Genetically encoded optogenetic tools enable noninvasive manipulation of specific neurons in the Drosophila brain. Such tools can identify neurons whose activation is sufficient to elicit or suppress particular behaviors. Here we present a method for activating Channelrhodopsin2 that is expressed in targeted neurons in freely walking flies.
Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice
1Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, 2Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, & Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, New York University School of Medicine
A specific and rapid protocol to simultaneously investigate right heart function, lung inflammation, and the immune response is described as a learning tool. Video and figures describe physiology and microdissection techniques in an organized team-approach that is adaptable to be used for small to large sized studies.
Genome assemblies based on massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies are usually highly fragmented. The development of physical chromosome maps can potentially improve genome assemblies. Here, we demonstrate innovative approaches to chromosome preparation, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and imaging that significantly increase throughput of the physical map development.
1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine
The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, or insulin clamp, is the gold standard for assessing insulin action in vivo. A method for performing insulin clamps in mice is described. This includes a method for arterial catheterization that permits experiments to be performed in conscious, unrestrained mice with minimal stress.
The accompanying video describes a procedure for percutaneous placement of the WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) Device. The WATCHMAN is a nitinol device designed to be permanently implanted at, or slightly distal to, the opening of the left atrial appendage (LAA) to trap blood clots before they exit the LAA, preventing thromboembolic stroke.
An ex vivo protocol to generate mature human red blood cells from hematopoietic stem/progenitors is described. Additionally we describe an efficient lentiviral-delivery method to knockdown the transcription factor TAL1 in primary erythroid cells. The efficiency of lentivirus mediated gene delivery is demonstrated using GFP expressing viruses.
We have developed a cell fusion assay that quantifies SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events by activated expression of β-galactosidase.
SNAP-tag and CLIP-tag protein labeling systems enable the specific, covalent attachment of molecules, including fluorescent dyes, to a protein of interest in live cells. Once cloned and expressed, the tagged protein can be used with a variety of substrates for numerous downstream applications without having to clone again.
Metamaterials at terahertz frequencies offer unique opportunities, but are challenging to fabricate in bulk. We adapt the fabrication procedure for microstructured polymer optical fibers to inexpensively fabricate metamaterials potentially on an industrial scale. We produce polymethylmethacrylate fibers containing ~10 μm diameter indium wires separated by ~100 μm, which exhibit a terahertz plasmonic response.
Metaphase to anaphase transition is triggered through anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C)-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent destruction of cyclin B. Here, we established a system which, following pulse-chase labeling, allows monitoring cyclin B proteolysis in entire cell populations and facilitates the detection of interference by the mitotic checkpoint.
Recently developed imaging techniques using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) may help elucidate the role the lymphatic system plays in cancer metastasis, immune response, wound repair, and other lymphatic-associated diseases.
1Joint Graduate Program in Cell and Developmental Biology, UMDNJ-Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
We describe a process for fixation, embedding, sectioning, and imaging of late stage Drosophila embryos for Trasmission Electron Microscopy of the embryonic heart tube. This technique allows for the visualization of the heart tube lumen as well as the basement membrane, which lines the lumen of the heart.
A method of functional imaging of mouse brown adipose tissue (BAT) is described in which cold-stimulated uptake of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in BAT is non-invasively assessed with a standardized micro-PET/CT protocol. This method is robust and sensitive to detect differences in BAT activities in mouse models.
The cDNA microarray PtGen2 was developed for gene expression studies in loblolly pine, P. taeda, and other conifer species. Here, we show pre- and post-hybridization handling and washing techniques that can be used with this array to yield better consistency, reduced artifacts, and lower backgrounds.
The Target ID Library is a plasmid-based, genome-wide collection of cloned cDNA used to identify miRNA targets. Here we demonstrate its use and application.
1Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, 2Clinical Research Laboratory, 81st Medical Group, Keesler Air Force Base
Lytic phage biosensors and antibody beads are able to discriminate between methicillin resistant (MRSA) and sensitive staphylococcus bacteria. The phages were immobilized by a Langmuir-Blodgett method onto a surface of a quartz crystal microbalance sensor and worked as broad range staphylococcus probes. Antibody beads recognize MRSA.
Experimental Manipulation of Body Size to Estimate Morphological Scaling Relationships in Drosophila
Morphological scaling relationships capture and describe organismal shape. We present a method to measure morphological scaling relationships across the natural range of body sizes in fully metamorphic insects. Using a simple diet manipulation we increase the distribution of trait sizes, permitting the accurate description of how shape and size co-vary.
Analytical HPLC to Preparative HPLC: Scale Up Techniques using a Natural Product Extract - ADVERTISEMENT
Pharmaceutical Business Operations, Waters Corporation
Using the Waters AutoPurification™ System, separation methods can be developed on an analytical scale and transferred to preparatory scale on the same system.
1Department of Internal Medicine D, Experimental Nephrology, University of Münster, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Münster, 3European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster
We herein present a rat renal transplantation model to non-invasively assess acute allograft rejection using positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose.
Demonstration of key methods for high throughput leaf measurements. These methods can be used to accelerate leaf phenotyping when studying many plant mutants or otherwise screening plants by leaf phenotype.
