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October, 2006
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Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: Dyssomnias (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), Parasomnias (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
 JoVE Neuroscience

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216

 JoVE Medicine

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri

JoVE 52319

 JoVE Behavior

Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53962

 JoVE Medicine

A High Throughput, Multiplexed and Targeted Proteomic CSF Assay to Quantify Neurodegenerative Biomarkers and Apolipoprotein E Isoforms Status

1Centre for Translational Omics, Genetics and Genomic Medicine Deptartment, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, 2Dementia Research Centre, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 3Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 4Neurology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 5Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, University College London

JoVE 54541

 JoVE Medicine

3D-Neuronavigation In Vivo Through a Patient's Brain During a Spontaneous Migraine Headache

1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biological & Materials Sciences Department, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, 2Michigan Center for Oral Health Research (MCOHR), University of Michigan School of Dentistry, 3Translational Neuroimaging Laboratory, Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, 4PET Physics Section, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Radiology Department, University of Michigan, 53DLab, University of Michigan, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan

JoVE 50682

 JoVE Neuroscience

In vivo Optogenetic Stimulation of the Rodent Central Nervous System

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 2Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, 5Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University

JoVE 51483

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 51631

 JoVE Medicine

The Goeckerman Regimen for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Psoriasis

1Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Center Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, 3University of California Irvine School of Medicine, 4University of Arizona College of Medicine, 5Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine

JoVE 50509

 Science Education: Essentials of Developmental Psychology

Numerical Cognition: More or Less

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles and Judith Danovitch—University of Louisville

One of the goals of the modern education system is to teach children mathematical literacy. They are taught to add, subtract, multiply, and divide, and this base knowledge is used to support learning about geometry, algebra, calculus, physics, and statistics. School-aged children usually acquire these skills in formal educational settings, but the foundation of mathematical understanding is developed much earlier in life. As infants, humans begin to form the rough representations that allow them to make judgments about number, and perhaps the first numerical concept that humans develop is the idea of less versus more. However, probing these concepts can be challenging, because even if babies have some understanding of number, they have very few ways of showing off what they know. What they can do is crawl, eat, cry, and sleep. Thus, researchers developed a task using this limited set of responses to investigate whether babies can mentally represent number. This experiment demonstrates how researchers can creatively use food to study concepts of numerical cognition in infants using the method by Feigenson, Carey, and Hauser.1

 Science Education: Essentials of Behavioral Science

Electro-encephalography (EEG)

JoVE Science Education

EEG is a non-invasive technique that can measure brain activity. The neural activity generates electrical signals that are recorded by EEG electrodes placed on the scalp. When an individual is engaged in performing a cognitive task, brain activity changes and these changes can be recorded on the EEG graph. Therefore, it is a powerful tool for cognitive scientist aiming to better understand the neural correlates associated with different aspects of cognition, which will ultimately help them devise improved treatments for patients with cognitive deficits. Here, JoVE presents a brief overview of EEG and its applications in cognitive research. First, we discuss where and how EEG signals are generated. Then, we explain the use of EEG in studying cognition along with a detailed step-by-step protocol to perform an EEG experiment. Lastly, the video reviews some specific cognitive experiments that use EEG in combination with other techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

 JoVE Neuroscience

Brain Imaging Investigation of the Impairing Effect of Emotion on Cognition

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, 2Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 3Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, 4Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, 5Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, 6Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, 7Department of Psychology, Yale University, 8Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, 9Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology, University of Illinois

JoVE 2434

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 JoVE Medicine

Assessing Changes in Volatile General Anesthetic Sensitivity of Mice after Local or Systemic Pharmacological Intervention

1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Department of Pharmacology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 4Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

JoVE 51079

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