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  JoVE Biology

  
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  JoVE Neuroscience

  
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  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
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  JoVE Medicine

  
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  JoVE Bioengineering

  
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  JoVE Engineering

  
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  JoVE Chemistry

  
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  JoVE Behavior

  
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  JoVE Environment

  
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  JoVE Developmental Biology

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 JoVE Behavior

Vision Training Methods for Sports Concussion Mitigation and Management

1Neurology and Rehabilitative Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Athletics, University of Cincinnati, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, 5College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, 6Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center


JoVE 52648

This paper describes a protocol to conduct, quantitatively monitor, and assess the success of vision training initiated as part of a sports medical management program including intervention for concussion prevention and performance enhancement.

 JoVE Behavior

Training Rats to Voluntarily Dive Underwater: Investigations of the Mammalian Diving Response

1Department of Physiology, Midwestern University


JoVE 52093

Detailed instructions are provided on how to train rats to voluntarily dive underwater through a 5 m long Plexiglas maze. Because the brains of rats have been very well characterized, voluntarily diving rats may help elucidate the central pathways of the mammalian diving response.

 JoVE Behavior

Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam


JoVE 50893

Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.

 JoVE Medicine

Step By Step: Microsurgical training method combining two nonliving animal models

1Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Hand Surgery Unit, POVISA Hospital, 2Christine M Kleintert Institute for Hand and Microsurgery


JoVE 52625

Here we describe how to set up a small microsurgical practice station and a simple and inexpensive method for the training of microsurgery with non-living animal models.

 JoVE Biology

Endurance Training Protocol and Longitudinal Performance Assays for Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School


JoVE 3786

We describe the first endurance training protocol for an important genetic model species, Drosophila melanogaster, and outline several assays to chart improvements in mobility following training.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Targeted Training of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Aged and Parkinsonian Rats

1Department of Surgery-Division of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin


JoVE 2835

Voice disorders are debilitating in aging and Parkinson disease. The ultrasonic vocalizations of rats, also affected by these conditions, can be used to study these voice disorders, their neural substrates, and the nature of functional recovery with behavioral intervention.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extinction Training During the Reconsolidation Window Prevents Recovery of Fear

1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University


JoVE 3893

Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).

 JoVE Medicine

Vascular Occlusion Training for Inclusion Body Myositis: A Novel Therapeutic Approach

1School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, 2Division of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo


JoVE 1894

The present article presents the details pertaining to the application of resistance training associated to vascular occlusion in IBM patients.

 JoVE Medicine

A Murine Model of Muscle Training by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Pittsburgh, 3McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 3914

A murine model of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), a safe and inexpensive clinical modality, to the anterior compartment muscles is described. This model has the advantage of modifying a readily available clinical device for the purpose of eliciting targeted and specific muscle contractions in mice.

 JoVE Medicine

Training a Sophisticated Microsurgical Technique: Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats

1European Vascular Center Aachen-Maastricht, Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital RWTH Aachen


JoVE 4124

Neointimal hyperplasia is the primary cause of stenosis in arterialized veins. We propose a new protocol whereby the right external jugular vein is grafted using the cuff technique in the common carotid artery of Sprague Dawley rats. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice.

 JoVE Behavior

The Double-H Maze: A Robust Behavioral Test for Learning and Memory in Rodents

1Section of Neuroelectronic Systems, Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Freiburg, 2Laboratoire d'Imagerie et de Neurosciences Cognitives, UMR 7364 Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 3Faculté de Psychologie, Neuropôle de Strasbourg


JoVE 52667

The goal of this protocol is to investigate spatial cognition in rodents. The double-H water maze is a novel test, which is particularly useful to elucidate the different components of learning, consolidation and memory, as well as the interplay of memory systems.

 JoVE Behavior

Getting to Compliance in Forced Exercise in Rodents: A Critical Standard to Evaluate Exercise Impact in Aging-related Disorders and Disease

1Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center


JoVE 51827

Exercise may alleviate behavioral impairments associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of the mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated effects have increased in disease models, but the neurobiological background accompanying these diseases, specifically aging, is likely not considered. Here, we illustrate measures to increase the likelihood of a successful exercise paradigm in aged rats.

