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Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.
 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

The Factorial Experiment

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A factorial design is a common type of experiment where there are two or more independent variables. This video demonstrates a 2 x 2 factorial design used to explore how self-awareness and self-esteem may influence the ability to decipher nonverbal signals. This video leads students through the basics of a factorial design including, the nature of a factorial design and what distinguishes it from other designs, the benefits of factorial design, the importance and nature of interactions, main effect and interaction hypotheses, and how to conduct a factorial experiment.

 JoVE Medicine

Adapted Resistance Training Improves Strength in Eight Weeks in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

1Motion Analysis Laboratory, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 2Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 53449

 JoVE Medicine

Computerized Dynamic Posturography for Postural Control Assessment in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

1Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, 2Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Hull, 3Academic Vascular Department, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital


JoVE 51077

 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

The Precision of Visual Working Memory with Delayed Estimation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Human memory is limited. Throughout most of its history, experimental psychology has focused on investigating the discrete, quantitative limits of memory—how many individual pieces of information a person can remember. Recently, experimental psychologists have also become interested in more qualitative limits—how precisely is information stored? The concept of memory precision can be both intuitive and elusive at once. It is intuitive, for example, to think a person can remember precisely how their mother sounds, making it possible to recognize one’s mother immediately over the phone or in a crowd. But how can one quantify the precision of such a memory? Exactly how similar is the memory to the voice itself? To study the precision of memory and working memory, in particular, experimental psychologists have devised a paradigm known as delayed estimation. It has been used most often, thus far, to study the precision of visual memories, especially memory for color, and to understand how memory degrades the more one tries to remember at once. This video demonstrates standard procedures for investigating the precision of color working memory using delayed estim

 JoVE Neuroscience

Characterizing the Composition of Molecular Motors on Moving Axonal Cargo Using "Cargo Mapping" Analysis

1Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, 4Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego School of Medicine


JoVE 52029

 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Verbal Priming

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Human memory seems to work in two broad ways. Like modern computers, the human mind has explicit, or declarative, memory: ask a question, and a person gives the best answer they can. Input a query, and a computer program returns the contents of the relevant parts of its stored memory. Humans also have a second kind of memory system, one not really typical of computers, one that experimental psychologists call implicit. Implicit memory is a broad term that refers to the many ways past experiences influence present behavior. Pavlov’s famous dogs, for example, learned to associate the sound of a bell with mealtime. Eventually, they began salivating whenever they heard a bell, even if food was not delivered. Humans also possess implicit memory. Implicit memories, for example, are the reason it can be difficult to fall asleep in a new place; people associate their bedroom environment and their nighttime routines with sleepiness. Implicit memory is thought to guide human behavior in a wide array of circumstances. It is the kind of memory that guides manners and social behaviors, the kind of memory that puts relevan

 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Binocular Rivalry

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Why do people have two forward-facing eyes? By presenting the brain with two ever so slightly different images it becomes possible to comprehend visual problems that are far more difficult to process through a single eye. Chief among these is the problem of 3-D perception, seeing the world in three dimensions, despite retinal inputs in only two dimensions. What happens if each eye receives two completely different images? That does not happen in nature, to be sure, but it can be contrived in the laboratory in a set-up called binocular rivalry. Binocular rivalry is a common laboratory paradigm for investigating the ways that the brain integrates information from two eyes, and in recent years, the mechanisms responsible for producing conscious experience.

 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Dichotic Listening

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

It is a well-known fact that the human ability to process incoming stimuli is limited. Nonetheless, the world is complicated, and there are always many things going on at once. Selective attention is the mechanism that allows humans and other animals to control which stimuli get processed and which become ignored. Think of a cocktail party: a person couldn’t possibly attend to all of the conversations taking place at once. However, everyone has the ability to selectively listen to one conversation, leading all the rest to become unattended to and nothing more than background noise. In order to study how people do this, researchers simulate a more controlled cocktail party environment by playing sounds to participants dichotically, i.e., by playing different sounds simultaneously to each ear. This is called a dichotic listening paradigm. This experiment demonstrates standard procedures for investigating selective auditory attention with a paradigm called dichotic listening.

