1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern
The protocol described herein aims to explain and abridge the numerous obstacles in the way of the intricate route leading to modified nucleoside triphosphates. Consequently, this protocol facilitates both the synthesis of these activated building-blocks and their availability for practical applications.
Published April 3, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Nucleic acid analogues, Bioorganic Chemistry, PCR, primer extension reactions, organic synthesis, PAGE, HPLC, nucleoside triphosphates
1Scripps Florida, The Scripps Research Institute
Peptide tertiary amides (PTAs) are a superfamily of peptidomimetics that include but are not limited to peptides, peptoids and N-methylated peptides. Here we describe a synthetic method which combines both split-and-pool and sub-monomer strategies to synthesize a one-bead one-compound library of PTAs.
Published June 20, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Split-and-pool synthesis, peptide tertiary amide, PTA, peptoid, high-throughput screening, combinatorial library, solid phase, triphosgene (BTC), one-bead one-compound, OBOC
1Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University
Synthesis, activation, and characterization of intentionally designed metal-organic framework materials is challenging, especially when building blocks are incompatible or unwanted polymorphs are thermodynamically favored over desired forms. We describe how applications of solvent-assisted linker exchange, powder X-ray diffraction in capillaries and activation via supercritical CO2 drying, can address some of these challenges.
Published September 5, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Metal-organic frameworks, porous coordination polymers, supercritical CO2 activation, crystallography, solvothermal, sorption, solvent-assisted linker exchange
1Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) with narrow mass distributions and tunable nanoscopic sizes are synthesized in via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a PEG-norbornene macromonomer followed by transfer of portions of the resulting living brush initiator to vials containing varied amounts of a rigid, photo-cleavable bis-norbornene crosslinker.
Published October 10, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Nanoparticles, Polymers, Drug Delivery Systems, Polymerization, polymers, Biomedical and Dental Materials, brush first, polyethylene glycol, photodegradable, ring opening metathesis polymerization, brush polymer, star polymer, drug delivery, gel permeation chromatography, arm first, core functional, photocleavable
1Department of Chemical Engineering, UC Berkeley, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UC Berkeley, 3Department of Chemistry, UC Berkeley, 4Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 6Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory
A protocol for the seeded synthesis of rod-shaped and tetrapod-shaped multicomponent nanostructures consisting of CdS and CdSe is presented.
Published December 11, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, nanostructures, synthesis, nanocrystals, seeded rods, tetrapods, nanoheterostructures
1Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), Louisiana State University, 2Center for Atomic-Level Catalyst Design, Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University, 4Argonne National Laboratory
Millifluidic devices are utilized for controlled synthesis of nanomaterials, time-resolved analysis of reaction mechanisms and continuous flow catalysis.
Published November 27, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Millifluidics, Millifluidic Device, Time-resolved Kinetics, Synthesis, Catalysis, Nanomaterials, Lab-on-a-Chip
1Max von Pettenkofer Institute, 2Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, 3Institute for Informatics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich
Total cellular RNA provides a poor template for studying short-term changes in RNA synthesis and decay as well as the kinetics of RNA processing. Here, we describe metabolic labeling of newly transcribed RNA with 4-thiouridine followed by thiol-specific biotinylation and purification of newly transcribed RNA allowing to overcome these limitations.
Published August 8, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Eukaryota, Investigative Techniques, Biological Phenomena, Gene expression profiling, RNA synthesis, RNA processing, RNA decay, 4-thiouridine, 4sU-tagging, microarray analysis, RNA-seq, RNA, DNA, PCR, sequencing
1Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh
Microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder (DA) reactions provide concise access to functionalized cyclopenta[b]naphthalene building blocks. The utility of this methodology is demonstrated by one-step conversion of the dehydrogenative DA cycloadducts into novel solvatochromic fluorescent dyes via Buchwald-Hartwig palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.
Published April 1, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Physical Chemistry, Microwave-assisted synthesis, dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reactions, naphthalenes, fluorescent dyes, solvatochromism, catalyst
1Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London
Ruthenium phosphine complexes are widely used for homogeneous catalytic reactions such as hydrogenations. The synthesis of a series of novel tridentate ruthenium complexes bearing the N-triphos ligand N(CH2PPh2)3 is reported. Additionally, the stoichiometric reaction of a dihydride Ru–N-triphos complex with levulinic acid is described.
Published April 10, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, ligand, phosphine, coordination, complex, catalysis, ruthenium, biomass, levulinic acid
1Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, UK
We describe a technique for analysis of global RNA synthesis in hypoxia using imaging. Click-chemistry labeling of RNA has not previously been performed under hypoxia and allows visualization of global RNA changes at the single cell level. This approach complements the existing averaged RNA techniques, allowing direct visualization of cell-to-cell changes in global RNA synthesis.
Published May 13, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Cancer, RNA synthesis, Hypoxia, Microscopy, Click-iT, Open Microscopy Environment, OMERO
1Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology
The goal of this manuscript is to demonstrate a straightforward method for the preparation of ynones from acyl chloride and potassium alkynyltrifluoroborate salt starting materials. The one-pot reaction proceeds rapidly in the presence of boron trichloride without exclusion of air and moisture.
Published February 24, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Organic synthesis, trifluoroborates, ketones, ynones, Lewis acid, boron, acyl chlorides
1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame
We present the high-temperature synthesis of intermetallic precursors K4Ge9, their dissolution in ethylenediamine to form Ge94- deltahedral Zintl ions, and the reaction of the clusters with alkynes to form organo-Zintl ions. The latter are characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry in solutions and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the solid state.
Published February 11, 2012. Keywords: Biochemistry, Zintl ions, deltahedral clusters, germanium, intermetallics, alkali metals
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Here, we describe a protocol for synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with a strong magnetic moment and a strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance. The protocol also includes antibody conjugation to the nanoparticles through the Fc moiety for various biomedical applications which require molecular specific targeting.
Published August 22, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, nanoparticles, plasmonic, magnetic, nanocomposites, magnetic trapping, circulating tumor cells, dark-field imaging
1Department of Thoracic, Cardiac, and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Tuebingen
In this video article, we describe the in vitro synthesis of modified mRNA for induction of protein expression in cells.
Published November 13, 2014. Keywords: Genetics, mRNA synthesis, in vitro transcription, modification, transfection, protein synthesis, eGFP, flow cytometry
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, 2Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University
In this article, a high throughput method is presented for the synthesis of oligosaccharides and their attachment to the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles for further use in targeting specific receptors on antigen presenting cells.
Published July 6, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, High-throughput, Automation, Carbohydrates, Synthesis, Polyanhydrides, Nanoparticles, Functionalization, Targeting, Fluorous Solid Phase Extraction
1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto
Solution-suspendable gold nanotubes with controlled dimensions can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using a hydrophobic polymer core. Gold nanotubes and nanotube arrays hold promise for applications in plasmonic biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photo-thermal heating, ionic and molecular transport, microfluidics, catalysis and electrochemical sensing.
Published April 1, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Physics, Nanotechnology, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry, Metals and Metallic Materials, Gold, nanotubes, anodic aluminum oxide templates, surface plasmon resonance, sensing, refractive index, template directed synthesis, nano
1Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, 2Department of Microbial and Molecular Pathogenesis, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station
We present the synthesis of a split-intein-mediated protein hydrogel. The building blocks of this hydrogel are two protein copolymers each containing a subunit of a trimeric protein that serves as a crosslinker and one half of a split intein. Mixing of the two protein copolymers triggers an intein trans-splicing reaction, yielding a polypeptide unit that self-assembles into a hydrogel. This hydrogel is highly pH- and temperature-stable, compatible with organic solvents, and easily incorporates functional globular proteins.
Published January 27, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, split-intein, self-assembly, shear-thinning, enzyme, immobilization, organic synthesis
1Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, 2School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, 3Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, 4Nature Publishing Group
This protocol describes the use of amide coupling reactions of isonicotinic acid and diaminoalkanes to form bridging ligands suitable for use in the synthesis of multinuclear platinum complexes, which combine aspects of the anticancer drugs BBR3464 and picoplatin.
Published May 28, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, BBR3464, picoplatin, bispyridine, amide coupling, inorganic synthesis, cancer
1Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
A simple and general manual peptoid synthesis method involving basic equipment and commercially available reagents is outlined, enabling peptoids to be easily synthesized in most laboratories. The synthesis, purification and characterization of an amphiphilic peptoid 36mer is described, as well as its self-assembly into highly-ordered nanosheets.
Published November 2, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomimetic polymer, peptoid, nanosheet, solid-phase synthesis, self-assembly, bilayer
1Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London
A protocol for the diastereoselective one-pot preparation of cis-N-Ts-iodoaziridines is described. The generation of diiodomethyllithium, addition to N-Ts aldimines and cyclization of the amino gem-diiodide intermediate to iodoaziridines is demonstrated. Also included is a protocol to rapidly and quantitatively assess the most appropriate stationary phase for purification by chromatography.
