Calmodulin (CaM) pull-down assay is an effective way to investigate the interaction of CaM with various proteins. This method uses CaM-sepharose beads for efficient and specific analysis of CaM-binding proteins. This provides an important tool to explore CaM signaling in cellular function.
Real-Time DC-dynamic Biasing Method for Switching Time Improvement in Severely Underdamped Fringing-field Electrostatic MEMS Actuators
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2Digital Light Projection (DLP) Technology Development, Texas Instruments, 3Birck Nanotechnology Center and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University
The robust device design of fringing-field electrostatic MEMS actuators results in inherently low squeeze-film damping conditions and long settling times when performing switching operations using conventional step biasing. Real-time switching time improvement with DC-dynamic waveforms reduces the settling time of fringing-field MEMS actuators when transitioning between up-to-down and down-to-up states.
The use of a 3D automatic video system that can track individual and groups of zebrafish is described. As application example we explore the effects of the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 on shoals of zebrafish.
1School of Pharmacy, University College London, 2Mucin Biology Group, University of Gothenburg
Here, a procedure is described for the establishment of systemic infection in the neonatal rat with cultures of Escherichia coli K1. This non-invasive procedure permits colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, translocation of the pathogen to the systemic circulation, and invasion of the central nervous system at the choroid plexus.
Published October 29, 2014. Keywords: Infection, Bacterial infection, neonatal bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, animal model, K1 polysaccharide, systemic infection, gastrointestinal tract, age dependency
1Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medicine and Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles
We describe a simple protocol to identify brain proteins that bind to the full length C terminus of ATP-gated P2X2 receptors. The extension and systematic application of this approach to all P2X receptors is expected to lead to a better understanding of P2X receptor signaling.
Demonstration of quantification of dsDNA using Molecular Probes PicoGreen dye and Hitachi F-7000 Fluorescence Spectrophotometer equipped with a microplate reader accessory.
1Department of Neurology, F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) with a high capacity to phagocytose or engulf material in their extracellular environment. Here, a broadly applicable, reliable, and highly quantitative assay for visualizing and measuring microglia-mediated engulfment of synaptic components is described.
1Promega Corporation, 2MS Bioworks LLC
HaloTag technology is a multifunctional technology which has shown significant success in isolation of both small and large protein complexes from mammalian cells. Here we highlight the advantages of this technology compared to existing alternatives and demonstrate its utility to study numerous aspects of protein function inside eukaryotic cells.
Published July 12, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, proteomics, HaloTag, protein interactions, mass spectrometry, bromodomain proteins, BRD4, histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC cellular assays, and confocal imaging
Tandem affinity purification is a robust approach for the identification of protein binding partners. As proof of concept, this methodology was applied to the well-characterized translation initiation factor eIF4E to co-precipitate the host cell factors involved in translation initiation. This method is easily adapted to any cellular or viral protein.
Application and direct measurements of forces on neurons in the 2-1000 microdyne range are achieved with high precision using calibrated glass needles. This methodology can be used to control and measure several aspects of axonal development, including axonal initiation, axonal tension, velocity of axonal elongation, and force vectors.
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry
A lengthening in meal duration represents orofacial nociceptive behavior in rodents similar to the guarding behavior of humans with orofacial pain. Eating is a behavior that requires no training or animal manipulation, requires cortical participation, and is not competing with other experimentally induced behaviors, distinguishing this assay from alternative reflex or operant measurements.
Real Time Measurements of Membrane Protein:Receptor Interactions Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
1Department of Biochemistry, The Bruce and Ruth Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a label-free method for detecting bio-molecular interactions in real time. Herein, a protocol for a membrane protein:receptor interaction experiment is described, while discussing the pros and cons of the technique.
Published November 29, 2014. Keywords: Structural Biology, ABC transporter, substrate binding protein, bio-molecular interaction kinetics, label-free, protein-protein interaction, Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Biacore
We have developed a novel and reproducible technique to isolate primary cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) from mice as young as P7, thereby allowing better study of the signaling pathways involved in neonatal smooth muscle cell contraction and relaxation.
