1Department of Physiology, Midwestern University
Detailed instructions are provided on how to train rats to voluntarily dive underwater through a 5 m long Plexiglas maze. Because the brains of rats have been very well characterized, voluntarily diving rats may help elucidate the central pathways of the mammalian diving response.
Published November 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Rat, Rattus norvegicus, voluntary diving, diving response, diving reflex, autonomic reflex, central integration
1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam
Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.
Published February 20, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, synesthesia, training, learning, reading, vision, memory, cognition
1Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School
We describe the first endurance training protocol for an important genetic model species, Drosophila melanogaster, and outline several assays to chart improvements in mobility following training.
Published March 26, 2012. Keywords: Physiology, Drosophila, endurance, exercise, training
1Department of Surgery-Division of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin
Voice disorders are debilitating in aging and Parkinson disease. The ultrasonic vocalizations of rats, also affected by these conditions, can be used to study these voice disorders, their neural substrates, and the nature of functional recovery with behavioral intervention.
Published August 8, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, ultrasonic vocalization, rat, aging, Parkinson disease, exercise, 6-hydroxydopamine, voice disorders, voice therapy
1Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, New York University, 3Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University
Conditioned fear can be diminished through an inhibitory process called extinction, but can resurface under conditions such as the passage of time or exposure to stress. Our protocol presents a novel way of preventing fear recovery by introducing extinction during the reconsolidation window (the re-storage phase of a reactivated memory).
Published August 24, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Psychology, Physiology, Fear conditioning, extinction, reconsolidation, emotional memory, spontaneous recovery, skin conductance response
1School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, 2Division of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo
The present article presents the details pertaining to the application of resistance training associated to vascular occlusion in IBM patients.
Published June 5, 2010. Keywords: Medicine, exercise training, therapeutical, myositis, vascular occlusion
1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Pittsburgh, 3McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh
A murine model of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), a safe and inexpensive clinical modality, to the anterior compartment muscles is described. This model has the advantage of modifying a readily available clinical device for the purpose of eliciting targeted and specific muscle contractions in mice.
Published May 9, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, skeletal muscle, pre-clinical, animal, medicine, physiology
1European Vascular Center Aachen-Maastricht, Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital RWTH Aachen
Neointimal hyperplasia is the primary cause of stenosis in arterialized veins. We propose a new protocol whereby the right external jugular vein is grafted using the cuff technique in the common carotid artery of Sprague Dawley rats. The survival rate was 100 % at the time point of sacrifice.
Published November 11, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Immunology, Surgery, microsurgery, neointimal hyperplasia, venous interposition graft, external jugular vein, common carotid artery, rat
1Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Exercise may alleviate behavioral impairments associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of the mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated effects have increased in disease models, but the neurobiological background accompanying these diseases, specifically aging, is likely not considered. Here, we illustrate measures to increase the likelihood of a successful exercise paradigm in aged rats.
Published August 22, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Exercise, locomotor, Parkinson’s disease, aging, treadmill, bradykinesia, Parkinsonism
1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria
Mouse models have become increasingly popular in studies of behavioral neuroscience. As models advance, it is important to develop sensitive behavioral measures specific to the mouse. This protocol describes the Pasta Matrix Reaching Task, which is a skilled motor task for use in mouse models of stroke.
Published July 10, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Upper extremity impairment, Murine model, Rehabilitation, Reaching, Non-paretic limb training, Good limb training, Less-affected limb training, Learned non-use, Pasta matrix reaching task
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.
Published January 9, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, OCD, signal attenuation, rat, animal model, pharmacology, lever-press, behavioral neuroscience
1Department of Psychology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, 2Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia
The ability to assess executive functions such as behavioral flexibility in rats is useful for investigating the neurobiology of cognition in both intact animals and disease models. Here we describe automated tasks for assessing strategy shifting and reversal learning, which are particularly sensitive to disruptions in prefrontal cortical networks.
Published February 15, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, executive function, behavioral flexibility, prefrontal cortex, strategy shifting, reversal learning, behavioral neuroscience, schizophrenia, operant
1Department of Neuroscience, Oberlin College
This protocol describes the 5-choice serial reaction time task, which is an operant based task used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. Test day challenges, which are modifications of the standard task, increase flexibility of the task and can be combined with other manipulations to more fully characterize behavior.
Published August 10, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, attention, impulse control, neuroscience, cognition, rodent
1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki
This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.
Published June 29, 2014. Keywords: Empty Value, awake, in vivo two-photon microscopy, blood vessels, dendrites, dendritic spines, Ca2+ imaging, intrinsic optical imaging, patch-clamp
1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University
A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.
