JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Carestream Molecular Imaging, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 3Freimann Life Science Center, University of Notre Dame, 4Research and Development, Oncovision, GEM-Imaging S.A.
Fat content analysis is routinely conducted in studies utilizing murine obesity models. Emerging methods in small animal CT imaging and analysis are providing for longitudinal detail rich fat content analysis. Here we detail step by step procedures for performing small animal CT imaging, analysis, and visualization.
Published April 4, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, X-ray computed tomography (CT), image analysis, in vivo, obesity, metabolic disorders
JoVE Applied Physics
1Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 4Haldor Topsøe A/S, 5PolyPlus Battery Company
We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices
Published November 11, 2013. Keywords: Physics, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, inorganic chemistry, electric batteries (applications), energy storage, Electrode materials, Li-ion battery, Na-ion battery, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD)
JoVE Applied Physics
1School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 2Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, 3Australian Synchrotron, 4Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 5School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, 6School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales
We describe the design and construction of an electrochemical cell for the examination of electrode materials using in situ neutron powder diffraction (NPD). We briefly comment on alternate in situ NPD cell designs and discuss methods for the analysis of the corresponding in situ NPD data produced using this cell.
Published November 10, 2014. Keywords: Physics, In operando, structure-property relationships, electrochemical cycling, electrochemical cells, crystallography, battery performance
JoVE Applied Physics
1High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2GeoSoilEnviroCARS, University of Chicago, 3High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington
The laser heated diamond anvil cell combined with synchrotron micro-diffraction techniques allows researchers to explore the nature and properties of new phases of matter at extreme pressure and temperature (PT) conditions. Heterogeneous samples can be characterized in situ under high pressure by 2D mapping and combined powder, single-crystal and multigrain diffraction approaches.
Published October 7, 2013. Keywords: Physics, x-ray diffraction, geochemistry, geophysics, solid-state physics, high-pressure, high-temperature, Diamond anvil cell, micro-diffraction, novel materials, iron oxides, mantle mineralogy
1Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group, Schools of Medicine and Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity College Dublin
Herein is described procedures implemented in the Caffrey Membrane Structural and Functional Biology Group to harvest and cryo-cool membrane protein crystals grown in lipidic cubic and sponge phases for use in structure determination using macromolecular X-ray crystallography.
Published September 2, 2012. Keywords: Materials Science, crystallization, glass sandwich plates, GPCR, harvesting, in meso, LCP, lipidic mesophases, macromolecular X-ray crystallography, membrane protein
1Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics
We present a protocol of how to collect and process electron cryo-tomograms of whole mitochondria. The technique provides detailed insights into the structure, function, and organization of large membrane protein complexes in native biological membranes.
Published September 14, 2014. Keywords: Structural Biology, electron microscopy, electron cryo-tomography, mitochondria, ultrastructure, membrane structure, membrane protein complexes, ATP synthase, energy conversion, bioenergetics
1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, and Ophthalamology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Radiation Oncology & Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University Of Washington Medical Center, 5Institute for Cell Engineering and High-Throughput Biology Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
The function of adult-born mammalian neurons remains an active area of investigation. Ionizing radiation inhibits the birth of new neurons. Using computer tomography-guided focal irradiation (CFIR), three-dimensional anatomical targeting of specific neural progenitor populations can now be used to assess the functional role of adult neurogenesis.
Published November 14, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neural Stem Cells (NSCs), Body Weight, Radiotherapy, Image-Guided, Metabolism, Energy Metabolism, Neurogenesis, Cell Proliferation, Neurosciences, Irradiation, Radiological treatment, Computer-tomography (CT) imaging, Hypothalamus, Hypothalamic Proliferative Zone (HPZ), Median Eminence (ME), Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford
An approach is presented for determining structures of viral membrane glycoprotein complexes using a combination of electron cryo-tomography and sub-tomogram averaging with the computational package Jsubtomo.
Published October 21, 2014. Keywords: Immunology, electron cryo-microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, electron cryo-tomography, cryo-electron tomography, glycoprotein spike, enveloped virus, membrane virus, structure, subtomogram, averaging
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 2Clinical Informatics, Interventional, and Translational Solutions (CIITS), Philips Research North America, 3Center for Interventional Oncology, Interventional Radiology Section, National Institutes of Health, 4Interventional X-ray, Philips Healthcare
Dual-phase cone-beam computed tomography (DP-CBCT) is a useful intraprocedural imaging technique for transarterial chemo-embolization treatment with drug-eluting beads of hepatocellular carcinoma. DP-CBCT has been used to perform three major steps in oncologic interventional radiology: tumor localization (see), navigation and intraprocedural catheter guidance (reach), and intraprocedural evaluation of treatment success (treat).
Published December 2, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive, Digestive System Diseases, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Equipment and Supplies, Transarterial chemo-embolization, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Dual-phase cone-beam computed tomography, 3D roadmap, Drug-Eluting Beads
1Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, 3Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
This paper presents the methods used for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of Atractosteus spatula (A. spatula) using nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). The experimental results have been used to investigate the design principles of protective biological materials.
Published July 10, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, Atractosteus spatula, structure-property relation, nanoindentation, scan electron microscopy, X-ray computed tomography, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy