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Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce Dopamine, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored Melanin is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
 JoVE Medicine

Development of an Alpha-synuclein Based Rat Model for Parkinson's Disease via Stereotactic Injection of a Recombinant Adeno-associated Viral Vector

1Laboratory for Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, 2Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven University Hospital - KU Leuven, 3Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, 4Leuven Viral Vector Core, KU Leuven


JoVE 53670

 JoVE Behavior

Examination of Rapid Dopamine Dynamics with Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry During Intra-oral Tastant Administration in Awake Rats

1Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, 2Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 4Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine


JoVE 52468

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Within-subjects Repeated-measures Design

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A within-subjects, or repeated-measures, design is an experimental design where all the participants receive every level of the treatment, i.e., every independent variable. For example, in a candy taste test, the researcher would want every participant to taste and rate each type of candy. This video demonstrates a within-subjects experiment (i.e., one where there is an independent variable with several variations or levels) that examines how different motivational messages (e.g., hard work, self-affirmation, outcomes, and positive affect) influence willingness to exert physical effort. As a within-subjects design, the participant will read each of the four types of motivational messages and then lift weights to measure physical effort. By providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a repeated-measures experiment, this video allows viewers to see how to address order effects through counterbalancing, which involves a systematic approach to making sure all possible orders of the conditions occur in the study. Psychological studies often use higher

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuroscience

An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience

JoVE Science Education

Behavioral neuroscience is the study of how the nervous system guides behavior, and how the various functional areas and networks within the brain correlate to specific behaviors and disease states. Researchers in this field utilize a wide variety of experimental methods ranging from complex animal training techniques to sophisticated imaging experiments in human subjects. This video first offers a historical overview of some of the major milestones that lead to our current understanding of the brain’s control over behavior. Then, some of the fundamental questions asked by behavioral neuroscientists are presented, which all involve the study of neural correlates, or specific brain regions whose activation is responsible for a given function. Next, prominent methods used to answer those questions are reviewed for both human and animal subjects, such as operant conditioning and functional neuroimaging. Finally, experimental applications of these techniques are presented, including animal training using a Skinner box, and the use of electroencephalography to investigate human neurological disease.

 Science Education: Essentials of Behavioral Science

Balance and Coordination Testing

JoVE Science Education

Balance and coordination are critical components involved in the control of movement. Many sensory receptors and neural processing units are required to help individuals maintain balance while performing various activities. Deficits in balance and coordination occur in patients suffering from movement disorders or due to aging. Therefore, scientists are trying to understand the pathophysiology behind these conditions. One way to do that is by using rodent models and testing them on behavioral paradigms such as the rotarod or balance beam. This video discusses the currently known neurophysiology behind balance and coordination. Then, we go over protocols to run balance tests in rodents using the rotarod and balance beam. Finally, we'll discuss some current studies utilizing these methods to investigate aging, muscular dystrophy and Parkinson's disease.

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 JoVE Biology

Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples

1Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, 3Drexel University College of Medicine, 4Van Andel Research Institute, 5Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, Serome Biosciences Inc.


JoVE 3791

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 JoVE Biology

A Lectin HPLC Method to Enrich Selectively-glycosylated Peptides from Complex Biological Samples

1Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF, 2Buck Institute for Age Research, 3Department of Chemistry, Purdue University


JoVE 1398

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