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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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 JoVE Chemistry

Nucleoside Triphosphates - From Synthesis to Biochemical Characterization

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern


JoVE 51385

The protocol described herein aims to explain and abridge the numerous obstacles in the way of the intricate route leading to modified nucleoside triphosphates. Consequently, this protocol facilitates both the synthesis of these activated building-blocks and their availability for practical applications.

 JoVE Chemistry

Split-and-pool Synthesis and Characterization of Peptide Tertiary Amide Library

1Scripps Florida, The Scripps Research Institute


JoVE 51299

Peptide tertiary amides (PTAs) are a superfamily of peptidomimetics that include but are not limited to peptides, peptoids and N-methylated peptides. Here we describe a synthetic method which combines both split-and-pool and sub-monomer strategies to synthesize a one-bead one-compound library of PTAs.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis and Characterization of Functionalized Metal-organic Frameworks

1Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University


JoVE 52094

Synthesis, activation, and characterization of intentionally designed metal-organic framework materials is challenging, especially when building blocks are incompatible or unwanted polymorphs are thermodynamically favored over desired forms. We describe how applications of solvent-assisted linker exchange, powder X-ray diffraction in capillaries and activation via supercritical CO2 drying, can address some of these challenges.

 JoVE Chemistry

Particles without a Box: Brush-first Synthesis of Photodegradable PEG Star Polymers under Ambient Conditions

1Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 50874

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) with narrow mass distributions and tunable nanoscopic sizes are synthesized in via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a PEG-norbornene macromonomer followed by transfer of portions of the resulting living brush initiator to vials containing varied amounts of a rigid, photo-cleavable bis-norbornene crosslinker.

 JoVE Chemistry

Seeded Synthesis of CdSe/CdS Rod and Tetrapod Nanocrystals

1Department of Chemical Engineering, UC Berkeley, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UC Berkeley, 3Department of Chemistry, UC Berkeley, 4Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 6Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory


JoVE 50731

A protocol for the seeded synthesis of rod-shaped and tetrapod-shaped multicomponent nanostructures consisting of CdS and CdSe is presented.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Millifluidics for Chemical Synthesis and Time-resolved Mechanistic Studies

1Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), Louisiana State University, 2Center for Atomic-Level Catalyst Design, Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University, 4Argonne National Laboratory


JoVE 50711

Millifluidic devices are utilized for controlled synthesis of nanomaterials, time-resolved analysis of reaction mechanisms and continuous flow catalysis.

 JoVE Biology

Metabolic Labeling of Newly Transcribed RNA for High Resolution Gene Expression Profiling of RNA Synthesis, Processing and Decay in Cell Culture

1Max von Pettenkofer Institute, 2Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, 3Institute for Informatics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich


JoVE 50195

Total cellular RNA provides a poor template for studying short-term changes in RNA synthesis and decay as well as the kinetics of RNA processing. Here, we describe metabolic labeling of newly transcribed RNA with 4-thiouridine followed by thiol-specific biotinylation and purification of newly transcribed RNA allowing to overcome these limitations.

 JoVE Chemistry

Microwave-assisted Intramolecular Dehydrogenative Diels-Alder Reactions for the Synthesis of Functionalized Naphthalenes/Solvatochromic Dyes

1Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 50511

Microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder (DA) reactions provide concise access to functionalized cyclopenta[b]naphthalene building blocks. The utility of this methodology is demonstrated by one-step conversion of the dehydrogenative DA cycloadducts into novel solvatochromic fluorescent dyes via Buchwald-Hartwig palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

 JoVE Biology

Analysis of Global RNA Synthesis at the Single Cell Level following Hypoxia

1Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, UK


JoVE 51420

We describe a technique for analysis of global RNA synthesis in hypoxia using imaging. Click-chemistry labeling of RNA has not previously been performed under hypoxia and allows visualization of global RNA changes at the single cell level. This approach complements the existing averaged RNA techniques, allowing direct visualization of cell-to-cell changes in global RNA synthesis.

