1Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri
A way to gain new insights into the complexity of the brain inflammatory response is presented. We describe immunofluorescence-based protocols followed by three-dimensional confocal analysis to investigate the pattern of co-expression of microglia/macrophage phenotype markers in a mouse model of focal ischemia.
Published September 4, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Central Nervous System Diseases, Neurodegenerative Diseases, biology (general), immunology, life sciences, animal models, Inflammation, stroke, alternative activation, brain injury, brain, imaging, confocal microscopy, three-dimensional imaging, clinical techniques, mouse, animal model
1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, 2Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University
Vocal fold polyps can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. Three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted model polyp and its impact on the wall pressure loading are examined using particle image velocimetry, skin friction line visualization, and wall pressure measurements.
Published February 3, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, oil-flow visualization, vocal fold polyp, three-dimensional flow separation, aerodynamic pressure loadings
1Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 2TNO Human Factors
A method is described to measure three-dimensional vestibulo ocular reflexes (3D VOR) in humans using a six degrees of freedom (6DF) motion simulator. The gain and misalignment of the 3D angular VOR provide a direct measure of the quality of vestibular function. Representative data on healthy subjects are provided
Published May 23, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Ophthalmology, vestibulo ocular reflex, eye movements, torsion, balance disorders, rotation translation, equilibrium, eye rotation, motion, body rotation, vestibular organ, clinical techniques
1Division of Reproductive Sciences, Division of Developmental Biology, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
The material here describes a method developed to preserve the three-dimensional chromatin structure of testicular germ cells. This has been termed the three-dimensional (3D) slide method. This method improves sensitivity for detection of subnuclear structures and is applicable for immunofluorescence, DNA, and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
Published January 10, 2014. Keywords: Basic Protocol, Chromatin, Germ cells, Sex chromosomes, Testis, Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, Postmeiotic sex chromatin
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University
The TET (transient electro-thermal) technique is an effective approach developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of solid materials.
Published January 26, 2014. Keywords: Physics, thermal transport, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, transient electro-thermal technique, volume-based specific heat, human head hair
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan
In order to study the changes of nociceptive intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) in painful neuropathies (PN), we developed protocols that could directly examine three-dimensional morphological changes observed in nociceptive IENFs. Three-dimensional analysis of IENFs has the potential to evaluate the morphological changes of IENF in PN.
Published April 29, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Neurology, Pathology, Peripheral Nervous System Diseases, PNS, Polyneuropathies, Nervous System Diseases, intraepidermal nerve fibers, human skin biopsy, three-dimensional imaging, painful neuropathy, intraepidermal nerve fiber densities, IENFD, nerves, immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, imaging
1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 3Presently at the Interdisciplinary Center for Wide Band-gap Semiconductors, University Of California Santa Barbara
Planar and three-dimensional printing of conductive metallic inks is described. Our approach provides new avenues for fabricating printed electronic, optoelectronic, and biomedical devices in unusual layouts at the microscale.
Published December 9, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Direct-write assembly, silver ink, 3D printing, planar, three-dimensional, microelectrodes, flexible electronics, printed electronics
1University of California, Davis
Cellular processes such as cell migration have traditionally been studied on two-dimensional, stiff plastic surfaces. This report describes a technique for directly visualizing protein localization and analyzing protein dynamics in cells migrating in a more physiologically relevant, three-dimensional matrix.
Published December 22, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, cell invasion, three-dimensional matrix, collagen gel, live-cell confocal imaging, FRAP, GFP, epithelial cyst
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Center for Stem Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, 3Department of Biology, Duke University
A method of visualizing and quantifying the 3-dimensional structure of mouse hepatic portal vein or intrahepatic bile duct is described. This resin cast technique can also be applied to other ductal or vascular systems and allows for in situ visualization or quantification of a system's intact communicating architecture.
Published October 25, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Resin cast, 3-dimensional, portal vein, intrahepatic bile duct, vascular, ductal
1Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center
A simple method is described for analyzing effects of tissue fibroblasts on associated epithelial cells. The combination of this method and three-dimensional tissue culture can facilitate analysis of cells after isolation from 3D. The technique is applicable to cells of varying malignant potential, allowing systematic study of effects of tumor-associated stroma on tumor cells.
Published April 30, 2012. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Tumor microenvironment, extracellular matrix, three-dimensional, co-culture, spheroid, mixed-cell, cell culture