 JoVE Behavior

Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment

1Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, West Virginia University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 3Department of Neurology, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Neuroscience, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 5GRECC, VA Medical Center, 6Center for Neuroscience, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University


JoVE 52706

This manuscript describes a Morris water maze (MWM) protocol tailored for use with a commonly used mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The MWM is widely used in transgenic mouse models. Implementation of a procedure sensitive to the background strain of the mouse model is essential for detecting group differences.

 JoVE Behavior

Compensatory Limb Use and Behavioral Assessment of Motor Skill Learning Following Sensorimotor Cortex Injury in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Stroke

1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria


JoVE 51602

Mouse models have become increasingly popular in studies of behavioral neuroscience. As models advance, it is important to develop sensitive behavioral measures specific to the mouse. This protocol describes the Pasta Matrix Reaching Task, which is a skilled motor task for use in mouse models of stroke.

 JoVE Behavior

Signal Attenuation as a Rat Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University


JoVE 52287

The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.

 JoVE Behavior

Operant Procedures for Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

1Department of Psychology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, 2Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia


JoVE 52387

The ability to assess executive functions such as behavioral flexibility in rats is useful for investigating the neurobiology of cognition in both intact animals and disease models. Here we describe automated tasks for assessing strategy shifting and reversal learning, which are particularly sensitive to disruptions in prefrontal cortical networks.

 JoVE Behavior

The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task: A Task of Attention and Impulse Control for Rodents

1Department of Neuroscience, Oberlin College


JoVE 51574

This protocol describes the 5-choice serial reaction time task, which is an operant based task used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. Test day challenges, which are modifications of the standard task, increase flexibility of the task and can be combined with other manipulations to more fully characterize behavior.

 JoVE Behavior

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki


JoVE 51869

This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.

 JoVE Behavior

A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats

1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University


JoVE 51898

A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.

 JoVE Medicine

Using Continuous Data Tracking Technology to Study Exercise Adherence in Pulmonary Rehabilitation

1Individualized Program, Concordia University, 2Department of Exercise Science, Concordia University, 3Centre de Recherche, Axe Maladies Chroniques, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal


JoVE 50643

Pulmonary rehabilitation is widely recognized in the management of respiratory diseases. A key component to successful pulmonary rehabilitation is adherence to the recommended exercise training. The purpose of the present protocol is to describe how continuous data tracking technology can be used to precisely measure adherence to a prescribed aerobic training intensity.

 JoVE Behavior

Study Motor Skill Learning by Single-pellet Reaching Tasks in Mice

1Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz


JoVE 51238

Persistent practice improves the precision of coordinated movements. Here we introduce a single-pellet reaching task, which is designed to assess the learning and memory of forelimb skill in mice. 

 JoVE Neuroscience

C. elegans Positive Butanone Learning, Short-term, and Long-term Associative Memory Assays

1Department of Molecular Biology, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, 2Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University


JoVE 2490

Here we describe methods to test C. elegans associative learning and short- and long-term associative memory. These population assays employ the worms abilities to chemotax toward volatile odorants, and form positive associations upon pairing food with the chemoattractant butanone. Increasing the number of conditioning periods induces long-term memory.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Appetitive Associative Olfactory Learning in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 2Department of Biology, University of Fribourg


JoVE 4334

Drosophila larvae are able to associate odor stimuli with gustatory reward. Here we describe a simple behavioral paradigm that allows the analysis of appetitive associative olfactory learning.

 JoVE Behavior

Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults

1Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Harvard Neurology Residency Program, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 52066

Adapted tango has demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. We describe the dissemination of adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and the implementation of adapted tango by the trainees in the community for improving mobility and balance in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

 JoVE Behavior

How to Detect Amygdala Activity with Magnetoencephalography using Source Imaging

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 50212

This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. It will cover 3 topics: 1) Designing a trace conditioning paradigm using backward masking to manipulate awareness. 2) Recording brain activity during the task using magnetoencephalography. 3) Using source imaging to recover signal from subcortical structures.

