1Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Instituet Novum
Improved imaging technology is allowing three-dimensional imaging of organs during development. Here we describe a whole organ culture system that allows live imaging of the developing villi in the fetal mouse intestine.
Published September 4, 2014. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Developmental Biology, morphogenesis, mouse fetal intestine, whole organ culture, live imaging, cell signaling, three-dimensional reconstruction, two-photon imaging
1Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri
A way to gain new insights into the complexity of the brain inflammatory response is presented. We describe immunofluorescence-based protocols followed by three-dimensional confocal analysis to investigate the pattern of co-expression of microglia/macrophage phenotype markers in a mouse model of focal ischemia.
Published September 4, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Central Nervous System Diseases, Neurodegenerative Diseases, biology (general), immunology, life sciences, animal models, Inflammation, stroke, alternative activation, brain injury, brain, imaging, confocal microscopy, three-dimensional imaging, clinical techniques, mouse, animal model
1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, 2Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University
Vocal fold polyps can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. Three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted model polyp and its impact on the wall pressure loading are examined using particle image velocimetry, skin friction line visualization, and wall pressure measurements.
Published February 3, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, oil-flow visualization, vocal fold polyp, three-dimensional flow separation, aerodynamic pressure loadings
1Institute of Immunology & Experimental Oncology, Center for Biomedical Education and Research (ZBAF), Witten/Herdecke University
Cell migration is a biological phenomenon that is involved in a plethora of physiological, such as wound healing and immune responses, and pathophysiological processes, like cancer. The 3D-collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile tool to analyze the migratory properties of different cell types within in a 3D physiological-like environment.
Published October 5, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, cell migration, 3D collagen matrix, cell tracking
1Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 2Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München
We provide herein a detailed description of the experimental protocol for imaging with a newly developed hand-held optoacoustic (photoacoustic) system for three-dimensional functional and molecular imaging in real time. The demonstrated powerful performance and versatility may define new application areas of the optoacoustic technology in preclinical research and clinical practice.
Published November 4, 2014. Keywords: Physiology, Optoacoustic tomography, photoacoustic imaging, hand-held probe, volumetric imaging, real-time tomography, five dimensional imaging, clinical imaging, functional imaging, molecular imaging, preclinical research
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, 2Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center
Three dimensional culture of mammary epithelial cells on a reconstituted basement membrane is a useful method to recapitulate the in vivo architecture of the benign breast, and to differentiate the malignant phenotype from the benign breast phenotype. Importantly, this system can be applied to study invasive carcinomas in other tissues.
Published April 25, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, pathological conditions, signs and symptoms, neoplasms, three dimensional cultures, Matrigel, breast cells, malignant phenotype, signaling
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, 3Lawson Health Research Institute
This article provides detailed methodologies for the use of three-dimensional (3D) assays to quantify breast cancer cell invasion. Specifically, we discuss the procedures required to set up such assays, quantification, and data analysis, as well as methods to examine the loss of membrane integrity that occurs when cells invade.
Published June 11, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Breast cancer, cell invasion, extracellular matrix (ECM), three-dimensional (3D) cultures, immunocytochemistry, Matrigel, basement membrane matrix
1Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 2TNO Human Factors
A method is described to measure three-dimensional vestibulo ocular reflexes (3D VOR) in humans using a six degrees of freedom (6DF) motion simulator. The gain and misalignment of the 3D angular VOR provide a direct measure of the quality of vestibular function. Representative data on healthy subjects are provided
Published May 23, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Ophthalmology, vestibulo ocular reflex, eye movements, torsion, balance disorders, rotation translation, equilibrium, eye rotation, motion, body rotation, vestibular organ, clinical techniques
1Division of Reproductive Sciences, Division of Developmental Biology, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
The material here describes a method developed to preserve the three-dimensional chromatin structure of testicular germ cells. This has been termed the three-dimensional (3D) slide method. This method improves sensitivity for detection of subnuclear structures and is applicable for immunofluorescence, DNA, and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
Published January 10, 2014. Keywords: Basic Protocol, Chromatin, Germ cells, Sex chromosomes, Testis, Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, Postmeiotic sex chromatin
JoVE Applied Physics
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University
The TET (transient electro-thermal) technique is an effective approach developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of solid materials.
Published January 26, 2014. Keywords: Physics, thermal transport, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, transient electro-thermal technique, volume-based specific heat, human head hair