Published May 16, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, organic chemistry; aziridines, heterocycles, organolithium reagents, chromatography, purification, iodoaziridines
1College of Science and Technology, Temple University
The efficient solid-phase peptide synthesis of a functionalized bis-peptide trimer utilizing a "safety catch" cleavage procedure from HMBA resin is described.
Published May 15, 2012. Keywords: Chemistry, bis-peptides, solid phase peptide synthesis, bis-amino acids, safety catch, HMBA, DTRA
1Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, 2Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, 3California NanoSystems Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, 4Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Shanghai Medical Collegea, Fudan University, 5Electronics and Information Engineering, College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Wuhan Textile University
A facile, one-pot synthesis of N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB) was developed based on a non-aqueous, three-step radiochemical process. Using microwave heating, the entire procedure can be completed in less than 30 min, or 60 min with further purification by preparative HPLC. The decay-corrected radiochemical yields (RCYs) were 35-5% (n > 30).
Published June 28, 2011. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Radiolabeling, microwave, radiochemistry, fluorine-18, one-pot synthesis, [18F]SFB
1High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2GeoSoilEnviroCARS, University of Chicago, 3High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington
The laser heated diamond anvil cell combined with synchrotron micro-diffraction techniques allows researchers to explore the nature and properties of new phases of matter at extreme pressure and temperature (PT) conditions. Heterogeneous samples can be characterized in situ under high pressure by 2D mapping and combined powder, single-crystal and multigrain diffraction approaches.
Published October 7, 2013. Keywords: Physics, x-ray diffraction, geochemistry, geophysics, solid-state physics, high-pressure, high-temperature, Diamond anvil cell, micro-diffraction, novel materials, iron oxides, mantle mineralogy
1Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung
A two-step procedure for the synthesis of pharmaceutically active indole-derivatives by C-H functionalization with anilines is described, using photo- and Brønsted acid catalysis.
Published June 20, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Catalysis, Photocatalysis, C-H functionalization, Oxygen, Peroxides, Indoles, Pharmaceuticals
1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Herein is described the synthesis, isolation, and reactions of hypervalent iodonium alkynyl triflates (HIATs) with azides to generate cyanocarbenes. The procedures will involve air-sensitive and cryogen techniques, including cold filtration under an inert atmosphere. Handling and safety of the synthesized compounds will also be discussed.
Published September 8, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Iodine Compounds, Azides, Hydrocarbons, Cyclic, Nitriles, Onium Compounds, Explosive Agents, chemistry (general), chemistry of compounds, chemistry of elements, Organic Chemicals, azides, carbenes, cyanides, hypervalent compounds, synthetic methods, organic
1School of Health Sciences, Purdue University
The isolation of high quality, intact RNA is an essential step in many laboratory protocols. Here, we demonstrate RNA extraction from whole zebrafish embryos and cDNA synthesis for subsequent application in various experimental procedures including gene expression microarray analysis.
Published August 7, 2009. Keywords: Developmental Biology, zebrafish, RNA, cDNA, expression, microarray, gene
1Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh
We discussed the synthesis of individual graphitic nanocups using a series of techniques including chemical vapor deposition, acid oxidation and probe-tip sonication. By citrate reduction of HAuCl4, the graphitic nanocups were effectively corked with gold nanoparticles due to the chemically reactive edges of the cups.
Published May 13, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Physical Chemistry, Nanotechnology, Metal Nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (synthesis and properties), carbon nanotubes, chemical vapor deposition, CVD, gold nanoparticles, probe-tip sonication, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanomaterial, synthesis
1Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University
A straightforward procedure for the preparation of samarium diiodide (SmI2) in THF is described. The role of two main additives namely hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) and Ni(acac)2 in Sm mediated reactions is demonstrated in the Sm-Barbier reaction.
Published February 4, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biochemistry, Samarium diiodide, Sml2, Samarium-Barbier Reaction, HMPA, hexamethylphosphoramide, Ni(II), Nickel(II) acetylacetonate, nickel, samarium, iodine, additives, synthesis, catalyst, reaction, synthetic organic chemistry
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Pathology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch
This method describes the use of click chemistry to measure changes in host cell transcription after infection with the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP-12. Results can be visualized qualitatively via fluorescence microscopy or obtained quantitatively through flow cytometry. This method is adaptable for use with other viruses.
Published August 9, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Virology, Chemistry, Infectious Diseases, Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Arboviruses, Bunyaviridae, RNA, Nuclear, Transcription, Genetic, Rift Valley fever virus, NSs, transcription, click chemistry, MP-12, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, virus, proteins, immunostaining, assay
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University
This method describes the combinatorial synthesis of biodegradable polyanhydride film and nanoparticle libraries and the high-throughput detection of protein release from these libraries.
