JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 2Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Ottawa
A methodology for preparing solid-state nanopores in solution for biomolecular translocation experiments is presented. By applying short pulses of high electric fields, the nanopore diameter can be controllably enlarged with subnanometer precision and its electrical noise characteristics significantly improved. This procedure is performed in situ using standard laboratory equipment under experimental conditions.
Published October 31, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Nanopore, Solid-State, Size Control, Noise Reduction, Translocation, DNA, High Electric Fields, Nanopore Conditioning
1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland
This article describes a biofabrication approach: deposition of stimuli-responsive polysaccharides in the presence of biased electrodes to create biocompatible films which can be functionalized with cells or proteins. We demonstrate a bench-top strategy for the generation of the films as well as their basic uses for creating interactive biofunctionalized surfaces for lab-on-a-chip applications.
Published June 6, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, electrodeposition, biofabrication, chitosan, alginate, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic, DTRA
JoVE Applied Physics
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria
The following setup approach details low power optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles using a double-nanohole in metal film.
Published January 15, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Nanotechnology, Optics, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Physical Sciences, Engineering, Plasmonics, optical trapping, dielectric nanoparticles, nanoholes, nanofabrication, nano, microfluidics
1Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 2Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 3Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary
We show how planar patch-clamp chips fabricated at the National Research Council of Canada are sterilized, primed, loaded with medium, plated with cells, and used for electrophysiological recordings.
Published February 7, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, disease models, pharmaceutical screens, electrophysiological recordings, patch-clamp, silicon planar patch-clamp chip, cultured neurons
1Department of Physics, Syracuse University
A method of using solid-state nanopores to monitor the non-specific adsorption of proteins onto an inorganic surface is described. The method employs the resistive-pulse principle, allowing for the adsorption to be probed in real-time and at the single-molecule level. Because the process of single protein adsorption is far from equilibrium, we propose the employment of parallel arrays of synthetic nanopores, enabling for the quantitative determination of the apparent first-order reaction rate constant of protein adsorption as well as and the Langmuir adsorption constant.
Published December 2, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Solid-state nanopore, S/TEM, single-molecule biophysics, protein adsorption, resistive-pulse technique, nanopore spectroscopy
1Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, 2Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt
Here we present an electrophysiological method based on solid supported membranes with focus on its applications for the characterization of electrogenic membrane transporters.
Published May 11, 2013. Keywords: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Proteins, Membrane Lipids, Membrane Transport Proteins, Kinetics, Electrophysiology, solid supported membrane, SSM, membrane transporter, lactose permease, lacY, capacitive coupling, solution exchange, model membrane, membrane protein, transporter, kinetics, transport mechanism
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department NeuroFarBa, Division of Pharmacology, University of Florence, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Physiology, University of Florence
Current knowledge on the cellular basis of cardiac diseases mostly relies on studies on animal models. Here we describe and validate a novel method to obtain single viable cardiomyocytes from small surgical samples of human ventricular myocardium. Human ventricular myocytes can be used for electrophysiological studies and drug testing.
Published April 21, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, cardiology, cardiac cells, electrophysiology, excitation-contraction coupling, action potential, calcium, myocardium, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac patients, cardiac disease
JoVE Applied Physics
1School of Physics & Astronomy, University of St Andrews
Use of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities has been widely adopted by the photonics community in many differing applications. Therefore fabrication and characterization of these devices are of great interest. This paper outlines our fabrication technique and two optical characterization methods, namely: interferometric (waveguides) and resonant scattering (cavities).
Published November 30, 2012. Keywords: Physics, Optics and Photonics, Astronomy, light scattering, light transmission, optical waveguides, photonics, photonic crystals, Slow-light, Cavities, Waveguides, Silicon, SOI, Fabrication, Characterization
JoVE Applied Physics
1School of Photovoltaics, University of New South Wales
Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass are fabricated by deposition of boron and phosphorous doped silicon layers followed by crystallisation, defect passivation and metallisation. Plasmonic light-trapping is introduced by forming Ag nanoparticles on the silicon cell surface capped with a diffused reflector resulting in ~45% photocurrent enhancement.
Published July 2, 2012. Keywords: Physics, Materials Science, Photovoltaics, Silicon thin-film solar cells, light-trapping, metal nanoparticles, surface plasmons
1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan
Drosophila larvae are an attractive model system for live imaging due to their translucent cuticle and powerful genetics. This protocol describes how to utilize a single-layer PDMS device, called the 'larva chip' for live imaging of cellular processes within neurons of 3rd instar Drosophila larvae.
Published February 7, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Drosophila melanogaster, Live Imaging, Microfluidics, axonal injury, axonal degeneration, calcium imaging, photoconversion, laser microsurgery