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Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (Nir) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with Nir allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
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 JoVE Chemistry

Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements

1United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology


JoVE 53981

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 JoVE Medicine

High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Tissue Sections towards Improving Pathology

1Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 4Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 5Department of Nephrology, University of Illinois at Chicago


JoVE 52332

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 JoVE Behavior

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London


JoVE 53336

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 JoVE Behavior

fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task

1Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, 3Department of Histology and Neurobiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 4ADAM Center, Department of Physical Therapy, Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, 5Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine


JoVE 52116

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 JoVE Medicine

Non-invasive Optical Measurement of Cerebral Metabolism and Hemodynamics in Infants

1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Lab. PALM, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, 3Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4ISS, INC.


JoVE 4379

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 Science Education: Essentials of Analytical Chemistry

Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Ryoichi Ishihara — Delft University of Technology

Raman spectroscopy is a technique for analyzing vibrational and other low frequency modes in a system. In chemistry it is used to identify molecules by their Raman fingerprint. In solid-state physics it is used to characterize materials, and more specifically to investigate their crystal structure or crystallinity. Compared to other techniques for investigating the crystal structure (e.g. transmission electron microscope and x-ray diffraction) Raman micro-spectroscopy is non-destructive, generally requires no sample preparation, and can be performed on small sample volumes. For performing Raman spectroscopy a monochromatic laser is shone on a sample. If required the sample can be coated by a transparent layer which is not Raman active (e.g., SiO2) or placed in DI water. The electromagnetic radiation (typically in the near infrared, visible, or near ultraviolet range) emitted from the sample is collected, the laser wavelength is filtered out (e.g., by a notch or bandpass filter), and the resulting light is sent through a monochromator (e.g., a grating) to a CCD detector. Using this, the inelastic scattered light, originating from Raman scattering, can be captured and used to construct the Raman spectrum o

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 JoVE Engineering

Electrospray Deposition of Uniform Thickness Ge23Sb7S70 and As40S60 Chalcogenide Glass Films

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, 4College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, 5Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 6Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 7Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 54379

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 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis of Ligand-free CdS Nanoparticles within a Sulfur Copolymer Matrix

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, 2Molecular Engineering and Sciences Institute, University of Washington, 3Clean Energy Institute, University of Washington, 4Institut für Nanospektroskopie, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 5Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, 6Department of Chemistry, University of Washington


JoVE 54047

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 JoVE Neuroscience

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota


JoVE 51631

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Non-contact, Label-free Monitoring of Cells and Extracellular Matrix using Raman Spectroscopy

1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery and Inter-University Centre for Medical Technology Stuttgart-Tübingen (IZST), Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, 2Department of Cell and Tissue Engineering, Fraunhofer Institute of Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology (IGB) Stuttgart, Germany, 3Department for Medical Interfacial Engineering (IGVT), University of Stuttgart, Germany, 4Institute of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Julius-Maximillians University, Würzburg, Germany


JoVE 3977

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 Science Education: Essentials of Analytical Chemistry

Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. B. Jill Venton - University of Virginia

Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy is one of the most popular analytical techniques because it is very versatile and able to detect nearly every molecule. With UV-Vis spectroscopy, the UV-Vis light is passed through a sample and the transmittance of light by a sample is measured. From the transmittance (T), the absorbance can be calculated as A=-log (T). An absorbance spectrum is obtained that shows the absorbance of a compound at different wavelengths. The amount of absorbance at any wavelength is due to the chemical structure of the molecule. UV-Vis can be used in a qualitative manner, to identify functional groups or confirm the identity of a compound by matching the absorbance spectrum. It can also be used in a quantitative manner, as concentration of the analyte is related to the absorbance using Beer's Law. UV-Vis spectroscopy is used to quantify the amount of DNA or protein in a sample, for water analysis, and as a detector for many types of chromatography. Kinetics of chemical reactions are also measured with UV-Vis spectroscopy by taking repeated UV-Vis measurements over time. UV-Vis measurements are generally taken with a spectrophotometer. UV-Vis is also a very popular detector for other analytical tech

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Characterization Of Multi-layered Fish Scales (Atractosteus spatula) Using Nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM

1Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, 3Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center


JoVE 51535

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 JoVE Biology

Combining Single-molecule Manipulation and Imaging for the Study of Protein-DNA Interactions

1LENS - European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, University of Florence, 2Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, 3Department of Biology, University of Florence, 4Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, 5National Institute of Optics-National Research Council, Italy, 6International Center of Computational Neurophotonics


JoVE 51446

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