Published September 6, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, combinatorial, high-throughput, polymer synthesis, polyanhydrides, nanoparticle fabrication, release kinetics, protein delivery
1Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., 3Department of Biology and Neurosciences Institute, The University of Texas at San Antonio
We synthesized star shaped gold nanostars using a silver seed mediated growth method. The diameter of the nanostars ranges from 200 to 300 nm and the number of tips vary from 7 to 10. The nanoparticles have a broad surface plasmon resonance mode centered in the near infrared.
Published January 15, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, thermal ablation, surface plasmon resonance, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, silver seeds
1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University
Anodic arc discharge is one of the most practical and efficient methods to synthesize various carbon nanostructures. To increase the arc controllability and flexibility, a non-uniform magnetic field was introduced to process the one-step synthesis of large-scale graphene flakes and high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes.
Published February 2, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Arc discharge, magnetic control, single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene
1Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
A method for synthesis of air-sensitive titanium and vanadium anticancer agents is described, along with the evaluation of their cytotoxic activity towards human cancer cell line by the MTT Assay.
Published November 10, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Inorganic Chemicals, Therapeutics, Metals and Metallic Materials, anticancer drugs, cell viability, cisplatin, metal complex, cytotoxicity, HT-29, metal-based drugs, MTT assay, titanium (IV), vanadium (V)
1Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania
We present principles of oxygen measurements by phosphorescence quenching and review design of porphyrin-based dendritic nanosensors for oxygen imaging in biological systems.
Published March 3, 2010. Keywords: Cellular Biology, oxygen, phosphorescence, porphyrin, dendrimer, imaging, nanosensor, two-photon
1Department of Chemistry, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond
Alkanethiolate stabilized gold colloids known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) are synthesized, characterized, and assembled into thin films as an adsorption interface for protein monolayer electrochemistry of simple redox protein like Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (AZ) and cytochrome c (cyt c).
Published October 4, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Monolayer protected clusters, film assemblies, protein monolayer electrochemistry, azurin, self-assembled monolayers
1Institute for Complex Molecular Systems & Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology & NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, 2NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR & IIT@NEST, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation, 3NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, 4IIT@NEST, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation
Fluorescence sensors are powerful tools in life science. Here we describe a methodology to synthesize and use dendrimer-based fluorescent sensors to measure pH in living cells and in vivo. The dendritic scaffold enhances the properties of conjugated fluorescent dyes leading to improved sensing properties.
Published September 10, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Investigative Techniques, Chemistry and Materials (General), dendrimer, fluorescence, sensors, pH, delivery, confocal
1Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 2Mettler-Toledo, 3Chemspider
The Ugi reaction has proved to be a convenient way to quickly create diverse libraries of compounds. It involves the reaction of an amine, an aldehyde, a carboxylic acid and an isonitrile typically in methanol at room temperature. In this video, we utilize a 48-slot Mettler-Toledo MiniBlock equipped with filtration tubes and a Mettler-Toledo MiniMapper automated liquid handler was used to deliver the reagents and solvent. The parameters of interest were the concentration, the solvent composition and the excess of some of the reagents.
Published November 11, 2008. Keywords: Chemistry, Ugi Reaction, Automated Liquid Handling, Combinatorial Chemistry, organic chemistry, Mini-block, Open Notebook Science, reaction optimization, UsefulChem, MiniBlock, precipitate
1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto
Simple and reproducible procedures are described for making three structurally distinct collagen assemblies from a common commercially available Type I collagen monomer. Native type, fibrous long spacing or segmental long spacing collagen can be constructed by varying the conditions to which the 300 nm long and 1.4 nm diameter monomer building block is exposed.
Published September 20, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Tissue Engineering, Collagen, Self-assembly, Native, Fibrous long spacing, Segmental long spacing, AFM, atomic force microscopy
1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production
Published March 3, 2015. Keywords: This Month in JoVE,
1The Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, 3Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology
This protocol describes an experimental procedure for the rapid construction of artificial transcription factors (ATFs) with cognate GFP reporters and quantification of the ATFs ability to stimulate GFP expression via flow cytometry.
Published November 26, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, transcription, transcription factors, artificial transcription factors, zinc fingers, Zif268, synthetic biology
1Department of Physics, University of Alberta
Fluorescent-core microcavity sensors employ a high-index quantum-dot coating in the channel of silica microcapillaries. Changes in the refractive index of fluids pumped into the capillary channel cause shifts in the microcavity fluorescence spectrum that can be used to analyze the channel medium.