 JoVE Biology

Synthesis of Nine-atom Deltahedral Zintl Ions of Germanium and their Functionalization with Organic Groups

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame


JoVE 3532

We present the high-temperature synthesis of intermetallic precursors K4Ge9, their dissolution in ethylenediamine to form Ge94- deltahedral Zintl ions, and the reaction of the clusters with alkynes to form organo-Zintl ions. The latter are characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry in solutions and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the solid state.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis of Immunotargeted Magneto-plasmonic Nanoclusters

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 2Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center


JoVE 52090

Here, we describe a protocol for synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with a strong magnetic moment and a strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance. The protocol also includes antibody conjugation to the nanoparticles through the Fc moiety for various biomedical applications which require molecular specific targeting.

 JoVE Biology

In Vitro Synthesis of Modified mRNA for Induction of Protein Expression in Human Cells

1Department of Thoracic, Cardiac, and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Tuebingen


JoVE 51943

In this video article, we describe the in vitro synthesis of modified mRNA for induction of protein expression in cells.

 JoVE Bioengineering

High-throughput Synthesis of Carbohydrates and Functionalization of Polyanhydride Nanoparticles

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, 2Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University


JoVE 3967

In this article, a high throughput method is presented for the synthesis of oligosaccharides and their attachment to the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles for further use in targeting specific receptors on antigen presenting cells.

 JoVE Chemistry

Template Directed Synthesis of Plasmonic Gold Nanotubes with Tunable IR Absorbance

1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto


JoVE 50420

Solution-suspendable gold nanotubes with controlled dimensions can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes using a hydrophobic polymer core. Gold nanotubes and nanotube arrays hold promise for applications in plasmonic biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photo-thermal heating, ionic and molecular transport, microfluidics, catalysis and electrochemical sensing.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Synthesis of an Intein-mediated Artificial Protein Hydrogel

1Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, 2Department of Microbial and Molecular Pathogenesis, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station


JoVE 51202

We present the synthesis of a split-intein-mediated protein hydrogel. The building blocks of this hydrogel are two protein copolymers each containing a subunit of a trimeric protein that serves as a crosslinker and one half of a split intein. Mixing of the two protein copolymers triggers an intein trans-splicing reaction, yielding a polypeptide unit that self-assembles into a hydrogel. This hydrogel is highly pH- and temperature-stable, compatible with organic solvents, and easily incorporates functional globular proteins.

 JoVE Chemistry

Amide Coupling Reaction for the Synthesis of Bispyridine-based Ligands and Their Complexation to Platinum as Dinuclear Anticancer Agents

1Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, 2School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, 3Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, 4Nature Publishing Group


JoVE 51740

This protocol describes the use of amide coupling reactions of isonicotinic acid and diaminoalkanes to form bridging ligands suitable for use in the synthesis of multinuclear platinum complexes, which combine aspects of the anticancer drugs BBR3464 and picoplatin.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Solid-phase Submonomer Synthesis of Peptoid Polymers and their Self-Assembly into Highly-Ordered Nanosheets

1Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


JoVE 3373

A simple and general manual peptoid synthesis method involving basic equipment and commercially available reagents is outlined, enabling peptoids to be easily synthesized in most laboratories. The synthesis, purification and characterization of an amphiphilic peptoid 36mer is described, as well as its self-assembly into highly-ordered nanosheets.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis and Purification of Iodoaziridines Involving Quantitative Selection of the Optimal Stationary Phase for Chromatography

1Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London


JoVE 51633

A protocol for the diastereoselective one-pot preparation of cis-N-Ts-iodoaziridines is described. The generation of diiodomethyllithium, addition to N-Ts aldimines and cyclization of the amino gem-diiodide intermediate to iodoaziridines is demonstrated. Also included is a protocol to rapidly and quantitatively assess the most appropriate stationary phase for purification by chromatography.

 JoVE Biology

Solid Phase Synthesis of a Functionalized Bis-Peptide Using "Safety Catch" Methodology

1College of Science and Technology, Temple University


JoVE 4112

The efficient solid-phase peptide synthesis of a functionalized bis-peptide trimer utilizing a "safety catch" cleavage procedure from HMBA resin is described.

