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  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
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  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
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  JoVE Bioengineering

  
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  JoVE Applied Physics

  
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  JoVE Behavior

  
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  JoVE Environment

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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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Model Organisms II

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Essentials of
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 JoVE Behavior

Training Rats to Voluntarily Dive Underwater: Investigations of the Mammalian Diving Response

1Department of Physiology, Midwestern University


JoVE 52093

Detailed instructions are provided on how to train rats to voluntarily dive underwater through a 5 m long Plexiglas maze. Because the brains of rats have been very well characterized, voluntarily diving rats may help elucidate the central pathways of the mammalian diving response.

 JoVE Behavior

Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam


JoVE 50893

Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.

 JoVE Biology

Endurance Training Protocol and Longitudinal Performance Assays for Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School


JoVE 3786

We describe the first endurance training protocol for an important genetic model species, Drosophila melanogaster, and outline several assays to chart improvements in mobility following training.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Targeted Training of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Aged and Parkinsonian Rats

1Department of Surgery-Division of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin


JoVE 2835

Voice disorders are debilitating in aging and Parkinson disease. The ultrasonic vocalizations of rats, also affected by these conditions, can be used to study these voice disorders, their neural substrates, and the nature of functional recovery with behavioral intervention.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extinction Training During the Reconsolidation Window Prevents Recovery of Fear

1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University


JoVE 3893

Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Vascular Occlusion Training for Inclusion Body Myositis: A Novel Therapeutic Approach

1School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, 2Division of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo


JoVE 1894

The present article presents the details pertaining to the application of resistance training associated to vascular occlusion in IBM patients.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

A Murine Model of Muscle Training by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Pittsburgh, 3McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 3914

A murine model of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), a safe and inexpensive clinical modality, to the anterior compartment muscles is described. This model has the advantage of modifying a readily available clinical device for the purpose of eliciting targeted and specific muscle contractions in mice.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Training a Sophisticated Microsurgical Technique: Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats

1European Vascular Center Aachen-Maastricht, Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital RWTH Aachen


JoVE 4124

Neointimal hyperplasia is the primary cause of stenosis in arterialized veins. We propose a new protocol whereby the right external jugular vein is grafted using the cuff technique in the common carotid artery of Sprague Dawley rats. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice.

 JoVE Behavior

Getting to Compliance in Forced Exercise in Rodents: A Critical Standard to Evaluate Exercise Impact in Aging-related Disorders and Disease

1Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center


JoVE 51827

Exercise may alleviate behavioral impairments associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of the mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated effects have increased in disease models, but the neurobiological background accompanying these diseases, specifically aging, is likely not considered. Here, we illustrate measures to increase the likelihood of a successful exercise paradigm in aged rats.

 JoVE Behavior

Compensatory Limb Use and Behavioral Assessment of Motor Skill Learning Following Sensorimotor Cortex Injury in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Stroke

1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria


JoVE 51602

Mouse models have become increasingly popular in studies of behavioral neuroscience. As models advance, it is important to develop sensitive behavioral measures specific to the mouse. This protocol describes the Pasta Matrix Reaching Task, which is a skilled motor task for use in mouse models of stroke.

 JoVE Behavior

The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task: A Task of Attention and Impulse Control for Rodents

1Department of Neuroscience, Oberlin College


JoVE 51574

This protocol describes the 5-choice serial reaction time task, which is an operant based task used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. Test day challenges, which are modifications of the standard task, increase flexibility of the task and can be combined with other manipulations to more fully characterize behavior.

 JoVE Behavior

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki


JoVE 51869

This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.

 JoVE Behavior

A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats

1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University


JoVE 51898

A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Using Continuous Data Tracking Technology to Study Exercise Adherence in Pulmonary Rehabilitation

1Individualized Program, Concordia University, 2Department of Exercise Science, Concordia University, 3Centre de Recherche, Axe Maladies Chroniques, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal


JoVE 50643

Pulmonary rehabilitation is widely recognized in the management of respiratory diseases. A key component to successful pulmonary rehabilitation is adherence to the recommended exercise training. The purpose of the present protocol is to describe how continuous data tracking technology can be used to precisely measure adherence to a prescribed aerobic training intensity.

