Calmodulin (CaM) pull-down assay is an effective way to investigate the interaction of CaM with various proteins. This method uses CaM-sepharose beads for efficient and specific analysis of CaM-binding proteins. This provides an important tool to explore CaM signaling in cellular function.
In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques1,2,3,4. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica5. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool.
Published March 25, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Behavior, Neurobiology, Animal, Neurosciences, Neurophysiology, Electrophysiology, Aplysia, Aplysia californica, California sea slug, invertebrate, feeding, buccal mass, ganglia, motor neurons, neurons, extracellular stimulation and recordings, extracellular electrodes, animal model
1NRW Research Group 'Dendritic integration in the CNS', Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, 2Neuronal Networks Group, Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)
In this article we introduce fast micro-iontophoresis of neurotransmitters as a technique to investigate integration of postsynaptic signals with high spatial and temporal precision.
Published July 31, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Biochemistry, biology (general), animal biology, Nervous System, Life Sciences (General), Neurosciences, brain slices, dendrites, inhibition, excitation, glutamate, GABA, micro-iontophoresis, iontophoresis, neurons, patch clamp, whole cell recordings
Real-Time DC-dynamic Biasing Method for Switching Time Improvement in Severely Underdamped Fringing-field Electrostatic MEMS Actuators
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Digital Light Projection (DLP) Technology Development, Texas Instruments, 3Birck Nanotechnology Center and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University
The robust device design of fringing-field electrostatic MEMS actuators results in inherently low squeeze-film damping conditions and long settling times when performing switching operations using conventional step biasing. Real-time switching time improvement with DC-dynamic waveforms reduces the settling time of fringing-field MEMS actuators when transitioning between up-to-down and down-to-up states.
An In Vitro Preparation for Eliciting and Recording Feeding Motor Programs with Physiological Movements in Aplysia californica
We describe a technique to extracellularly record and stimulate from nerves, muscles, and individual identified neurons in vitro while eliciting and observing different types of feeding behaviors in the feeding apparatus of Aplysia.
Published December 5, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Marine Biology, Aplysia, Aplysia californica, California sea slug, invertebrate, feeding, neurobiology, buccal mass, semi-intact preparation, extracellular electrodes, extracellular recording, neurons, animal model
Working safely and humanely with research rodents requires a core competency in handling and restraint methods. This article will present the basic principles required to safely handle and effectively administer compounds to mice and rats.
Physiological and anatomical techniques are demonstrated to address function and structure for joint proprioceptors and muscle tension receptors in crustacean walking limbs.
The use of a 3D automatic video system that can track individual and groups of zebrafish is described. As application example we explore the effects of the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 on shoals of zebrafish.
Surgical Procedures for a Rat Model of Partial Orthotopic Liver Transplantation with Hepatic Arterial Reconstruction
1Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Experimental Surgery, RWTH-Aachen University, 2Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery and Transplantation, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University
Orthotopic liver transplantation in rats is an indispensable experimental model for biomedical research. Here we present our surgical procedures for orthotopic rat liver transplantation with hepatic arterial reconstruction using a 50% partial graft.
Published March 7, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Immunology, Surgery, liver transplantation, liver, hepatic, partial, orthotopic, split, rat, graft, transplantation, microsurgery, procedure, clinical, technique, artery, arterialization, arterialized, anastomosis, reperfusion, rat, animal model
1Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center
The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for neuromuscular disorders is generally improved muscle function. Therefore, assessing the effect of potential therapeutic compounds on muscle performance pre clinically in mouse models is of great importance. We here describe several functional tests to address this.
Published March 27, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, neuromuscular disorders, outcome measures, functional testing, mouse model, grip strength, hanging test wire, hanging test grid, rotarod running, treadmill running