 JoVE Medicine

A Standardized Obstacle Course for Assessment of Visual Function in Ultra Low Vision and Artificial Vision

1UPMC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 51205

We describe an indoor, portable, standardized course that can be used to evaluate obstacle avoidance in persons who have ultralow vision. The course is relatively inexpensive, simple to administer, and has been shown to be reliable and reproducible.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Lateralized Odor Learning Model in Neonatal Rats for Dissecting Neural Circuitry Underpinning Memory Formation

1Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria


JoVE 51808

This protocol introduces lateralized early odor preference learning in rats using acute single naris occlusion. Lateralized learning permits the examination of behavioral outcomes and underpinning biological mechanisms within the same animals, reducing variance induced by between-animal designs. This protocol can be used to investigate molecular mechanisms underpinning early odor learning.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Procedure for Studying the Footshock-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Laboratory Rats

1Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough


JoVE 2265

Animal models of relapse, known as reinstatement procedures, have been used extensively to study the role of stress in relapse to drug seeking. Here, we report on a method for inducing the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory rats via acute exposures to mild, intermittent electric footshock.

 JoVE Behavior

A Procedure to Study the Effect of Prolonged Food Restriction on Heroin Seeking in Abstinent Rats

1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioural Neurobiology/Groupe de Recherche en Neurobiologie Comportementale, Concordia University


JoVE 50751

A procedure that allows a demonstration of robust augmentation of drug seeking in food-restricted rats is described. Following heroin self-administration training, rats go through an abstinence period, in a drug-free environment, during which they are mildly food restricted. Drug seeking is then tested in the drug-associated environment.

 JoVE Medicine

Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto


JoVE 50887

Lesion Explorer (LE) is a semi-automatic, image-processing pipeline developed to obtain regional brain tissue and subcortical hyperintensity lesion volumetrics from structural MRI of Alzheimer's disease and normal elderly. To ensure a high level of accuracy and reliability, the following is a video-guided, standardized protocol for LE's manual procedures.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Engineering Platform and Experimental Protocol for Design and Evaluation of a Neurally-controlled Powered Transfemoral Prosthesis

1Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University & University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Atlantic Prosthetics & Orthotics, LLC


JoVE 51059

Neural-machine interfaces (NMI) have been developed to identify the user's locomotion mode. These NMIs are potentially useful for neural control of powered artificial legs, but have not been fully demonstrated. This paper presented (1) our designed engineering platform for easy implementation and development of neural control for powered lower limb prostheses and (2) an experimental setup and protocol in a laboratory environment to evaluate neurally-controlled artificial legs on patients with lower limb amputations safely and efficiently.

 JoVE Behavior

Acquisition of a High-precision Skilled Forelimb Reaching Task in Rats

1Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, 2Department of Biology and Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, 3Clinical Neurorehabilitation, Department of Neurology, University of Zurich & University Hospital Zurich


JoVE 53010

A paradigm is presented to analyze the acquisition of a high-precision skilled forelimb reaching task in rats.

 JoVE Behavior

The Attentional Set Shifting Task: A Measure of Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

1Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Audie L. Murphy VA Hospital, South Texas Veteran's Health Care System


JoVE 51944

The goal of this protocol is to perform a behavioral assay such as the attentional set shifting task (AST) to assess prefrontal cortex-mediated cognitive flexibility in mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Automated Visual Cognitive Tasks for Recording Neural Activity Using a Floor Projection Maze

1Department of Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences, Brown University, 2Department of Neuroscience, Brown University


JoVE 51316

We describe protocols for training rats for chronic electrophysiological recordings in fully automated cognitive tasks on a Floor Projection Maze.

 JoVE Biology

Manual Restraint and Common Compound Administration Routes in Mice and Rats

1Insourcing Solutions, Charles River, 2Research Models and Services, Charles River


JoVE 2771

Working safely and humanely with research rodents requires a core competency in handling and restraint methods. This article will present the basic principles required to safely handle and effectively administer compounds to mice and rats.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research

1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University


JoVE 51057

The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.

 JoVE Behavior

Protocol for Studying Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Naturally Cycling Female Rats

1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School


JoVE 52202

Gonadal hormones such as estrogen modulate memory formation in a number of experimental paradigms including fear extinction memory. This protocol describes a set of methods for investigating the influence of gonadal hormones specifically during extinction in naturally cycling females, including estrous cycle monitoring and exogenous estrogen administration.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Denver Papillae Protocol for Objective Analysis of Fungiform Papillae

1Health Sciences Department, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, 2Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver


JoVE 52860

Here we present a protocol to measure fungiform papilla density from digital photographs. This method builds prioritization and objective characteristic metrics into the original descriptive work on fungiform papillae by Miller & Reedy (1990).

