1Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia
A suite of colorimetric assays is described for rapidly distinguishing protein, RNA, DNA, and reducing sugars in potentially heterogeneous biomolecular samples.
Published February 4, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Chemical Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Nucleic Acids, DNA, RNA, Proteins, analytical chemistry, Benedict's assay, Bial's orcinol assay, Dische's diphenylamine assay, colorimetric assay, reducing sugar, purification, transcription, reaction, assay
1The School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, 3The Institute for Sustainable and Renewable Resources, The Institute for Advanced Learning and Research, 4Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University
A double stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi) technique is employed to down-regulate the maize cinnamoyl coenzyme A reductase (ZmCCR1) gene to lower plant lignin content. Lignin down-regulation from the cell wall is visualized by microscopic analyses and quantified by the Klason method. Compositional changes in hemicellulose and crystalline cellulose are analyzed.
Published July 23, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Zea mays, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), dsRNAi, Klason lignin measurement, cell wall carbohydrate analysis, gas chromatography (GC)
1APECS Group, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering
A novel Upflow Anaerobic Solid State (UASS) reactor was used for biogas production from fibrous feedstock. Digestate from UASS reactor was hydrothermally carbonized into HTC biochar in a pressurized batch reactor. The integration of the two bioenergy concepts was applied in this study to increase overall bioenergy production.
Published June 15, 2014. Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Biomethane, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC), Calorific Value, Lignocellulosic Biomass, UASS, Anaerobic Digestion
1School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
Oral chemoreception of fatty acids and the association with diet and fatty food preferences may enable the identification of mechanisms involved with the development of obesity and why dietary changes may be difficult for many individuals.
Published June 4, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, taste, overweight and obesity, dietary fat, fatty acid, diet, fatty food liking, detection threshold
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, 2Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University
In this article, a high throughput method is presented for the synthesis of oligosaccharides and their attachment to the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles for further use in targeting specific receptors on antigen presenting cells.
Published July 6, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, High-throughput, Automation, Carbohydrates, Synthesis, Polyanhydrides, Nanoparticles, Functionalization, Targeting, Fluorous Solid Phase Extraction
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame
The zebrafish adult kidney is an excellent system for renal regeneration and disease studies. An essential aspect of such research is the assessment of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes several methodologies that can be implemented to assess nephron tubule composition and to evaluate renal reabsorption.
Published August 9, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
1Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University (MSU), 2Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center and DOE-Plant Research Lab, Michigan State University (MSU)
Plant biomass is a major carbon-neutral renewable resource that could be used for the production of biofuels. Plant biomass consists mainly of cell walls, a structurally complex composite material termed lignocellulosics. Here we describe a protocol for a comprehensive analysis of the content and composition of wall derived carbohydrates.
Published March 12, 2010. Keywords: Plant Biology, cell walls, polysaccharide, cellulose, hemicellulose, sugar composition, GC-MS
1Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research, Umeå University, 3Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine
The bacterial cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan, a macromolecular network of sugar strands crosslinked by peptides. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography provides high resolution and throughput for novel discoveries of peptidoglycan composition. We present a procedure for the isolation of cell walls (sacculi) and their subsequent preparation for analysis via UPLC.
Published January 15, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, peptidoglycan, bacterial cell wall, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, cell shape, morphogenesis
1Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, 2Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado
To measure potential rates of soil extracellular enzyme activities, synthetic substrates that are bound to a fluorescent dye are added to soil samples. Enzyme activity is measured as the fluorescent dye is released from the substrate by an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, where higher fluorescence indicates more substrate degradation.
Published November 15, 2013. Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Ecological and Environmental Phenomena, Environment, Biochemistry, Environmental Microbiology, Soil Microbiology, Ecology, Eukaryota, Archaea, Bacteria, Soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs), fluorometric enzyme assays, substrate degradation, 4-methylumbelliferone (MUB), 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (MUC), enzyme temperature kinetics, soil
1Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
Procedures for complete reconstitution of a prototype voltage-gated potassium channel into lipid membranes are described. The reconstituted channels are suitable for biochemical assays, electrical recordings, ligand screening and electron crystallographic studies. These methods may have general applications to the structural and functional studies of other membrane proteins.
Published July 13, 2013. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Structural Biology, Biophysics, Membrane Lipids, Phospholipids, Carrier Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Micelles, Molecular Motor Proteins, life sciences, biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, lipid-protein interaction, channel reconstitution, lipid-dependent gating, voltage-gated ion channel, conformation-specific ligands, lipids