 JoVE Behavior

Study Motor Skill Learning by Single-pellet Reaching Tasks in Mice

1Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz


JoVE 51238

Persistent practice improves the precision of coordinated movements. Here we introduce a single-pellet reaching task, which is designed to assess the learning and memory of forelimb skill in mice. 

 JoVE Neuroscience

C. elegans Positive Butanone Learning, Short-term, and Long-term Associative Memory Assays

1Department of Molecular Biology, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, 2Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University


JoVE 2490

Here we describe methods to test C. elegans associative learning and short- and long-term associative memory. These population assays employ the worms abilities to chemotax toward volatile odorants, and form positive associations upon pairing food with the chemoattractant butanone. Increasing the number of conditioning periods induces long-term memory.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Appetitive Associative Olfactory Learning in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 2Department of Biology, University of Fribourg


JoVE 4334

Drosophila larvae are able to associate odor stimuli with gustatory reward. Here we describe a simple behavioral paradigm that allows the analysis of appetitive associative olfactory learning.

 JoVE Behavior

Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults

1Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Harvard Neurology Residency Program, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 52066

Adapted tango has demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. We describe the dissemination of adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and the implementation of adapted tango by the trainees in the community for improving mobility and balance in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

 JoVE Behavior

How to Detect Amygdala Activity with Magnetoencephalography using Source Imaging

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 50212

This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. It will cover 3 topics: 1) Designing a trace conditioning paradigm using backward masking to manipulate awareness. 2) Recording brain activity during the task using magnetoencephalography. 3) Using source imaging to recover signal from subcortical structures.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

A Standardized Obstacle Course for Assessment of Visual Function in Ultra Low Vision and Artificial Vision

1UPMC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 51205

We describe an indoor, portable, standardized course that can be used to evaluate obstacle avoidance in persons who have ultralow vision. The course is relatively inexpensive, simple to administer, and has been shown to be reliable and reproducible.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Lateralized Odor Learning Model in Neonatal Rats for Dissecting Neural Circuitry Underpinning Memory Formation

1Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria


JoVE 51808

This protocol introduces lateralized early odor preference learning in rats using acute single naris occlusion. Lateralized learning permits the examination of behavioral outcomes and underpinning biological mechanisms within the same animals, reducing variance induced by between-animal designs. This protocol can be used to investigate molecular mechanisms underpinning early odor learning.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Procedure for Studying the Footshock-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Laboratory Rats

1Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough


JoVE 2265

Animal models of relapse, known as reinstatement procedures, have been used extensively to study the role of stress in relapse to drug seeking. Here, we report on a method for inducing the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory rats via acute exposures to mild, intermittent electric footshock.

 JoVE Behavior

A Procedure to Study the Effect of Prolonged Food Restriction on Heroin Seeking in Abstinent Rats

1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioural Neurobiology/Groupe de Recherche en Neurobiologie Comportementale, Concordia University


JoVE 50751

A procedure that allows a demonstration of robust augmentation of drug seeking in food-restricted rats is described. Following heroin self-administration training, rats go through an abstinence period, in a drug-free environment, during which they are mildly food restricted. Drug seeking is then tested in the drug-associated environment.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto


JoVE 50887

Lesion Explorer (LE) is a semi-automatic, image-processing pipeline developed to obtain regional brain tissue and subcortical hyperintensity lesion volumetrics from structural MRI of Alzheimer's disease and normal elderly. To ensure a high level of accuracy and reliability, the following is a video-guided, standardized protocol for LE's manual procedures.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Engineering Platform and Experimental Protocol for Design and Evaluation of a Neurally-controlled Powered Transfemoral Prosthesis

1Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University & University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Atlantic Prosthetics & Orthotics, LLC


JoVE 51059

Neural-machine interfaces (NMI) have been developed to identify the user's locomotion mode. These NMIs are potentially useful for neural control of powered artificial legs, but have not been fully demonstrated. This paper presented (1) our designed engineering platform for easy implementation and development of neural control for powered lower limb prostheses and (2) an experimental setup and protocol in a laboratory environment to evaluate neurally-controlled artificial legs on patients with lower limb amputations safely and efficiently.

 JoVE Behavior

Automated Visual Cognitive Tasks for Recording Neural Activity Using a Floor Projection Maze

1Department of Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences, Brown University, 2Department of Neuroscience, Brown University


JoVE 51316

We describe protocols for training rats for chronic electrophysiological recordings in fully automated cognitive tasks on a Floor Projection Maze.

 JoVE Biology

Manual Restraint and Common Compound Administration Routes in Mice and Rats

1Insourcing Solutions, Charles River, 2Research Models and Services, Charles River


JoVE 2771

Working safely and humanely with research rodents requires a core competency in handling and restraint methods. This article will present the basic principles required to safely handle and effectively administer compounds to mice and rats.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research

1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University


JoVE 51057

The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.

 JoVE Behavior

Methods to Explore the Influence of Top-down Visual Processes on Motor Behavior

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 3Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, 4Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 5Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University


JoVE 51422

It is unclear how top-down signals from the ventral visual stream affect movement. We developed a paradigm to test motor behavior towards a target on a 3D depth inversion illusion. Significant differences are reported in both deliberate, goal-directed movements and automatic actions under illusory and veridical viewing conditions.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Development of an Audio-based Virtual Gaming Environment to Assist with Navigation Skills in the Blind

1Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Computer Science and Center for Advanced Research in Education (CARE), University of Chile


JoVE 50272

Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

The Measurement and Treatment of Suppression in Amblyopia

1Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, 2Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, 3Centre for Intelligent Machines, McGill University


JoVE 3927

Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex that is often accompanied by strong suppression of one eye. We present a new technique for measuring and treating interocular suppression in patients with amblyopia that can be deployed using virtual reality goggles or a portable iPod Touch device.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Drosophila Adult Olfactory Shock Learning

1Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Bristol


JoVE 50107

The method to measure adult Drosophila associative memory is described. The assay is based on the ability of the fly to associate an odor presented with a negative reinforcer (electric shock) and then recall this information at a later time, allowing memory to be measured.

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Dig Task: A Simple Scent Discrimination Reveals Deficits Following Frontal Brain Damage

1Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale


JoVE 50033

In this protocol, a novel application of scent discrimination is described. The Dig task is a reasonably inexpensive task that can be used to assess frontally-mediated cognition following brain damage.

 JoVE Biology

Reduced-gravity Environment Hardware Demonstrations of a Prototype Miniaturized Flow Cytometer and Companion Microfluidic Mixing Technology

1DNA Medicine Institute, 2Harvard Medical School, 3NASA Glenn Research Center, 4ZIN Technologies


JoVE 51743

Spaceflight blood diagnostics need innovation. Few demonstrations have been published illustrating in-flight, reduced-gravity health diagnostic technology. Here we present a method for construction and operation of a parabolic flight test rig for a prototype point-of-care flow-cytometry design, with components and preparation strategies adaptable to other setups.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A General Method for Evaluating Incubation of Sucrose Craving in Rats

1Department of Psychology and Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Western Washington University


JoVE 3335

Responding for food or drug-paired cues increases over the course of a period of abstinence and this may relate to an increased susceptibility to relapse behaviors. Here we detail a procedure for evaluating this "incubation of craving" in rats that have self-administered sucrose.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording Single Neurons' Action Potentials from Freely Moving Pigeons Across Three Stages of Learning

1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum


JoVE 51283

Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.

 JoVE Behavior

Disrupting Reconsolidation of Fear Memory in Humans by a Noradrenergic β-Blocker

1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam


JoVE 52151

Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Flying Insect Detection and Classification with Inexpensive Sensors

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, Riverside, 2Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 3Institute of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, University of São Paulo - USP, 4ISCA Technologies


JoVE 52111

We proposed a system that uses inexpensive, noninvasive pseudo-acoustic optical sensors to automatically and accurately detect, count, and classify flying insects based on their flying sound.