Published September 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Behavioral neuroscience, alcoholism, relapse, addiction, Pavlovian conditioning, ethanol, reinstatement, discrimination, conditioned approach
1Individualized Program, Concordia University, 2Department of Exercise Science, Concordia University, 3Centre de Recherche, Axe Maladies Chroniques, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal
Pulmonary rehabilitation is widely recognized in the management of respiratory diseases. A key component to successful pulmonary rehabilitation is adherence to the recommended exercise training. The purpose of the present protocol is to describe how continuous data tracking technology can be used to precisely measure adherence to a prescribed aerobic training intensity.
Published November 8, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Data tracking, exercise, rehabilitation, adherence, patient compliance, health behavior, user-computer interface.
1Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz
Persistent practice improves the precision of coordinated movements. Here we introduce a single-pellet reaching task, which is designed to assess the learning and memory of forelimb skill in mice.
Published March 4, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, mouse, neuroscience, motor skill learning, single-pellet reaching, forelimb movements, Learning and Memory
1Department of Molecular Biology, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, 2Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University
Here we describe methods to test C. elegans associative learning and short- and long-term associative memory. These population assays employ the worms abilities to chemotax toward volatile odorants, and form positive associations upon pairing food with the chemoattractant butanone. Increasing the number of conditioning periods induces long-term memory.
Published March 11, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, memory, associative learning, C. elegans, chemotaxis, spaced training, behavior
1Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 2Department of Biology, University of Fribourg
Drosophila larvae are able to associate odor stimuli with gustatory reward. Here we describe a simple behavioral paradigm that allows the analysis of appetitive associative olfactory learning.
Published February 18, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Developmental Biology, Neurobiology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Physiology, Behavior, Drosophila, fruit fly, larvae, instar, olfaction, olfactory system, odor, 1-octanol, OCT, learning, reward, sugar, feeding, animal model
1Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Harvard Neurology Residency Program, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital
Adapted tango has demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. We describe the dissemination of adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and the implementation of adapted tango by the trainees in the community for improving mobility and balance in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease.
Published December 9, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Dance, tango, balance, pedagogy, dissemination, exercise, older adults, Parkinson's Disease, mobility impairments, falls
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin
This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. It will cover 3 topics: 1) Designing a trace conditioning paradigm using backward masking to manipulate awareness. 2) Recording brain activity during the task using magnetoencephalography. 3) Using source imaging to recover signal from subcortical structures.
Published June 3, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Physiology, Anatomy, Psychology, Amygdala, Magnetoencephalography, Fear, awareness, masking, source imaging, conditional stimulus, unconditional stimulus, hippocampus, brain, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, fMRI, imaging, clinical techniques
1UPMC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh
We describe an indoor, portable, standardized course that can be used to evaluate obstacle avoidance in persons who have ultralow vision. The course is relatively inexpensive, simple to administer, and has been shown to be reliable and reproducible.
Published February 11, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Obstacle course, navigation assessment, BrainPort, wayfinding, low vision
1Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, 2Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria
This protocol introduces lateralized early odor preference learning in rats using acute single naris occlusion. Lateralized learning permits the examination of behavioral outcomes and underpinning biological mechanisms within the same animals, reducing variance induced by between-animal designs. This protocol can be used to investigate molecular mechanisms underpinning early odor learning.
Published August 18, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, lateralized odor learning, rats, memory, nose plug, olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, phosphorylated CREB
1Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough
Animal models of relapse, known as reinstatement procedures, have been used extensively to study the role of stress in relapse to drug seeking. Here, we report on a method for inducing the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory rats via acute exposures to mild, intermittent electric footshock.
Published January 6, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Relapse, Reinstatement, Cocaine, Rat, Footshock, Stress, Intravenous, Self-administration, Operant Conditioning
1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioural Neurobiology/Groupe de Recherche en Neurobiologie Comportementale, Concordia University
A procedure that allows a demonstration of robust augmentation of drug seeking in food-restricted rats is described. Following heroin self-administration training, rats go through an abstinence period, in a drug-free environment, during which they are mildly food restricted. Drug seeking is then tested in the drug-associated environment.
Published November 11, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Animal, Drug-Seeking Behavior, Fasting, Substance-Related Disorders, behavioral neuroscience, self-administration, intravenous, drugs, relapse, food restriction
1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto
Lesion Explorer (LE) is a semi-automatic, image-processing pipeline developed to obtain regional brain tissue and subcortical hyperintensity lesion volumetrics from structural MRI of Alzheimer's disease and normal elderly. To ensure a high level of accuracy and reliability, the following is a video-guided, standardized protocol for LE's manual procedures.
