JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 2Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Ottawa
A methodology for preparing solid-state nanopores in solution for biomolecular translocation experiments is presented. By applying short pulses of high electric fields, the nanopore diameter can be controllably enlarged with subnanometer precision and its electrical noise characteristics significantly improved. This procedure is performed in situ using standard laboratory equipment under experimental conditions.
Published October 31, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Nanopore, Solid-State, Size Control, Noise Reduction, Translocation, DNA, High Electric Fields, Nanopore Conditioning
1NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida
This protocol describes the use of microscale silicon cantilevers as pliable culture surfaces for measuring the contractility of muscle cells in vitro. Cellular contraction causes cantilever bending, which can be measured, recorded, and converted into readouts of force, providing a non-invasive and scalable system for measuring contractile function in vitro.
Published October 3, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, cantilever, in vitro, contraction, skeletal muscle, NMJ, cardiomyocytes, functional
1DNA Medicine Institute, 2Harvard Medical School, 3NASA Glenn Research Center, 4ZIN Technologies
Spaceflight blood diagnostics need innovation. Few demonstrations have been published illustrating in-flight, reduced-gravity health diagnostic technology. Here we present a method for construction and operation of a parabolic flight test rig for a prototype point-of-care flow-cytometry design, with components and preparation strategies adaptable to other setups.
Published November 13, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Point-of-care, prototype, diagnostics, spaceflight, reduced gravity, parabolic flight, flow cytometry, fluorescence, cell counting, micromixing, spiral-vortex, blood mixing
1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland
This article describes a biofabrication approach: deposition of stimuli-responsive polysaccharides in the presence of biased electrodes to create biocompatible films which can be functionalized with cells or proteins. We demonstrate a bench-top strategy for the generation of the films as well as their basic uses for creating interactive biofunctionalized surfaces for lab-on-a-chip applications.
Published June 6, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, electrodeposition, biofabrication, chitosan, alginate, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic, DTRA
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 3XG Sciences, Inc.
A microdevice with high throughput potential is used to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) dielectrophoresis (DEP) with novel materials. Graphene nanoplatelet paper and double sided tape were alternately stacked; a 700 μm micro-well was drilled transverse to the layers. DEP behavior of polystyrene beads was demonstrated in the micro-well.
Published June 22, 2014. Keywords: Physics, graphene paper, dielectrophoresis, graphene electrodes, 3D laminated microdevice, polystyrene beads, cell diagnostics
JoVE Applied Physics
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria
The following setup approach details low power optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles using a double-nanohole in metal film.
Published January 15, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Nanotechnology, Optics, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Physical Sciences, Engineering, Plasmonics, optical trapping, dielectric nanoparticles, nanoholes, nanofabrication, nano, microfluidics
1Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 2Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 3Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary
We show how planar patch-clamp chips fabricated at the National Research Council of Canada are sterilized, primed, loaded with medium, plated with cells, and used for electrophysiological recordings.
Published February 7, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, disease models, pharmaceutical screens, electrophysiological recordings, patch-clamp, silicon planar patch-clamp chip, cultured neurons
1Department of Physics, Syracuse University
A method of using solid-state nanopores to monitor the non-specific adsorption of proteins onto an inorganic surface is described. The method employs the resistive-pulse principle, allowing for the adsorption to be probed in real-time and at the single-molecule level. Because the process of single protein adsorption is far from equilibrium, we propose the employment of parallel arrays of synthetic nanopores, enabling for the quantitative determination of the apparent first-order reaction rate constant of protein adsorption as well as and the Langmuir adsorption constant.
Published December 2, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Solid-state nanopore, S/TEM, single-molecule biophysics, protein adsorption, resistive-pulse technique, nanopore spectroscopy
1Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, 2Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt
Here we present an electrophysiological method based on solid supported membranes with focus on its applications for the characterization of electrogenic membrane transporters.
Published May 11, 2013. Keywords: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Proteins, Membrane Lipids, Membrane Transport Proteins, Kinetics, Electrophysiology, solid supported membrane, SSM, membrane transporter, lactose permease, lacY, capacitive coupling, solution exchange, model membrane, membrane protein, transporter, kinetics, transport mechanism
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department NeuroFarBa, Division of Pharmacology, University of Florence, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Physiology, University of Florence
Current knowledge on the cellular basis of cardiac diseases mostly relies on studies on animal models. Here we describe and validate a novel method to obtain single viable cardiomyocytes from small surgical samples of human ventricular myocardium. Human ventricular myocytes can be used for electrophysiological studies and drug testing.
Published April 21, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, cardiology, cardiac cells, electrophysiology, excitation-contraction coupling, action potential, calcium, myocardium, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac patients, cardiac disease