 JoVE Medicine

A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

1Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, Stony Brook Medicine, 3Soterix Medical, Inc, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York


JoVE 53542

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Multi-target Parallel Processing Approach for Gene-to-structure Determination of the Influenza Polymerase PB2 Subunit

1Protein Crystallization Lab, Emerald Bio, 2Molecular Biology Lab, Emerald Bio, 3Scientific Sales Representative, Emerald Bio, 4Group Leader II, Emerald Bio, 5Group Leader I, Emerald Bio, 6Chair of Advisory Board, Emerald Bio, 7Director of Multi-Target Services, Emerald Bio, 8Senior Project Leader, Emerald Bio, 9Project Leader II & SSGCID Site Manager, Emerald Bio


JoVE 4225

 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Approximate Number Sense Test

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

A common carnival game is to ask people to guess the number of jellybeans packed into a jar. The chances that anyone will get the exact number right are low. But what about the chances that someone will guess 17 or 147,000? Probably even less than the chances of guessing the correct answer; 17 and 147,000 just seem irrational. Why? After all, if the beans cannot be taken out and counted one-at-a-time, how can someone tell that an estimate is too high or too low? It turns out that in addition to verbal counting (something clearly learned), people appear to possess hardwired mental and neural mechanisms for estimating numbers. To put it colloquially, it is what might be called an ability to guesstimate, or “ballpark.” Experimental psychologists call it the “Approximate Number Sense,” and recent research with an experimental paradigm of the same name has begun to uncover the underlying computations and neural mechanisms that support the ability to guesstimate. This video demonstrates standard procedures for investigating nonverbal numerical estimation with the Approximate Number Sense Test.

 JoVE Medicine

In Vivo and Ex Vivo Approaches to Study Ovarian Cancer Metastatic Colonization of Milky Spot Structures in Peritoneal Adipose

1Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 2Department of Pathology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 3Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, University Health Network, 5Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology, and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center


JoVE 52721

 JoVE Medicine

Development of an Alpha-synuclein Based Rat Model for Parkinson's Disease via Stereotactic Injection of a Recombinant Adeno-associated Viral Vector

1Laboratory for Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, 2Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven University Hospital - KU Leuven, 3Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, 4Leuven Viral Vector Core, KU Leuven


JoVE 53670

 Science Education: Essentials of Developmental Psychology

Categories and Inductive Inferences

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles and Judith Danovitch—University of Louisville

It might be possible for the human brain to keep track of each individual person, place, or thing encountered, but that would be a very inefficient use of time and cognitive resources. Instead, humans develop categories. Categories are mental representations of real things that can be used for a variety of purposes. For example, individuals can use the perceptual features of animals to place them into a given category. So, upon seeing a furry, four-legged, tail-wagging, barking animal, a person can determine that it is a dog. This is one of many examples where people use perceptual similarity to fit new experiences into their existing mental representations. However, category membership is much more than skin deep, especially for representations of animals. Frank Keil demonstrated this by using a simple, yet powerful technique that focused on the differences between natural kinds and artifacts. Natural kinds include animals and other living things, while artifacts consist largely of nonliving things, such as tables or gold bricks. In his study, Keil told children stories about natural kinds and artifacts that underwent transformations causing them to cross categorical boundaries. For example, he

 JoVE Medicine

The α-test: Rapid Cell-free CD4 Enumeration Using Whole Saliva

1Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Department of Oral Biology, University of Missouri-Kansas City-School of Dentistry, 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Missouri Kansas City- School of Pharmacy, 4Regional Hospital, Bamenda, NWP, Cameroon, 5Mezam Polyclinic HIV/AIDS Treatment Center, Cameroon, 6Institute for Human Genetics and Biochemistry


JoVE 3999

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