Published October 19, 2013. Keywords: Basic Protocol, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Cardiovascular Abnormalities, Hypertension, Pulmonary, vascular smooth muscle, pulmonary hypertension, development, phosphodiesterases, cGMP, immunostaining
Protein-protein Interactions Visualized by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation in Tobacco Protoplasts and Leaves
1Department Biologie I, Botanik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München
Formation of protein complexes in vivo can be visualized by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Interaction partners are fused to complementary parts of fluorescent tags and transiently expressed in tobacco leaves, resulting in a reconstituted fluorescent signal upon close proximity of the two proteins.
Purifying the Impure: Sequencing Metagenomes and Metatranscriptomes from Complex Animal-associated Samples
1Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 2DOE Joint Genome Institute, 3Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, 4Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado
Using the cystic fibrosis airway as an example, the manuscript presents a comprehensive workflow comprising a combination of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to characterize the microbial and viral communities in animal-associated samples.
1Program in Gene Function and Expression, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 2Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, 5Department of Applied Mathematics, Harvard University, 6Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, 8Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Hi-C method allows unbiased, genome-wide identification of chromatin interactions (1). Hi-C couples proximity ligation and massively parallel sequencing. The resulting data can be used to study genomic architecture at multiple scales: initial results identified features such as chromosome territories, segregation of open and closed chromatin, and chromatin structure at the megabase scale.
1Laboratory for NeuroRegeneration and Repair, Department of Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tuebingen, 2Graduate School for Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tuebingen
We present a method for chromatin immunoprecipitation from dorsal root ganglia tissue following axonal injury. The approach can be used to identify specific transcription factor binding sites and epigenetic modification of histone and DNA important for the regeneration of injured axons in both the peripheral and central nervous system.
Described is a two-step labeling process using β-glucosyltransferase (β-GT) to transfer an azide-glucose to 5-hmC, followed by click chemistry to transfer a biotin linker for easy and density-independent enrichment. This efficient and specific labeling method enables enrichment of 5-hmC with extremely low background and high-throughput epigenomic mapping via next-generation sequencing.
Detection of In Situ Protein-protein Complexes at the Drosophila Larval Neuromuscular Junction Using Proximity Ligation Assay
1Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, 2Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University
This protocol demonstrates how Proximity Ligation Assay can be used to detect in situ protein-protein interactions at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. With this technique, Discs large and Hu-li tai shao are shown to form a complex at the postsynaptic region, an association previously identified through co-immunoprecipitation.
Published January 20, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, adducin, body wall dissection, developmental biology, Discs large, Drosophila, Hu-li tai shao, immunohistochemistry, neuromuscular junction, neuroscience, protein-protein interaction, Proximity Ligation Assay, third instar larvae
1Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, 2Office of Laboratory Animal Care, University of California Berkeley, 3McGovern Institute for Brain Research & The Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Integrative Biology Department, University of California Berkeley
Targeted ablation of specific brain region(s) by infusion of an excitotoxin using stereotaxic coordinates is described. This technique could also be adapted for infusion of other chemicals into the rat brain.
This protocol describes the stimulation of cultured fibroblasts with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, which drives focal adhesion formation and Rac1 activation by mimicking engagement of the transmembrane matrix receptor, syndecan-4. This approach allows investigation of a successful clinical technique at the cellular level, thereby providing opportunities for refinement of the therapy.
Here we describe methods to test C. elegans associative learning and short- and long-term associative memory. These population assays employ the worms abilities to chemotax toward volatile odorants, and form positive associations upon pairing food with the chemoattractant butanone. Increasing the number of conditioning periods induces long-term memory.
1Department of Biological Sciences, Murray State University
Multi-component protein complexes play crucial roles during cellular function and development. Here we describe a method used to isolate native protein complexes from Drosophila embryos after in vivo crosslinking followed by purification of the crosslinked complexes for subsequent structure-function analysis.
