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Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (Vestibular labyrinth). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the Semicircular ducts.
 Science Education: Essentials of Behavioral Science

Balance and Coordination Testing

JoVE Science Education

Balance and coordination are critical components involved in the control of movement. Many sensory receptors and neural processing units are required to help individuals maintain balance while performing various activities. Deficits in balance and coordination occur in patients suffering from movement disorders or due to aging. Therefore, scientists are trying to understand the pathophysiology behind these conditions. One way to do that is by using rodent models and testing them on behavioral paradigms such as the rotarod or balance beam. This video discusses the currently known neurophysiology behind balance and coordination. Then, we go over protocols to run balance tests in rodents using the rotarod and balance beam. Finally, we'll discuss some current studies utilizing these methods to investigate aging, muscular dystrophy and Parkinson's disease.

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve (CN) examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination of the cranial nerves begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles that are innervated by the cranial nerve VII can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII, the Facial nerve, also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in the patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of CN VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve, manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII, the Acoustic nerve, has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division, and the vestibular division, which innervates the semicirc

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Distinctive Capillary Action by Micro-channels in Bone-like Templates can Enhance Recruitment of Cells for Restoration of Large Bony Defect

1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Columbia University, 2Endodontics, Columbia University, 3Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, South Korea, 4Orthodontics, The Ohio State University, 5Pathology, Weill Cornell Medical College


JoVE 52947

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 JoVE Behavior

The 4 Mountains Test: A Short Test of Spatial Memory with High Sensitivity for the Diagnosis of Pre-dementia Alzheimer's Disease

1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, 2Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, 3U.O. Direzione Scientifica, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, 4Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 5Department of Psychology, University of York


JoVE 54454

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 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of the samples and the analysis of the data that is gleaned for the testing of the tissues. The method of euthanasia of the animal can also impact the quality of the samples. This manuscript will outline proper necropsy techniques for rats.

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Abdominal Exam IV: Acute Abdominal Pain Assessment

JoVE Science Education

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Abdominal pain is a frequent presenting concern in both the emergency department and the office setting. Acute abdominal pain is defined as pain lasting less than seven days, while an acute abdomen refers to the abrupt onset of severe abdominal pain with features suggesting a surgically intervenable process. The differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain is broad; thus, clinicians must have a systematic method of examination guided by a careful history, remembering that pathology outside of the abdomen can also cause abdominal pain, including pulmonary, cardiac, rectal, and genital disorders. Terminology for describing the location of abdominal tenderness includes the right and left upper and lower quadrants, and the epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric regions (Figures 1, 2). Thorough examination requires an organized approach involving inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation, with each maneuver performed purposefully and with a clear mental representation of the anatomy. Rather than palpating randomly across the abdomen, begin palpating remotely from the site of tenderness, moving systematically toward the tender region, and thi

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 JoVE In-Press

A Novel Technique for Generating and Observing Chemiluminescence in a Biological Setting

1Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 2KAUST Catalysis Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, 3Department of Chemistry, Hunter College, 4Ph.D. Program in Chemistry, The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 5Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 6Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College

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JoVE 54694

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario


JoVE 50872

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Observation and Inspection

JoVE Science Education

Source: Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Observation and inspection is fundamental to physical examination and begins at the first point of contact with a patient. While observation and inspection are often used interchangeably, observation is a general term that refers to the careful use of one's senses to gain information. Inspection is an act limited to what one can observe visually, and when referring to physical examination, typically refers to findings on the surface of the body, rather than to behaviors. Skilled clinicians utilize all of their senses to assist with gaining an understanding of their patients, relying on vision, touch (percussion and palpation), and hearing (percussion and auscultation) primarily. Smell can also provide important diagnostic information during the patient encounter (e.g., personal hygiene, substance use, or metabolic diseases). Fortunately the sense of taste is largely a historical relic in medicine, though it is interesting to note that diabetes mellitus was diagnosed for many centuries by the sweet taste of the urine. Through experience, clinicians develop an important sixth sense - the gut instinct - that can only be gained through deliberate practice of clinical skills on thousands of pati

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