Proteins can either adopt a native structure or misfold into insoluble amyloid. Conditions that favor the misfolding pathway lead to the formation of different types of amyloid fibrils. The methods described here allow rapid conversion of native proteins into amyloid in vitro.
The feeding circuit in Drosophila melanogaster larvae serves a simple yet powerful model that allows changes in feeding rate to be correlated with alterations in the stomatogastric neural circuitry. This circuit is composed of central serotonergic neurons that send projections to the mouth hooks as well as the foregut.
1Arthritis and Clinical Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
A protocol is described that uses Illumina's Infinium assays to perform large-scale genotyping. These assays can reliably genotype millions of SNPs across hundreds of individual DNA samples in three days. Once generated, these genotypes can be used to check for associations with a variety of different diseases or phenotypes.
A Seed Coat Bedding Assay to Genetically Explore In Vitro How the Endosperm Controls Seed Germination in Arabidopsis thaliana
1Département de Botanique et de Biologie Végétale, Université de Genève
We present the procedure to assemble a seed coat bedding assay (SCBA) from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. The SCBA was shown to be a powerful tool to explore genetically and in vitro how the endosperm controls seed germination in dormant seeds and in response to light cues. The SCBA is in principle applicable under any situation where the endosperm is suspected to influence embryonic growth.
To measure potential rates of soil extracellular enzyme activities, synthetic substrates that are bound to a fluorescent dye are added to soil samples. Enzyme activity is measured as the fluorescent dye is released from the substrate by an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, where higher fluorescence indicates more substrate degradation.
Identification of Metabolically Active Bacteria in the Gut of the Generalist Spodoptera littoralis via DNA Stable Isotope Probing Using 13C-Glucose
1Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
The active bacterial community associated with the gut of Spodoptera littoralis, was determined by stable-isotope-probing (SIP) coupled to pyrosequencing. Using this methodology, identification of the metabolically active bacteria species within the community was done with high resolution and precision.
1Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California-San Diego, 2Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, 3Dart NeuroScience, 4School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
In this video article, we describe an automated assay to measure the effect of hunger or satiety on olfactory dependent food search behavior in the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.
Expression of Functional Recombinant Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Proteins from the Novel H7N9 Influenza Virus Using the Baculovirus Expression System
1Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Here we describe a way to express correctly folded and functional influenza virus surface antigens derived from the novel Chinese H7N9 virus in insect cells. The technique can be adapted to express ectodomains of any viral or cellular surface proteins.
Microarray-based Identification of Individual HERV Loci Expression: Application to Biomarker Discovery in Prostate Cancer
1Joint Unit Hospices de Lyon-bioMérieux, 2Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department, BioMérieux, 3Department of Pathology and Cytology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 4Medical Faculty, Lyon 1 University, 5Data and Knowledge Laboratory, BioMérieux, 6Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 7Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV), which occupy 8% of the human genome, retain scarce coding capacities but a hundred thousand long terminal repeats (LTRs). A custom Affymetrix microarray was designed to identify individual HERV locus expression and was used on prostate cancer tissues as a proof of concept for future clinical studies.
1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 2Department of Biology, University of Salahaddin, 3Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, University of Oregon
This article describes the cockroach ventral nerve cord dissection and extracellular recordings from the cercal nerve and connectives. Evoked responses are generated by electrical stimulation of the cercal nerve or direct mechanical stimulation of the cerci.