 JoVE Behavior

Methods to Explore the Influence of Top-down Visual Processes on Motor Behavior

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 3Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, 4Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 5Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University


JoVE 51422

It is unclear how top-down signals from the ventral visual stream affect movement. We developed a paradigm to test motor behavior towards a target on a 3D depth inversion illusion. Significant differences are reported in both deliberate, goal-directed movements and automatic actions under illusory and veridical viewing conditions.

 JoVE Medicine

Development of an Audio-based Virtual Gaming Environment to Assist with Navigation Skills in the Blind

1Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Computer Science and Center for Advanced Research in Education (CARE), University of Chile


JoVE 50272

Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind.

 JoVE Medicine

The Measurement and Treatment of Suppression in Amblyopia

1Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, 2Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, 3Centre for Intelligent Machines, McGill University


JoVE 3927

Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex that is often accompanied by strong suppression of one eye. We present a new technique for measuring and treating interocular suppression in patients with amblyopia that can be deployed using virtual reality goggles or a portable iPod Touch device.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Drosophila Adult Olfactory Shock Learning

1Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Bristol


JoVE 50107

The method to measure adult Drosophila associative memory is described. The assay is based on the ability of the fly to associate an odor presented with a negative reinforcer (electric shock) and then recall this information at a later time, allowing memory to be measured.

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Dig Task: A Simple Scent Discrimination Reveals Deficits Following Frontal Brain Damage

1Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale


JoVE 50033

In this protocol, a novel application of scent discrimination is described. The Dig task is a reasonably inexpensive task that can be used to assess frontally-mediated cognition following brain damage.

 JoVE Behavior

A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Physiology, Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco


JoVE 52226

A novel cognitive paradigm is developed to elucidate behavioral and neural correlates of interference by to-be-ignored distractors versus interference by to-be-attended interruptors during a working memory task. In this manuscript, several variants of this paradigm are detailed, and data obtained with this paradigm in younger/older adult participants is reviewed.

 JoVE Biology

Reduced-gravity Environment Hardware Demonstrations of a Prototype Miniaturized Flow Cytometer and Companion Microfluidic Mixing Technology

1DNA Medicine Institute, 2Harvard Medical School, 3NASA Glenn Research Center, 4ZIN Technologies


JoVE 51743

Spaceflight blood diagnostics need innovation. Few demonstrations have been published illustrating in-flight, reduced-gravity health diagnostic technology. Here we present a method for construction and operation of a parabolic flight test rig for a prototype point-of-care flow-cytometry design, with components and preparation strategies adaptable to other setups.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A General Method for Evaluating Incubation of Sucrose Craving in Rats

1Department of Psychology and Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Western Washington University


JoVE 3335

Responding for food or drug-paired cues increases over the course of a period of abstinence and this may relate to an increased susceptibility to relapse behaviors. Here we detail a procedure for evaluating this "incubation of craving" in rats that have self-administered sucrose.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording Single Neurons' Action Potentials from Freely Moving Pigeons Across Three Stages of Learning

1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum


JoVE 51283

Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.

 JoVE Behavior

Disrupting Reconsolidation of Fear Memory in Humans by a Noradrenergic β-Blocker

1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam


JoVE 52151

Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Flying Insect Detection and Classification with Inexpensive Sensors

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, Riverside, 2Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 3Institute of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, University of São Paulo - USP, 4ISCA Technologies


JoVE 52111

We proposed a system that uses inexpensive, noninvasive pseudo-acoustic optical sensors to automatically and accurately detect, count, and classify flying insects based on their flying sound.

 JoVE Behavior

Behavioral Assessment of the Aging Mouse Vestibular System

1Discipline of Biomedical Science, University of Sydney, 2The Bosch Institute Animal Behavioural Facility, University of Sydney


JoVE 51605

Motor control and balance performance are known to deteriorate with age. This paper presents a number of standard noninvasive behavioral tests with the addition of a simple rotary stimulus to challenge the vestibular system and show changes in balance performance in a murine model of aging.

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