 JoVE Biology

Microwave-assisted One-pot Synthesis of N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB)

1Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, 2Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, 3California NanoSystems Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, 4Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Shanghai Medical Collegea, Fudan University, 5Electronics and Information Engineering, College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Wuhan Textile University


JoVE 2755

A facile, one-pot synthesis of N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB) was developed based on a non-aqueous, three-step radiochemical process. Using microwave heating, the entire procedure can be completed in less than 30 min, or 60 min with further purification by preparative HPLC. The decay-corrected radiochemical yields (RCYs) were 35-5% (n > 30).

 JoVE Applied Physics

Synthesis and Microdiffraction at Extreme Pressures and Temperatures

1High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2GeoSoilEnviroCARS, University of Chicago, 3High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington


JoVE 50613

The laser heated diamond anvil cell combined with synchrotron micro-diffraction techniques allows researchers to explore the nature and properties of new phases of matter at extreme pressure and temperature (PT) conditions. Heterogeneous samples can be characterized in situ under high pressure by 2D mapping and combined powder, single-crystal and multigrain diffraction approaches.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis of Antiviral Tetrahydrocarbazole Derivatives by Photochemical and Acid-catalyzed C-H Functionalization via Intermediate Peroxides (CHIPS)

1Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung


JoVE 51504

A two-step procedure for the synthesis of pharmaceutically active indole-derivatives by C-H functionalization with anilines is described, using photo- and Brønsted acid catalysis.

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis of Hypervalent Iodonium Alkynyl Triflates for the Application of Generating Cyanocarbenes

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro


JoVE 50886

Herein is described the synthesis, isolation, and reactions of hypervalent iodonium alkynyl triflates (HIATs) with azides to generate cyanocarbenes. The procedures will involve air-sensitive and cryogen techniques, including cold filtration under an inert atmosphere. Handling and safety of the synthesized compounds will also be discussed.

 JoVE Biology

RNA Isolation from Embryonic Zebrafish and cDNA Synthesis for Gene Expression Analysis

1School of Health Sciences, Purdue University


JoVE 1470

The isolation of high quality, intact RNA is an essential step in many laboratory protocols. Here, we demonstrate RNA extraction from whole zebrafish embryos and cDNA synthesis for subsequent application in various experimental procedures including gene expression microarray analysis.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Synthesis and Functionalization of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotube Cups with Gold Nanoparticles as Cork Stoppers

1Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 50383

We discussed the synthesis of individual graphitic nanocups using a series of techniques including chemical vapor deposition, acid oxidation and probe-tip sonication. By citrate reduction of HAuCl4, the graphitic nanocups were effectively corked with gold nanoparticles due to the chemically reactive edges of the cups.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation and Use of Samarium Diiodide (SmI2) in Organic Synthesis: The Mechanistic Role of HMPA and Ni(II) Salts in the Samarium Barbier Reaction

1Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University


JoVE 4323

A straightforward procedure for the preparation of samarium diiodide (SmI2) in THF is described. The role of two main additives namely hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) and Ni(acac)2 in Sm mediated reactions is demonstrated in the Sm-Barbier reaction.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Using Click Chemistry to Measure the Effect of Viral Infection on Host-Cell RNA Synthesis

1Department of Pathology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch


JoVE 50809

This method describes the use of click chemistry to measure changes in host cell transcription after infection with the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP-12. Results can be visualized qualitatively via fluorescence microscopy or obtained quantitatively through flow cytometry. This method is adaptable for use with other viruses.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Combinatorial Synthesis of and High-throughput Protein Release from Polymer Film and Nanoparticle Libraries

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University


JoVE 3882

This method describes the combinatorial synthesis of biodegradable polyanhydride film and nanoparticle libraries and the high-throughput detection of protein release from these libraries.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Gold Nanostar Synthesis with a Silver Seed Mediated Growth Method

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., 3Department of Biology and Neurosciences Institute, The University of Texas at San Antonio


JoVE 3570

We synthesized star shaped gold nanostars using a silver seed mediated growth method. The diameter of the nanostars ranges from 200 to 300 nm and the number of tips vary from 7 to 10. The nanoparticles have a broad surface plasmon resonance mode centered in the near infrared.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Simultaneous Synthesis of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in a Magnetically-enhanced Arc Plasma

1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University


JoVE 3455

Anodic arc discharge is one of the most practical and efficient methods to synthesize various carbon nanostructures. To increase the arc controllability and flexibility, a non-uniform magnetic field was introduced to process the one-step synthesis of large-scale graphene flakes and high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes.