Published March 13, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Microfluidics, Optics, Quantum Dots, Optics and Photonics, fluid flow sensors (general), luminescence (optics), optical waveguides, photonics, condensed matter physics, microcavities, whispering gallery modes, refractometric sensor, fluorescence, microcapillary, quantum dots
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University
Phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) can be vaporized using high intensity focused ultrasound to enhance localized heating and improve thermal ablation in tumors. In this report, the preparation of stable PSNE with a narrow size distribution is described. Furthermore, the impact of vaporized PSNE on ultrasound-mediated ablation is demonstrated in tissue-mimicking phantoms.
Published September 13, 2012. Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Cancer Biology, Phase-shift nanoemulsions, narrow size distribution, acoustic droplet vaporization, bubble-enhanced heating, HIFU ablation, polyacrylamide hydrogel
1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 3San Francisco VAMC
Early detection of apoptosis may identify at-risk cell populations in a variety of diseases. Here we demonstrate a method to link an early apoptosis-detection protein (Annexin V) to a MRI-detectable iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO). This method may be extended to other proteins of interest to generate MRI-detectable molecular imaging probes.
Published July 31, 2012. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, conjugation, annexin, iron oxide, nanoparticle, MRI, molecular imaging
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, 3Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center
This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient method to methacrylate poly(ethylene glycol), enabling chain polymerizations and hydrogel synthesis. It will demonstrate how to similarly introduce methacrylamide functionalities into peptides, detail common analytical methods to assess functionalization efficiency, provide suggestions for troubleshooting and advanced modifications, and demonstrate typical hydrogel characterization techniques.
Published October 29, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Poly(ethylene glycol), peptides, polymerization, polymers, methacrylation, peptide functionalization, 1H-NMR, MALDI-ToF, hydrogels, macromer synthesis
1Institute of Biochemistry, Stuttgart University
Peptide arrays synthesized by the SPOT method can be used to analyze the substrate specificity of Protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and to define the substrate spectrum of PKMTs to understand their biological role. This protocol describes how to synthesize peptide arrays, methylate them with PKMTs, and analyze the results.
Published November 29, 2014. Keywords: Biochemistry, Peptide arrays, solid phase peptide synthesis, SPOT synthesis, protein lysine methyltransferases, substrate specificity profile analysis, lysine methylation
1The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, 2Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 3Department of Radiology, George Washington University, 4Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University
This protocol describes the synthesis of biofunctionalized Prussian blue nanoparticles and their use as multimodal, molecular imaging agents. The nanoparticles have a core-shell design where gadolinium or manganese ions within the nanoparticle core generate MRI contrast. The biofunctional shell contains fluorophores for fluorescence imaging and targeting ligands for molecular targeting.
Published April 28, 2015. Keywords: Bioengineering, Prussian blue, nanoparticles, multimodal imaging, molecular imaging, fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium, manganese
1Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
An example of a nano drug based on polymalic acid is presented towards the rational design of personalized medicine that is applicable to cancer. It describes the synthesis of a nano drug to treat Her2-positive human breast cancer in a nude mouse.
Published June 13, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Cancer treatment, personalized medicine, polymalic acid, nanodrug, biopolymer, targeting, host compatibility, biodegradability
1Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University
Here, we present a protocol for the synthesis of two carbonyl-decorated carbenes. The protocol makes these interesting compounds readily available to chemists of all skill levels. In addition to the synthesis of these two carbenes, their use in the activation of white phosphorus is also described.
Published October 3, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, electrophilic carbenes, white phosphorus, activation, organophosphorus, phosphaalkene, carbonyl
1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Institute for Advanced Study, 4Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, 5Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego
The Miller-Urey experiment was a pioneering study regarding the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds with possible relevance to the origins of life. Simple gases were introduced into a glass apparatus and subjected to an electric discharge, simulating the effects of lightning in the primordial Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system. The experiment was conducted for one week, after which, the samples collected from it were analyzed for the chemical building blocks of life.
Published January 21, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Geosciences (General), Exobiology, Miller-Urey, Prebiotic chemistry, amino acids, spark discharge
1Department of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, 3Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota
This five-day protocol outlines all steps, equipment, and supplemental software necessary for creating and running an efficient endogenous Escherichia coli based TX-TL cell-free expression system from scratch. With reagents, the protocol takes 8 hours or less to setup a reaction, collect, and process data.
Published September 16, 2013. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Bioengineering, Synthetic Biology, Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic, Molecular Biology, control theory, TX-TL, cell-free expression, in vitro, transcription-translation, cell-free protein synthesis, synthetic biology, systems biology, Escherichia coli cell extract, biological circuits, biomolecular breadboard