Here are some highlights from the July 2011 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
Here are some highlights from the August 2011 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
Here are some highlights from the October 2011 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
Among the three mosquito genera, namely Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex, physical genome mapping techniques were established only for Anopheles, whose members possess readable polytene chromosomes. For the genera of Aedes and Culex, however, cytogenetic mapping remains challenging because of the poor quality of polytene chromosomes. Here we present a universal protocol for obtaining high-quality preparations of mitotic chromosomes and an optimized FISH protocol for all three genera of mosquitoes.
The main highlights for our May issue include methods for measuring cognition in zero gravity, isolating mosquito immune cells, engineering recombinant SARS vaccines, and detecting tumors with thermal imaging. In addition, procedures for isolating neural stem cells from human fetal brain and culturing antigen-presenting liver cells will also be released.
Here are some highlights from the June 2011 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
Here are some highlights from the September 2011 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
A methodology to isolate high molecular weight and high quality genomic DNA from soil microbial community is described.
Introducing a gene of interest into a cell is a powerful method for elucidating its function in vivo. This protocol describes an efficient method of transfecting a culture of human neural stem/precursor cells (hNSPCs) using the Nucleofector electroporation apparatus made by Amaxa.
Here are some highlights from the April 2011 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
The Solaris qPCR Gene Expression Assays are novel pre-designed qPCR primer/probe combinations designed to simplify the qPCR process without sacrificing the specificity and robustness of the assay.
This video demonstrates a dissection procedure for processing human pancreas into multiple storage formats. Anatomical orientation is maintained throughout the pancreatic regions to allow definition of regional islet composition and density.
Current HIV-1 strategies act to suppress the viral life cycle but do not effectively eradicate infection. Here, we demonstrate that an engineered recombinase can efficiently excise integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA from the genome of infected cells.
A simple protocol for preparing extracts of human tissue to be used as a source of antigens in functional T-cell assays is described. This method allows T-cell responses to tissue-derived antigens to be measured in vitro.
In this video we demonstrate how to isolate mononuclear cells from the central nervous system of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an inflammatory reaction mediated by CCR7- effector memory T lymphocytes. Here we demonstrate how to induce active DTH in Lewis rats and monitor the inflammatory response.
Immunocytochemistry is a powerful method to determine the presence, subcellular localization, and relative abundance of an antigen of interest in cultured cells. This protocol presents an easy-to-follow series of steps that will enable one to conserve antibodies and get the most out of one's staining.
Trichuris muris infection is an intestinal model of Th2 immunity where resistant mice generate a protective Th2 response and susceptible mice generate a pathological Th1 response.
High-Resolution Endocardial and Epicardial Optical Mapping in a Sheep Model of Stretch-Induced Atrial Fibrillation
This report provides a detailed description of the methodology and results of simultaneous endocardial and epicardial optical mapping of electrical excitation in the intact left atrium of a Langendorff-perfused sheep heart during stretch-induced atrial fibrillation.
There is an increasing interest in understanding the immunological functions of specific subpopulations of cells in Peyer's patches (PPs), the primary inductive sites of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Here we outline parallel protocols for preparing PP single cell preparations for flow cytometric analysis and PP cryosections for immunostaining.
A novel microfluidic system has been developed using the phenomenon of passive pumping and a user controlled fluid delivery system. This microfluidic system has the potential to be used in a wide variety of biological applications given its low cost, ease of use, volumetric precision, high speed, repeatability and automation.
A variety of growth factors and proteins interact to induce cells to take on different cell fates during development. Here we demonstrate the use of an in ovo preparation to address possible interactions between different proteins in development by placing beads on E2.5 chick embryos.
German biophysicist Erwin Neher shared the 1991 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Bert Sakmann for their pioneering work measuring the activity of single ion channels in cells.
This is a method for generating gynogenetic diploid zebrafish embryos (embryos whose only genetic contribution comes from the mother) by blocking the second meiotic division immediately after fertilization with ultraviolet light-inactivated sperm. EP embryos are not fully homozygous due to recombination during the first meiotic division, however they are homozygous at all loci that have not been separated from their centromere by recombination.
A protocol for separation of embryo facial ectoderm and mesenchyme is described. We use Dispase II to treat whole embryos first, dissect whole facial prominences out, and then separate the facial ectoderm and mesenchyme.
Digital Microfluidics is a technique characterized by the manipulation of discrete droplets (~nL - mL) on an array of electrodes by the application of electrical fields. It is well-suited for carrying out rapid, sequential, miniaturized automated biochemical assays. Here, we report a platform capable of automating several proteomic processing steps.
The Xpert MTB/RIF test integrates sample decontamination, hands-free operation, on-board sample processing, and ultra-sensitive hemi-nested PCR for the simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, either in expectorated sputum or concentrated sputum sediments, in approximately two hours. Testing is standardized and requires only moderate laboratory infrastructure and training.
Multi-unit Recording Methods to Characterize Neural Activity in the Locust (Schistocerca Americana) Olfactory Circuits
We demonstrate variations of the extracellular multi-unit recording technique to characterize odor-evoked responses in the first three stages of the invertebrate olfactory pathway. These techniques can easily be adapted to examine ensemble activity in other neural systems as well.
Isolation of Native Soil Microorganisms with Potential for Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films Used in Agriculture
1Biology Department, Western Washington University, 2Washington State University Northwestern Research and Extension Center, 3Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University
Plastic films labeled "biodegradable" are commercially available for agricultural use as mulches. Tillage represents an attractive disposal method, but degradation under field conditions is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop methods for isolating native soil fungi and bacteria that colonize plastic mulch films after field burial.