A Simple Stimulatory Device for Evoking Point-like Tactile Stimuli: A Searchlight for LFP to Spike Transitions
1Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), Department of Biomedicine, National Research Council, 2Institute of Biomedical Technologies (ITB), Department of Biomedicine, National Research Council, 3Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester
To elucidate the complex transition from Local Field Potentials (LFPs) to spikes a suitable stimulator for light mechanical peripheral stimuli was built. As an application, the spiking activities recorded from somatosensory cortex were analyzed by a multi-objective optimization strategy. The results demonstrated that the proposed stimulator was able to deliver tactile stimuli with millisecond and millimeter precisions.
Assessment of Immunologically Relevant Dynamic Tertiary Structural Features of the HIV-1 V3 Loop Crown R2 Sequence by ab initio Folding
The crown region of different V3 loop sequences of the surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of HIV-1 can be structurally characterized in many cases by in silico folding of positions 10 to 22 of the loop using a state-of-the-art ab initio folding algorithm. Here we demonstrate the folding and evaluation of this region of the V3 loop from the R2 strain of HIV-1, a uniquely neutralization sensitive strain with puzzling functional properties.
Here we describe a method to quantify molecular heterogeneity in histological sections of tumor material using quantitative immunofluorescence, image analysis, and a statistical measure of heterogeneity. The method is intended for use in clinical biomarker development and analysis.
A Faster, High Resolution, mtPA-GFP-based Mitochondrial Fusion Assay Acquiring Kinetic Data of Multiple Cells in Parallel Using Confocal Microscopy
1Department of Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience Research, Tufts School of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics & Gerontology, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center
Mitochondrial fusion was measured by tracking the equilibration of photoconverted matrix-targeted GFP across the mitochondrial network over time. Thus far, only one cell could be subjected to an hour long kinetic analysis at a time. We present a method that simultaneously measures multiple cells, thereby speeding up the data collection process.
Published July 20, 2012. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Physics, confocal microscopy, mitochondria, fusion, TMRE, mtPAGFP, INS1, mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial network
1Department of Cancer Genetics and Developmental Biology, BC Cancer Research Centre, 2Interdisciplinary Oncology Program, University of British Columbia - UBC, 3These authors contributed equally., 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia - UBC, 5Photography/Video Production, Multi-Media Services, BC Cancer Agency, 6Department of Medical Genetics, Life Sciences Institute,, University of British Columbia - UBC
This video demonstrates the protocol for methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). MeDIP is a two day procedure that selectively extracts methylated DNA fragments from a genomic DNA sample using antibodies with specificity for 5 -methylcytosine (anti-5 mC).
Published January 2, 2009. Keywords: Cell Biology, DNA methylation, immunoprecipitation, epigenomics, epigenetics, methylcytosine, MeDIP protocol, 5-methylcytosine antibody, anti-5-methylcytosine, microarray
1Institute of Dental Sciences, Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical Center, 2Department of Periodontology, Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical Center
This study describes an efficient technique to isolate and process gingival tissues from the mouse oral cavity in order to produce a single-cell culture. The resulting cells can be further used for flow cytometry analysis and molecular studies.
Published July 2, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Infection, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Periodontology, Gingiva, Periodontitis, Flow cytometry, mice, oral mucosa, gingival cells, animal model
1Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 3Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 4Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University
This protocol describes a method for visualizing a DNA double-strand break signaling protein activated in response to DNA damage as well as its localization during mitosis.
Published September 28, 2012. Keywords: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, DNA, Double-strand breaks, DNA damage response, proteins, live cell imaging, 3D cell imaging, confocal microscopy
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis depends on adaptor proteins that coordinate cargo selection and clathrin coat assembly. Here we describe procedures to study adaptor-clathrin physical interaction and live cell imaging approaches using as a model the yeast endocytic adaptor protein Sla1p.
