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Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
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 JoVE Behavior

A Novel Experimental and Analytical Approach to the Multimodal Neural Decoding of Intent During Social Interaction in Freely-behaving Human Infants

1Laboratory for Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston


JoVE 53406

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 Science Education: Essentials of Developmental Psychology

Habituation: Studying Infants Before They Can Talk

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles, Judith Danovitch, and Cara Cashon—University of Louisville

Infants are one of the purest sources of information about human thinking and learning, because they’ve had very few life experiences. Thus, researchers are interested in gathering data from infants, but as participants in experimental research, they are a challenging group to study. Unlike older children and adults, young infants are unable to reliably speak, understand speech, or even move and control their own bodies. Eating, sleeping, and looking around are the only activities babies can perform reliably. Given these limitations, researchers have developed clever techniques for exploring infants’ thoughts. One of the most popular methods makes use of a characteristic of attention called habituation. Like adults, infants prefer to pay attention to new and interesting things. If they are left in the same environment, over time they become accustomed to their surroundings and pay less attention to them. This process is called habituation. However, the moment something new happens, infants are waiting and ready to pay attention again. This reengagement of attention following habituation is referred to as dishabituation. Scientists can use these characteristic changes in attention as

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 Science Education: Essentials of Developmental Psychology

Using Your Head: Measuring Infants' Rational Imitation of Actions

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville

One of the main challenges of infancy is to learn how to achieve one’s goals in the world, whether they are to pick up a toy or to express desires to another person, and one of the most powerful tools in this learning process is imitation. However, imitation is not always as simple as copying other people’s actions; it is also necessary to realize that goals and intentions guide behavior. The world is a complicated place, and the actions that babies imitate are not perfectly presented. For example, consider a baby watching their father drinking from a plastic water bottle. As he picks up the bottle, he accidentally drops it on the floor. He picks it up and dusts it off, before turning the cap and taking a drink. If the baby wants to drink from the bottle on their own, they have to decode this complex set of events and determine which actions are related to their goal. Do they have to drop it and dust it off, or can they simply turn the cap and take a drink? One way to solve this problem is to view many examples of the same behavior, but some behaviors are rare or different each time they are performed. Thus, it is beneficial for infants to think more about the person they are imitating and less

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 JoVE Behavior

Neuro-rehabilitation Approach for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

1Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences and Medical School, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kansai Rosai Hospital, 4Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Muenster, 5Institute for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Muenster, 6Sokendai Graduate University for Advanced Studies


JoVE 53264

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 Science Education: Essentials of Developmental Psychology

Numerical Cognition: More or Less

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles and Judith Danovitch—University of Louisville

One of the goals of the modern education system is to teach children mathematical literacy. They are taught to add, subtract, multiply, and divide, and this base knowledge is used to support learning about geometry, algebra, calculus, physics, and statistics. School-aged children usually acquire these skills in formal educational settings, but the foundation of mathematical understanding is developed much earlier in life. As infants, humans begin to form the rough representations that allow them to make judgments about number, and perhaps the first numerical concept that humans develop is the idea of less versus more. However, probing these concepts can be challenging, because even if babies have some understanding of number, they have very few ways of showing off what they know. What they can do is crawl, eat, cry, and sleep. Thus, researchers developed a task using this limited set of responses to investigate whether babies can mentally represent number. This experiment demonstrates how researchers can creatively use food to study concepts of numerical cognition in infants using the method by Feigenson, Carey, and Hauser.1

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 JoVE Medicine

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri


JoVE 52319

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 JoVE Medicine

Non-invasive Optical Measurement of Cerebral Metabolism and Hemodynamics in Infants

1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Lab. PALM, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, 3Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4ISS, INC.


JoVE 4379

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)


JoVE 54216

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 JoVE Medicine

State of the Art Cranial Ultrasound Imaging in Neonates

1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, UZ Brussel, 4Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden University Medical Center, 5Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Isala Hospital, 6Department of Pediatrics, Koningin Paola Children's Hospital


JoVE 52238

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 JoVE Medicine

Human Brown Adipose Tissue Depots Automatically Segmented by Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Registered Magnetic Resonance Images

1Chemical and Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Radiology & Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 52415

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 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Measuring Reaction Time and Donders' Method of Subtraction

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

The ambition of experimental psychology is to characterize the mental events that support the human ability to solve problems, perceive the world, and turn thoughts into words and sentences. But people cannot see or feel those mental events; they cannot be weighed, combined in test tubes, or grown in a dish. Wanting to study mental life, nonetheless, Franciscus Donders, a Dutch ophthalmologist in the early 1800s, came up with a property that he could measure—even back then: he measured the time it took for human subjects to perform simple tasks, reasoning that he could treat those measurements as proxies for the time it takes to complete the unobservable mental operations involved. In fact, Donders went one step further, developing a basic experimental paradigm known as the Method of Subtraction. It simply asks a researcher to design two tasks that are identical in nearly every way, excepting a mental operation hypothesized to be involved in one of the tasks and omitted in the other. The researcher then measures the time it takes to complete each task, and by subtracting the outcomes, he extracts an estimate of the time it takes to execute the one mental operation of interest. In this way, the method allows a researcher

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