measure separately but concurrently, the neurophysiology of attending and ignoring in sustained intermodal attention, utilizing a passive control condition during which neither process is continuously engaged.

 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

The Precision of Visual Working Memory with Delayed Estimation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Human memory is limited. Throughout most of its history, experimental psychology has focused on investigating the discrete, quantitative limits of memory—how many individual pieces of information a person can remember. Recently, experimental psychologists have also become interested in more qualitative limits—how precisely is information stored? The concept of memory precision can be both intuitive and elusive at once. It is intuitive, for example, to think a person can remember precisely how their mother sounds, making it possible to recognize one’s mother immediately over the phone or in a crowd. But how can one quantify the precision of such a memory? Exactly how similar is the memory to the voice itself? To study the precision of memory and working memory, in particular, experimental psychologists have devised a paradigm known as delayed estimation. It has been used most often, thus far, to study the precision of visual memories, especially memory for color, and to understand how memory degrades the more one tries to remember at once. This video demonstrates standard procedures for investigating the precision of color working memory using delayed estim

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Comprehensive Protocol for Manual Segmentation of the Medial Temporal Lobe Structures

1Psychology Department, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 3Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign


JoVE 50991

The present work provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for manually tracing the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. This protocol can be applied to research involving structural and/or combined structural-functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations of the MTL, in both healthy and clinical groups.

 JoVE Behavior

Infant Auditory Processing and Event-related Brain Oscillations

1Center for Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, State University of New Jersey, Newark, 2Department of Audiology, University of the Pacific, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Stanford University


JoVE 52420

High-density electroencephalography (dEEG) is being used increasingly to study brain development and plasticity in the early years of life. Here we present an application of sophisticated analysis techniques that builds on traditional EEG recording to understand the oscillatory dynamics of rapid auditory processing in the infant brain.

 JoVE Medicine

Development of an Audio-based Virtual Gaming Environment to Assist with Navigation Skills in the Blind

1Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Computer Science and Center for Advanced Research in Education (CARE), University of Chile


JoVE 50272

Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind.

 JoVE Medicine

Developing Neuroimaging Phenotypes of the Default Mode Network in PTSD: Integrating the Resting State, Working Memory, and Structural Connectivity

1Providence VA Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 2Department of Psychology, University of Georgia


JoVE 51651

This protocol describes the complementary neuroimaging techniques of resting state structural connectivity, task-induced deactivation, and structural connectivity analyses to examine the default network in post-traumatic stress disorder. The use of synergistic methods could potentially lead to improved diagnostics and assessments of severity, outcome, and other relevant clinical factors.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording Single Neurons' Action Potentials from Freely Moving Pigeons Across Three Stages of Learning

1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum


JoVE 51283

Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.

 JoVE Behavior

Measuring Sensitivity to Viewpoint Change with and without Stereoscopic Cues

1Research School of Psychology, Australian National University, 2School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, 3McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University


JoVE 50877

We discuss a novel method forviewpoint-rotation of visual stimuli, and demonstrate using a mirror stereoscopethe three-dimensional percept of rotation-in-depth. The technique can be used to investigate the role of stereoscopic cues in encoding viewpoint-rotated figures.

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