 JoVE Chemistry

Anticancer Metal Complexes: Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation by the MTT Assay

1Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem


JoVE 50767

A method for synthesis of air-sensitive titanium and vanadium anticancer agents is described, along with the evaluation of their cytotoxic activity towards human cancer cell line by the MTT Assay.

 JoVE Biology

Synthesis and Calibration of Phosphorescent Nanoprobes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems

1Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 1731

We present principles of oxygen measurements by phosphorescence quenching and review design of porphyrin-based dendritic nanosensors for oxygen imaging in biological systems.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Synthesis, Assembly, and Characterization of Monolayer Protected Gold Nanoparticle Films for Protein Monolayer Electrochemistry

1Department of Chemistry, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond


JoVE 3441

Alkanethiolate stabilized gold colloids known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) are synthesized, characterized, and assembled into thin films as an adsorption interface for protein monolayer electrochemistry of simple redox protein like Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (AZ) and cytochrome c (cyt c).

 JoVE Chemistry

Synthesis, Cellular Delivery and In vivo Application of Dendrimer-based pH Sensors

1Institute for Complex Molecular Systems & Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology & NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, 2NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR & IIT@NEST, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation, 3NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, 4IIT@NEST, Center for Nanotechnology Innovation


JoVE 50545

Fluorescence sensors are powerful tools in life science. Here we describe a methodology to synthesize and use dendrimer-based fluorescent sensors to measure pH in living cells and in vivo. The dendritic scaffold enhances the properties of conjugated fluorescent dyes leading to improved sensing properties.

 JoVE Biology

Optimization of the Ugi Reaction Using Parallel Synthesis and Automated Liquid Handling

1Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 2Mettler-Toledo, 3Chemspider


JoVE 942

The Ugi reaction has proved to be a convenient way to quickly create diverse libraries of compounds. It involves the reaction of an amine, an aldehyde, a carboxylic acid and an isonitrile typically in methanol at room temperature. In this video, we utilize a 48-slot Mettler-Toledo MiniBlock equipped with filtration tubes and a Mettler-Toledo MiniMapper automated liquid handler was used to deliver the reagents and solvent. The parameters of interest were the concentration, the solvent composition and the excess of some of the reagents.

 JoVE Bioengineering

In vitro Synthesis of Native, Fibrous Long Spacing and Segmental Long Spacing Collagen

1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto


JoVE 4417

Simple and reproducible procedures are described for making three structurally distinct collagen assemblies from a common commercially available Type I collagen monomer. Native type, fibrous long spacing or segmental long spacing collagen can be constructed by varying the conditions to which the 300 nm long and 1.4 nm diameter monomer building block is exposed.

 JoVE Biology

Rapid Synthesis and Screening of Chemically Activated Transcription Factors with GFP-based Reporters

1The Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, 3Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology


JoVE 51153

This protocol describes an experimental procedure for the rapid construction of artificial transcription factors (ATFs) with cognate GFP reporters and quantification of the ATFs ability to stimulate GFP expression via flow cytometry.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Synthesis and Operation of Fluorescent-core Microcavities for Refractometric Sensing

1Department of Physics, University of Alberta


JoVE 50256

Fluorescent-core microcavity sensors employ a high-index quantum-dot coating in the channel of silica microcapillaries. Changes in the refractive index of fluids pumped into the capillary channel cause shifts in the microcavity fluorescence spectrum that can be used to analyze the channel medium.

 JoVE Applied Physics

Synthesis of Phase-shift Nanoemulsions with Narrow Size Distributions for Acoustic Droplet Vaporization and Bubble-enhanced Ultrasound-mediated Ablation

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University


JoVE 4308

Phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) can be vaporized using high intensity focused ultrasound to enhance localized heating and improve thermal ablation in tumors. In this report, the preparation of stable PSNE with a narrow size distribution is described. Furthermore, the impact of vaporized PSNE on ultrasound-mediated ablation is demonstrated in tissue-mimicking phantoms.

