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Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Event-related Potentials and the Oddball Task

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Given the overwhelming amount of information captured by the sensory organs, it is crucial that the brain is able to prioritize the processing of certain stimuli, to spend less effort on what might not be currently important and to attend to what is. One heuristic the brain uses is to ignore stimuli that are frequent or constant in favor of stimuli that are unexpected or unique. Therefore, rare events tend to be more salient and capture our attention. Furthermore, stimuli that are relevant to our current behavioral goals are prioritized over those that are irrelevant. The neurophysiological correlates of attention have been experimentally examined through the use of the oddball paradigm. Originally introduced in 1975, the oddball task presents the participant with a sequence of repetitive audio or visual stimuli, infrequently interrupted by an unexpected stimulus.1 This interruption by a target stimulus has been shown to elicit specific electrical events that are recordable at the scalp known as event-related potentials (ERPs). An ERP is the measured brain response resulting from a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. ERPs are measured using electroencephalography (EEG), a noninv

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Language: The N400 in Semantic Incongruity

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Sarah I. Gimbel and Jonas T. Kaplan— University of Southern California

Understanding language is one of the most complex cognitive tasks that humans are capable of. Given the incredible amount of possible choices when combining individual words to form meaning in sentences, it is crucial that the brain is able to identify when words form coherent combinations and when an anomaly appears that undermines meaning. Extensive research has shown that certain scalp-recorded electrical events are sensitive to deviations in this kind of expectation. Importantly, these electrical signatures of incongruity are specific to unexpected meanings, and are therefore different from the brain's general responses to other kinds of anomalies. The neurophysiological correlates of semantic incongruity have been experimentally examined through the use of paradigms that present semantically congruent and incongruent ends to sentences. Originally introduced in 1980, the semantic incongruity task presents the participant with a series of sentences that end with either a congruent or incongruent word. To test that the response is from semantic incongruity and not more generally due to surprise, some sentences included words presented in a different size.1 The semantically incongrue

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 JoVE Behavior

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf


JoVE 53466

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 JoVE In-Press

Assessment of Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Membrane Diffusing Capacity, and Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses During Exercise

1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, 3Divisions of Critical Care and Cardiology, University of Alberta, 4Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 5G.F. MacDonald Centre for Lung Health

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JoVE 54949

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 JoVE Behavior

Assessing the Multiple Dimensions of Engagement to Characterize Learning: A Neurophysiological Perspective

1Department of Didactics, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2Department of IT and Tech3Lab, HEC Montreal, 3Department of Marketing and Tech3Lab, HEC Montreal, 4Department of Specialized Education, Université du Québec à Montréal


JoVE 52627

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 JoVE In-Press

Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis

1Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neurosciences, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 3Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute

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JoVE 55095

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 JoVE Medicine

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan


JoVE 50309

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 JoVE In-Press

Combined Intravital Microscopy and Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography of the Mouse Hindlimb to Study Insulin-induced Vasodilation and Muscle Perfusion

1Laboratory for Physiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), VU Medical Center, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), VU Medical Center

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JoVE 54912

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Long Term Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy Imaging of Immune Cells in Healthy and Diseased Liver Using CXCR6.Gfp Reporter Mice

1Department of Medicine III, RWTH University-Hospital Aachen, 2IZKF Aachen Core Facility "Two-Photon Imaging", RWTH University-Hospital Aachen, 3Institute for Laboratory Animal Science & Experimental Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, 4Institute for Pharmacology, RWTH University-Hospital Aachen


JoVE 52607

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 JoVE Behavior

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University


JoVE 50426

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 JoVE Medicine

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri


JoVE 52319

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