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Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
 JoVE Neuroscience

A Method for Systematic Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Neural Recording Electrodes

1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University


JoVE 51084

 JoVE Neuroscience

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario


JoVE 50872

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optogenetic Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve

1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato


JoVE 52069

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve (CN) examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination of the cranial nerves begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles that are innervated by the cranial nerve VII can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII, the Facial nerve, also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in the patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of CN VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve, manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII, the Acoustic nerve, has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division, and the vestibular division, which innervates the semicirc

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction, therefore any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical, therefore while performing the examination each side should be compared to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a systematic fashion and go through the

 JoVE In-Press

A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection

1Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIBm) Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPAZ), 4Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 5Departmento de Otorrino laringología, Hospital Universitario La Paz

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JoVE 54951

 JoVE Behavior

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Unilateral Hemisphere of Rat Brain

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 3Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University Hospital, 5Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 6Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Gangwon Do Rehabilitation Hospital, 7Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine


JoVE 54217

 JoVE Medicine

Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets

1Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Hypertension Research Group (CRIUCPQ), Laval University, 2Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 3Université Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4Hôpital Lariboisière, Physiologie clinique Explorations Fonctionnelles, 5INSERM U 965, 6Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tours


JoVE 52571

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 JoVE Behavior

Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication

1Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, University Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR 3571, Institut Pasteur, 2Neurophysiology and Behavior, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, CNRS UMR 7102, 3Bio Image Analysis, CNRS URA 2582, Institut Pasteur


JoVE 53871

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 JoVE Medicine

State of the Art Cranial Ultrasound Imaging in Neonates

1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, UZ Brussel, 4Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden University Medical Center, 5Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Isala Hospital, 6Department of Pediatrics, Koningin Paola Children's Hospital


JoVE 52238

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 JoVE Medicine

Assessing Changes in Volatile General Anesthetic Sensitivity of Mice after Local or Systemic Pharmacological Intervention

1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Department of Pharmacology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 4Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 51079

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 JoVE Medicine

A Protocol for Comprehensive Assessment of Bulbar Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

1Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, 2ALS/ MN Clinic, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, 3Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 4Department of Neurology, Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 5Department of Neurology, University of Toronto


JoVE 2422

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 JoVE Behavior

Neuro-rehabilitation Approach for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

1Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences and Medical School, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kansai Rosai Hospital, 4Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Muenster, 5Institute for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Muenster, 6Sokendai Graduate University for Advanced Studies


JoVE 53264

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 JoVE Neuroscience

A Behavioral Assay for Mechanosensation of MARCM-based Clones in Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, 2School of Medicine, Georgetown University, 3Department of Biochemistry, Giesel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, 4School of Medicine, Tufts University, 5Transgenomic Inc., 6Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, UMass Medical School


JoVE 53537

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