1Medical Research Council (MRC), Cell Biology Unit and Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London
Inositol pyrophosphates play an important role in human pathologies such cancer, diabetes and obesity; however, the exact mechanism of action is a matter of dispute. The lack of commercially available inositol pyrophosphates renders detailed studies problematic. Here we describe a simple protocol to produce and isolate milligrams of inositol pyrophosphates.
Published September 3, 2011. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Polyacrilamyde Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE), inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), phytic acid, diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), bisdiphoshoinositol tetrakisphosphate (IP8), IP6-kinase (IP6K), PP-IP5K, VIP1
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Immunotherapeutics (Medinet), University of Tokyo Hospital, 2MEDINET Co., Ltd
A method to expand γδ T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is described. PBMC-derived γδ T cells are stimulated and expanded using zoledronate and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Large scale expansion of γδ T cells can be applied to autologous cellular immunotherapy of cancer.
Published September 9, 2011. Keywords: Immunology, γδ T Cell, zoledronate, PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells
1Center for Biotechnology Education, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 2Qiagen Sciences, Inc.
Pyrosequencing is a versatile technique that facilitates microbial genome sequencing that can be used to identify bacterial species, discriminate bacterial strains, and detect genetic mutations that confer resistance to anti-microbial agents. In this video, the procedure for microbial amplicon generation, amplicon pyrosequencing, and DNA sequence analysis will be demonstrated.
Published August 22, 2013. Keywords: Microbiology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Basic Protocols, Genomics, Eukaryota, Bacteria, Viruses, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Virus Diseases, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Equipment and Supplies, Technology, Industry, and Agriculture, Life Sciences (General), Pyrosequencing, DNA, Microbe, PCR, primers, Next-Generation, high-throughput, sequencing
1Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University
A method for the determination of acetate kinase activity is described. This assay utilizes a direct reaction for determining enzyme activity and kinetics of acetate kinase in the acetate-forming direction with different phosphoryl acceptors. Furthermore, this method can be utilized for assaying other acetyl phosphate or acetyl-CoA utilizing enzymes.
Published December 19, 2011. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Acetate kinase, acetate, acetyl phosphate, pyrophosphate, PPi, ATP
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Center for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London
The larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella was recently established as an in vivo model to study Legionella pneumophila infection. Here, we demonstrate fundamental techniques to characterize the pathogenesis of Legionella in the larvae, including inoculation, measurement of bacterial virulence and replication as well as extraction and analysis of infected hemocytes.
Published November 22, 2013. Keywords: Infection, Bacterial Infections, Infection, Disease Models, Animal, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Galleria mellonella, Legionella pneumophila, insect model, bacterial infection, Legionnaires' disease, haemocytes
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Faculty of Medicine, Rappaport Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 2The Pharmacy and Biochemistry Institute, Johannes Gutenberg University
This protocol describes the preparation of a synthetic tRNA substrate for the Entamoeba histolytica DNA/tRNA methyltransferase 2 (Dnmt2) homolog Ehmeth and the measure of its methyltransferase activity. This experimental approach can be used for investigating the activity of other Dnmt2 proteins.
Published October 19, 2010. Keywords: Immunology, tRNA, methylation, DNA methyltransferase 2, Entamoeba histolytica
1Departments of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah
This article will describe the procedure for synthesizing a hydrophobically modified Nafion enzyme immobilization membrane and how to immobilize proteins and/or enzymes within the membrane and test their specific activity.
Published July 11, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, enzyme immobilization, polymer modification, Nafion, enzyme stabilization, enzyme activity assays
1Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
A protocol for separating inner and outer membranes from Francisella tularensis by spheroplasting, osmotic lysis, and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation.
Published June 29, 2010. Keywords: Microbiology, Francisella, tularemia, outer membrane protein, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, membrane isolation, osmotic lysis, spheroplast
1Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia (UGA)
We present a method for generating cDNA from environmental mRNA. In general, total RNA is first collected from the environment, rRNA is selectively removed, mRNA is selectively amplified, and cDNA synthesized from the enriched mRNA pool is sequenced. Recovered sequences can be annotated using standard bioinformatics techniques to identify the expressed genes.
Published February 18, 2009. Keywords: Microbiology, transcriptomics, bacterioplankton, mRNA, microbial communities, gene expression
1Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, The University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, 3The Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin
Isolation and characterization of the lipid A domain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria provides insight into cell surface based mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, bacterial survival and fitness, and how chemically diverse lipid A molecular species differentially modulate host innate immune responses.
Published September 16, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Membrane Lipids, Toll-Like Receptors, Endotoxins, Glycolipids, Lipopolysaccharides, Lipid A, Microbiology, Lipids, lipid A, Bligh-Dyer, thin layer chromatography (TLC), lipopolysaccharide, mass spectrometry, Collision Induced Dissociation (CID), Photodissociation (PD)