High Throughput Quantitative Expression Screening and Purification Applied to Recombinant Disulfide-rich Venom Proteins Produced in E. coli
1Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques (AFMB), Aix-Marseille Université, 2iBiTec-S, Service d'Ingénierie Moléculaire des Protéines (SIMOPRO), Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) Saclay, France
A protocol for the quantitative, high throughput expression screening and analytical purification of fusion proteins from small-scale Escherichia coli cultures is described and applied to the expression of disulfide-rich animal venom protein targets.
Published July 30, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, E. coli, expression, recombinant, high throughput (HTP), purification, auto-induction, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), tobacco etch virus protease (TEV) cleavage, disulfide bond isomerase C (DsbC) fusion, disulfide bonds, animal venom proteins/peptides
Isolation and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin From Complex Matrices Using the BoTest Matrix Assays
1BioSentinel Inc., Madison, WI
The BoTest Matrix botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) detection assays rapidly purify and quantify BoNT from a range of sample matrices. Here, we present a protocol for the detection and quantification of BoNT from both solid and liquid matrices and demonstrate the assay with BOTOX, tomatoes, and milk.
This protocol utilizes a pull down assay to determine the levels of active RhoC GTPase within cells.
Investigating Protein-protein Interactions in Live Cells Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer
1Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour
Interactions between proteins are fundamental to all cellular processes. Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, the interaction between a pair of proteins can be monitored in live cells and in real time. Furthermore, the effects of potentially pathogenic mutations can be assessed.
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame
The zebrafish is an excellent experimental organism to study vertebrate developmental processes and model human disease. Here, we describe a protocol on how to perform a manual high-throughput chemical screen in zebrafish embryos with a whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) read-out.
Published November 8, 2014. Keywords: Developmental Biology, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer to Study Conformational Changes in Membrane Proteins Expressed in Mammalian Cells
1Center for Membrane Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
We describe here an improved Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (LRET) method where we introduce a protease cleavage site between the donor and acceptor fluorophore sites. This modification allows us to obtain specific LRET signals arising from membrane proteins of interest, allowing for the study of membrane proteins without protein purification.
Published September 16, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, LRET, FRET, Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, glutamate receptors, acid sensing ion channel, protein conformation, protein dynamics, fluorescence, protein-protein interactions
gDNA Enrichment by a Transposase-based Technology for NGS Analysis of the Whole Sequence of BRCA1, BRCA2, and 9 Genes Involved in DNA Damage Repair
1Department of Biology and Pathology of Tumors, Unit of Molecular Biology, Platform of Immunomonitoring and Genetics, Centre Georges-François Leclerc
gDNA enrichment for NGS sequencing is an easy and powerful tool for the study of constitutional mutations. In this article, we present the procedure to analyse simply the complete sequence of 11 genes involved in DNA damage repair.
DNA-affinity-purified Chip (DAP-chip) Method to Determine Gene Targets for Bacterial Two component Regulatory Systems
1Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
This video article describes an in vitro microarray based method to determine the gene targets and binding sites for two component system response regulators.
Published July 21, 2014. Keywords: Genetics, DNA-Affinity-Purified-chip, response regulator, transcription factor binding site, two component system, signal transduction, Desulfovibrio, lactate utilization regulator, ChIP-chip
1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Department of Medicine, The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
A technique to isolate cholangiocytes from the extrahepatic bile ducts of neonatal mice is described. The ducts are meticulously dissected, and then cells are isolated by outgrowth in thick collagen gels. This method provides a useful tool for studying extrahepatic bile duct development and pathology.
One-step Purification of Twin-Strep-tagged Proteins and Their Complexes on Strep-Tactin Resin Cross-linked With Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) Suberate (BS3)
1Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, 2Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki
A method is described for efficient purification of twin-Strep-tagged fusion proteins and their specific complexes on modified streptavidin (Strep-Tactin) resin covalently cross-linked with Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3). The method has the advantages of fast speed, good target protein recovery and high purity, and is compatible with subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry.