 JoVE Behavior

Behavioral Assessment of the Aging Mouse Vestibular System

1Discipline of Biomedical Science, University of Sydney, 2The Bosch Institute Animal Behavioural Facility, University of Sydney


JoVE 51605

Motor control and balance performance are known to deteriorate with age. This paper presents a number of standard noninvasive behavioral tests with the addition of a simple rotary stimulus to challenge the vestibular system and show changes in balance performance in a murine model of aging.

 JoVE Behavior

Trace Fear Conditioning in Mice

1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University, 2Institute of Biomedical Studies, Baylor University


JoVE 51180

In the following experiment we describe a protocol for trace fear conditioning in mice. This type of associative memory includes a trace period that separates the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Movement Retraining using Real-time Feedback of Performance

1Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia


JoVE 50182

Retraining abnormal movement patterns following injury or disease is a key component of physical rehabilitation. Recent advances in technology have permitted accurate assessment of movement during a variety of tasks, with near instantaneous quantification of results. This provides new opportunities for modification of faulty movement patterns in real time.

 JoVE Behavior

A Fully Automated Rodent Conditioning Protocol for Sensorimotor Integration and Cognitive Control Experiments

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, 2Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 3Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University


JoVE 51128

A fully automated protocol for rodent operant conditioning is proposed. The protocol relies on precise temporal control of behavioral events to investigate the extent to which this control influences neural activity underlying sensorimotor integration and cognitive control experiments.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Detection of Architectural Distortion in Prior Mammograms via Analysis of Oriented Patterns

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2Department of Radiology, University of Calgary


JoVE 50341

We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms. Oriented structures are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect sites of radiating tissue patterns. Each site is characterized and classified using measures to represent spiculating patterns. The methods should assist in the detection of breast cancer.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Novel Method for Assessing Proximal and Distal Forelimb Function in the Rat: the Irvine, Beatties and Bresnahan (IBB) Forelimb Scale

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco


JoVE 2246

Here we will describe a rodent behavioral assay that can detect recovery of both proximal and distal forelimb function including digit movements during a naturally occurring behavior that does not require extensive training or deprivation to enhance motivation.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

1Fachbereich Bio/Chem/Pharm, Institut für Biologie – Neurobiologie, Freie Universität Berlin


JoVE 2282

We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees (Apis mellifera) by systemic application of drugs. This method allows investigation of the mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in a simple and reliable way.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Microdialysis of Ethanol During Operant Ethanol Self-administration and Ethanol Determination by Gas Chromatography

1College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Texas at Austin


JoVE 4142

A method to determine the time course of ethanol concentration in the brains of rats during operant ethanol self-administration is described. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is used to quantify ethanol in the dialysate samples, because it has the sensitivity required for the small volumes that are generated.

 JoVE Behavior

Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford


JoVE 51665

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception.  This article describes how to record motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the lip muscles and how to disrupt the motor lip representation using repetitive TMS.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Progressive-ratio Responding for Palatable High-fat and High-sugar Food in Mice

1CRCHUM and the Montreal Diabetes Research Center, University of Montreal


JoVE 3754

The present report details the protocol employed to measure the rewarding effects of high-fat food in mice using a progressive ratio operant conditioning task.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Image-guided Convection-enhanced Delivery into Agarose Gel Models of the Brain

1University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Semmes-Murphey Clinic, 3University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4Restorative Neurosciences Foundation


JoVE 51466

Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been proposed as a treatment option for a wide range of neurological diseases. In order to prepare health care professionals for adoption of CED, accessible training models are needed. We describe the use of agarose gel as such a model of the human brain for testing, research, and training.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Flexible Colonoscopy in Mice to Evaluate the Severity of Colitis and Colorectal Tumors Using a Validated Endoscopic Scoring System

1Division of Gastroenterology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 2Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 3Digestive Health Research Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland


JoVE 50843

Over the past few years, new generation endoscopes have emerged as important diagnostic research aids for evaluating murine colitis and colorectal tumors. We present herein a detailed protocol for endoscopic assessment of inflammation and colorectal tumors in mice, as well as a novel scoring system that uses decimal identifiers to document the endoscopic severity of colitis and colorectal tumors.

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