 JoVE Biology

Synthesis of an In vivo MRI-detectable Apoptosis Probe

1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 3San Francisco VAMC


JoVE 3775

Early detection of apoptosis may identify at-risk cell populations in a variety of diseases. Here we demonstrate a method to link an early apoptosis-detection protein (Annexin V) to a MRI-detectable iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO). This method may be extended to other proteins of interest to generate MRI-detectable molecular imaging probes.

 JoVE Chemistry

Microwave-assisted Functionalization of Poly(ethylene glycol) and On-resin Peptides for Use in Chain Polymerizations and Hydrogel Formation

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, 3Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center


JoVE 50890

This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient method to methacrylate poly(ethylene glycol), enabling chain polymerizations and hydrogel synthesis. It will demonstrate how to similarly introduce methacrylamide functionalities into peptides, detail common analytical methods to assess functionalization efficiency, provide suggestions for troubleshooting and advanced modifications, and demonstrate typical hydrogel characterization techniques.

 JoVE Biology

Specificity Analysis of Protein Lysine Methyltransferases Using SPOT Peptide Arrays

1Institute of Biochemistry, Stuttgart University


JoVE 52203

Peptide arrays synthesized by the SPOT method can be used to analyze the substrate specificity of Protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and to define the substrate spectrum of PKMTs to understand their biological role. This protocol describes how to synthesize peptide arrays, methylate them with PKMTs, and analyze the results.

 JoVE Chemistry

Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?

1Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center


JoVE 50668

An example of a nano drug based on polymalic acid is presented towards the rational design of personalized medicine that is applicable to cancer. It describes the synthesis of a nano drug to treat Her2-positive human breast cancer in a nude mouse.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation and Use of Carbonyl-decorated Carbenes in the Activation of White Phosphorus

1Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University


JoVE 52149

Here, we present a protocol for the synthesis of two carbonyl-decorated carbenes. The protocol makes these interesting compounds readily available to chemists of all skill levels. In addition to the synthesis of these two carbenes, their use in the activation of white phosphorus is also described.

 JoVE Chemistry

Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments

1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Institute for Advanced Study, 4Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, 5Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego


JoVE 51039

The Miller-Urey experiment was a pioneering study regarding the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds with possible relevance to the origins of life. Simple gases were introduced into a glass apparatus and subjected to an electric discharge, simulating the effects of lightning in the primordial Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system. The experiment was conducted for one week, after which, the samples collected from it were analyzed for the chemical building blocks of life.

 JoVE Biology

Protocols for Implementing an Escherichia coli Based TX-TL Cell-Free Expression System for Synthetic Biology

1Department of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, 3Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota


JoVE 50762

This five-day protocol outlines all steps, equipment, and supplemental software necessary for creating and running an efficient endogenous Escherichia coli based TX-TL cell-free expression system from scratch. With reagents, the protocol takes 8 hours or less to setup a reaction, collect, and process data.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles Through Microwave-assisted Acid-catalysis

1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2Air Force Research Laboratory, Airbase Technology Division, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University


JoVE 51022

Silica nanoparticles were prepared using acid-catalysis of a siloxane precursor and microwave-assisted synthetic techniques resulting in the controlled growth of nanomaterials ranging from 30-250 nm in diameter. The growth dynamics can be controlled by varying the initial silicic acid concentration, time of the reaction, and temperature of reaction.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro

1Department of Neurology and Committee on Neurobiology, The University of Chicago Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago Medical Center


JoVE 2910

Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are immense healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro using spreading depression in hippocampal slice cultures, as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets.

 JoVE Chemistry

Mizoroki-Heck Cross-coupling Reactions Catalyzed by Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium Under Mild Reaction Conditions

1Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zürich, 2Institute of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, Zürich University of Applied Sciences


JoVE 51444

Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium [(P(NC5H10)3)2Pd(Cl)2] (1) is an easy accessible, cheap, and air stable, but highly active Heck catalyst with an excellent functional group tolerance that efficiently operates under mild reaction conditions to give the coupling products in very high yields.

 JoVE Biology

Mouse Genome Engineering Using Designer Nucleases

1Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, University of Zurich, 2Department of Genetics, Cell Biology & Development and Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota


JoVE 50930

Designer nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) can be used to modify the genome of mouse preimplantation embryos by triggering both the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways. These advances enable the rapid generation of mice with precise genetic modifications.

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