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Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE Science Education

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). The spherical eyeball collects and focuses light on the neurosensory cells of the retina. Light is refracted as it passes sequentially through the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous body. The first landmark observed during the funduscopic exam is the optic disc, which is where the optic nerve and retinal vessels enter the back of the eye (Figure 2). The disc usually contains a central whitish physiologic cup where the vessels enter; it normally occupies less than half the diameter of the entire disc. Just lateral and slightly inferior is the fovea, a darkened circular area that demarcates the point of central vision. Around this is the macula. A blind spot approximately 15° temporal to the line of gaze results from a lack of photoreceptor cells at the optic disc.

 JoVE Chemistry

Submillisecond Conformational Changes in Proteins Resolved by Photothermal Beam Deflection

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University


JoVE 50969

 JoVE Neuroscience

Characterizing Multiscale Mechanical Properties of Brain Tissue Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Impact Indentation, and Rheometry

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Department of Neurology, The F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School


JoVE 54201

 JoVE Medicine

High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Tissue Sections towards Improving Pathology

1Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 4Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 5Department of Nephrology, University of Illinois at Chicago


JoVE 52332

 JoVE Engineering

Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO

1Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, 2Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 3Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 4Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, 5Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 6Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science


JoVE 50021

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 JoVE Medicine

Multimodal Quantitative Phase Imaging with Digital Holographic Microscopy Accurately Assesses Intestinal Inflammation and Epithelial Wound Healing

1Department of Medicine B, University Hospital Münster, 2Institute of Palliative Care, University Hospital Münster, 3Biomedical Technology Center, University of Münster, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Klinikum Bielefeld


JoVE 54460

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 JoVE Engineering

Electrospray Deposition of Uniform Thickness Ge23Sb7S70 and As40S60 Chalcogenide Glass Films

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, 4College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, 5Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 6Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 7Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 54379

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Quantitative Optical Microscopy: Measurement of Cellular Biophysical Features with a Standard Optical Microscope

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health & Science University, School of Medicine, 3Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, School of Medicine


JoVE 50988

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 Science Education: Essentials of Analytical Chemistry

Internal Standards

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. B. Jill Venton - University of Virginia

The goal of many chemical analyses is a quantitative analysis, where the amount of a substance in a sample is determined. In order to accurately calculate the concentration of an unknown from a sample, careful sample preparation is key. Every time a sample is handled or transferred, some of the sample can be lost. There are strategies however, for minimizing sample loss. There are also strategies for coping with sample loss and still making accurate measurements of concentration. To minimize sample loss, the ideal is to minimize the number of sample handling and transfer steps. For example, massing a solid sample directly into a flask that a solution will be made in reduces a transfer step. If it's necessary to transfer from one flask to another and a dilution is being made, then triple rinsing the glassware helps ensure all the sample is transferred. Other strategies are more specific to the sample. For example, samples that adsorb to glass, such as proteins, might better be handled in polypropylene disposable tubes. The tubes are not hydrophilic, so if a small amount of sample is to be pipetted in water, it is best to have already added the water to the tube, so the sample can be pipetted directly into the solve

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Highly Resolved Intravital Striped-illumination Microscopy of Germinal Centers

1Biophysical Analytics, German Rheumatism Research Center, Leibniz Institute, 2Microscopy Core Facility, Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 3Immunodynamics, German Rheumatism Research Center, Leibniz Institute, 4LaVision Biotec GmbH, 5Immunodynamics and Intravital Imaging, Charité - University of Medicine


JoVE 51135

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