Published April 20, 2014. Keywords: Biochemistry, Strep-tag, fusion protein, Strep-Tactin, protein complex purification, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate, BS3, protein cross-linking, protein structure stabilization, proteomics, mass spectrometry
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 4Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
The phagokinetic motility track assay is a method used to assess the movement of cells. Specifically, the assay measures chemokinesis (random cell motility) over time in a quantitative manner. The assay takes advantage of the ability of cells to create a measurable track of their movement on colloidal gold-coated coverslips.
Published December 4, 2012. Keywords: Immunology, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, gold nanoparticles, coverslips, cell migration, quantitative cell movement, microscopy, motility, assay
A suite of colorimetric assays is described for rapidly distinguishing protein, RNA, DNA, and reducing sugars in potentially heterogeneous biomolecular samples.
Published February 4, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Chemical Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Nucleic Acids, DNA, RNA, Proteins, analytical chemistry, Benedict's assay, Bial's orcinol assay, Dische's diphenylamine assay, colorimetric assay, reducing sugar, purification, transcription, reaction, assay
The Rabbit Blood-shunt Model for the Study of Acute and Late Sequelae of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Technical Aspects
1Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University and Bern University Hospital (Inselspital), 2Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau, 3Laboratories for Neuroscience Research in Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital, 4Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, 5Department of Neurosurgery, University and Bern University Hospital (Inselspital), 6Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Cologne, 7Institute of Pathology, Länggasse Bern
The experimental intracranial pressure-controlled blood shunt subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model in the rabbit combines the standard procedures — subclavian artery cannulation and transcutaneous cisterna magna puncture, which enables close mimicking of human pathophysiological conditions after SAH. We present step-by-step instructions and discuss key surgical points for successful experimental SAH creation.
1UCR Stem Cell Center, University of California, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, 3Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Program, University of California, 4Center for Research in Intelligent Systems, University of California
Video bioinformatics is the automated processing, analysis, understanding, and data mining of biological spatio-temporal data extracted from microscopic videos. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate a method for measuring human embryonic stem cell colony growth using a video bioinformatics method.
Method for the Isolation and Identification of mRNAs, microRNAs and Protein Components of Ribonucleoprotein Complexes from Cell Extracts using RIP-Chip
A step by step protocol to isolating and identifying RNA associated complexes through RIP-Chip.
Production of Tissue Microarrays, Immunohistochemistry Staining and Digitalization Within the Human Protein Atlas
Tissue microarrays allows for an efficient method to gain concurrent information from a multitude of tissues. Representative parts of tissues are assembled into a single paraffin block. Sections from the block are used for immunohistochemistry and analysis of protein expression patterns. Digital scanning generates corresponding images for distribution of data.
1Unité de Génétique, Papillomavirus et Cancer Humain (GPCH), Institut Pasteur, 2Cellule Pasteur, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 3Center for Cancer Systems Biology (CCSB), Harvard Medical School, Department of Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute
This article focuses on the identification of high-confident interaction datasets between host and pathogen proteins using a combination of two orthogonal methods: yeast two-hybrid followed by a high-throughput interaction assay in mammalian cells called HT-GPCA.
Published July 18, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Genetics, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Infection, Cancer Biology, Virology, Medicine, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Protein-protein interaction, High-throughput screening, Luminescence, Yeast two-hybrid, HT-GPCA, Network, protein, yeast, cell, culture
Drosophila Schneider (S2) cells are an increasingly popular system for the discovery and functional analysis of genes. Our goal is to describe some of the microscopic techniques that make S2 cells such an increasingly important experimental system.
We present a microfluidic approach for the expression of protein arrays. The device consists of thousands of reaction chambers controlled by micro-mechanical valves. The microfluidic device is mated to a microarray-printed gene library. These genes are then transcribed and translated on-chip, resulting in a protein array ready for experimental use.
Published August 23, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Genetics, Chemistry, Molecular Biology, In vitro protein expression, microfluidics, protein microarray, systems biology, high-throughput, screening