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Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient Pulmonary gas exchange in the Pulmonary alveoli, and can be life-threatening.
 JoVE Medicine

Method of Isolated Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in a Rat Model: Lessons Learned from Developing a Rat EVLP Program

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3The Collaboration for Organ Perfusion, Protection, Engineering and Regeneration (COPPER) Laboratory, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 5Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, 6Advanced Lung Disease Program, Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 7Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 52309

 JoVE Medicine

Automated Measurement of Microcirculatory Blood Flow Velocity in Pulmonary Metastases of Rats

1Division of Plastic, Maxillofacial, and Oral Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, 3Department of Cardiology, University of Colorado Denver, 4Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Mainz


JoVE 51630

 JoVE In-Press

Open Tracheostomy Gastric Acid Aspiration Murine Model of Acute Lung Injury Results in Maximal Acute Nonlethal Lung Injury

1Department of Anesthesiology, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, 2Department of Anesthsiology, Veterans Admistration Western New York Healthcare System, 3Institute of Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 54700

 JoVE Cancer Research

Long-term High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy in the Lung with a Vacuum Stabilized Imaging Window

1Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Woman’s Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 3Department of Anatomy & Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 4Gruss-Lipper Biophotonics Center Integrated Imaging Program, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 5Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh


JoVE 54603

 JoVE Medicine

Heterotopic Cervical Heart Transplantation in Mice

1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Division of Experimental Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technische Universität München, 2Institute of Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Division of Experimental Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technische Universität München, 4Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, General Hospital Linz


JoVE 52907

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Cardiac Exam II: Auscultation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Proficiency in the use of a stethoscope to listen to heart sounds and the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal heart sounds are essential skills for any physician. Correct placement of the stethoscope on the chest corresponds to the sound of cardiac valves closing. The heart has two main sounds: S1 and S2. The first heart sound (S1) occurs as the mitral and tricuspid valves (atrioventricular valves) close after blood enters the ventricles. This represents the start of systole. The second heart sound (S2) occurs when the aortic and pulmonary valves (semilunar valves) close after blood has left the ventricles to enter the systemic and pulmonary circulation systems at the end of systole. Traditionally, the sounds are known as a "lub-dub." Auscultation of the heart is performed using both diaphragm and bell parts of the stethoscope chest piece. The diaphragm is most commonly used and is best for high-frequency sounds (such as S1 and S2) and murmurs of mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis. The diaphragm should be pressed firmly against the chest wall. The bell best transmits low-frequency sounds (such as S3 and S4) and the murmur of mitral stenosis. The bell should be applied

 JoVE Neuroscience

Lateral Fluid Percussion: Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center, 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center


JoVE 3063

 JoVE Medicine

Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies

1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University


JoVE 51904

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration I

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Science

Measuring Tropospheric Ozone

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Ozone is a form of elemental oxygen (O3), a molecule of three oxygen atoms bonded in a structure that is highly reactive as an oxidizing agent. Ozone occurs in both the stratosphere and the troposphere levels of the atmosphere. When in the stratosphere (located approximately 10-50 km from the earth’s surface), ozone molecules form to the ozone layer and help prevent harmful UV rays from reaching Earth’s surface. In lower altitudes of the troposphere (surface - approximately 17 km), ozone is harmful to human health and is considered an air pollutant contributing to photochemical smog (Figure 1). Ozone molecules can cause damage directly by harming respiratory tissue when inhaled or indirectly by harming plant tissues (Figure 2) and softer materials including tires on automobiles. Outdoor tropospheric ozone is formed at ground level when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions are exposed to sunlight. Consequently, health concerns over ozone concentrations escalate in sunny conditions or when and where automobile use is increased. Reaction: NO2 + VOC + sunlight &

 Science Education: Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Pericardiocentesis

JoVE Science Education

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

The heart lies within the pericardium, a relatively inelastic fibrous sac. The pericardium has some compliance to stretch when fluid is slowly introduced into the pericardial space. However, rapid accumulation overwhelms pericardial ability to accommodate extra fluid. Once a critical volume is reached, intrapericardial pressure increases dramatically, compressing the right ventricle and eventually impeding the volume that enters the left ventricle. When these chambers cannot fill in diastole, stroke volume and cardiac output are diminished, leading to cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening compression of the cardiac chambers by a pericardial effusion. Unless the pressure is relieved by aspiration of pericardial fluid (pericardiocentesis), cardiac arrest is imminent. Cardiac tamponadeis a critical emergency that can carry high morbidity and mortality. Patients may present in extremis, without much time to make the diagnosis and perform life-saving treatments. Causes of this condition are broken into traumatic and non-traumatic categories, with different treatment algorithms. Stab and gunshot wounds are the primary cause of traumatic tamponade, but it may occur from blunt trauma associated with s

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 JoVE Medicine

Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and Assessment of Right Ventricular Function in the Piglet

1Surgical Research Lab, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 2Department of Pathology, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 3Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 4Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Rennes, 5INSERM U999 Paris-Sud University


JoVE 53133

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 JoVE In-Press

Assessment of Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Membrane Diffusing Capacity, and Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses During Exercise

1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, 3Divisions of Critical Care and Cardiology, University of Alberta, 4Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 5G.F. MacDonald Centre for Lung Health

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 54949

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 JoVE Medicine

Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets

1Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Hypertension Research Group (CRIUCPQ), Laval University, 2Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 3Université Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4Hôpital Lariboisière, Physiologie clinique Explorations Fonctionnelles, 5INSERM U 965, 6Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tours


JoVE 52571

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