Published April 14, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Brain, Vascular Diseases, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Neuroimaging, Alzheimer Disease, Aging, Neuroanatomy, brain extraction, ventricles, white matter hyperintensities, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer disease
1Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University & University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Atlantic Prosthetics & Orthotics, LLC
Neural-machine interfaces (NMI) have been developed to identify the user's locomotion mode. These NMIs are potentially useful for neural control of powered artificial legs, but have not been fully demonstrated. This paper presented (1) our designed engineering platform for easy implementation and development of neural control for powered lower limb prostheses and (2) an experimental setup and protocol in a laboratory environment to evaluate neurally-controlled artificial legs on patients with lower limb amputations safely and efficiently.
Published July 22, 2014. Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, neural control, powered transfemoral prosthesis, electromyography (EMG), neural-machine interface, experimental setup and protocol
1Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Audie L. Murphy VA Hospital, South Texas Veteran's Health Care System
The goal of this protocol is to perform a behavioral assay such as the attentional set shifting task (AST) to assess prefrontal cortex-mediated cognitive flexibility in mice.
Published February 4, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, cognitive flexibility, prefrontal cortex, behavior, attention, mouse, neuropsychiatric symptom, cognitive dysfunction
1Department of Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences, Brown University, 2Department of Neuroscience, Brown University
We describe protocols for training rats for chronic electrophysiological recordings in fully automated cognitive tasks on a Floor Projection Maze.
Published February 20, 2014. Keywords: Neurobiology, Rat behavioral tasks, visual discrimination, chronic electrophysiological recordings, Floor Projection Maze, neuropsychology, learning, memory
1Insourcing Solutions, Charles River, 2Research Models and Services, Charles River
Working safely and humanely with research rodents requires a core competency in handling and restraint methods. This article will present the basic principles required to safely handle and effectively administer compounds to mice and rats.
Published September 26, 2012. Keywords: Basic Protocols, Anatomy, Medicine, Rodents, training, handling, restraint, injections, oral gavage
1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University
The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.
Published September 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School
Gonadal hormones such as estrogen modulate memory formation in a number of experimental paradigms including fear extinction memory. This protocol describes a set of methods for investigating the influence of gonadal hormones specifically during extinction in naturally cycling females, including estrous cycle monitoring and exogenous estrogen administration.
Published February 23, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, estrogen, fear extinction, sex differences, estradiol, proestrus, metestrus, female, PTSD, anxiety
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 3Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, 4Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 5Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University
It is unclear how top-down signals from the ventral visual stream affect movement. We developed a paradigm to test motor behavior towards a target on a 3D depth inversion illusion. Significant differences are reported in both deliberate, goal-directed movements and automatic actions under illusory and veridical viewing conditions.
Published April 16, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, vision for action, vision for perception, motor control, reach, grasp, visuomotor, ventral stream, dorsal stream, illusion, space perception, depth inversion
1Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Computer Science and Center for Advanced Research in Education (CARE), University of Chile
Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind.
Published March 27, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Behavior, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Neurobiology, Ophthalmology, Psychology, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Technology, Industry, virtual environments, action video games, blind, audio, rehabilitation, indoor navigation, spatial cognitive map, Audio-based Environment Simulator, virtual reality, cognitive psychology, clinical techniques
1Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, 2Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, 3Centre for Intelligent Machines, McGill University
Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex that is often accompanied by strong suppression of one eye. We present a new technique for measuring and treating interocular suppression in patients with amblyopia that can be deployed using virtual reality goggles or a portable iPod Touch device.
Published December 14, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Ophthalmology, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Amblyopia, suppression, visual cortex, binocular vision, plasticity, strabismus, anisometropia
1Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Bristol
The method to measure adult Drosophila associative memory is described. The assay is based on the ability of the fly to associate an odor presented with a negative reinforcer (electric shock) and then recall this information at a later time, allowing memory to be measured.
Published August 7, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila, Pavlovian learning, classical conditioning, learning, memory, olfactory, electric shock, associative memory
1Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
In this protocol, a novel application of scent discrimination is described. The Dig task is a reasonably inexpensive task that can be used to assess frontally-mediated cognition following brain damage.
Published January 4, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Behavior, cognitive assessment, dig task, scent discrimination, olfactory, brain injury, traumatic brain injury, TBI, brain damage, rats, animal model
1DNA Medicine Institute, 2Harvard Medical School, 3NASA Glenn Research Center, 4ZIN Technologies
Spaceflight blood diagnostics need innovation. Few demonstrations have been published illustrating in-flight, reduced-gravity health diagnostic technology. Here we present a method for construction and operation of a parabolic flight test rig for a prototype point-of-care flow-cytometry design, with components and preparation strategies adaptable to other setups.
Published November 13, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Point-of-care, prototype, diagnostics, spaceflight, reduced gravity, parabolic flight, flow cytometry, fluorescence, cell counting, micromixing, spiral-vortex, blood mixing
1Department of Psychology and Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Western Washington University
Responding for food or drug-paired cues increases over the course of a period of abstinence and this may relate to an increased susceptibility to relapse behaviors. Here we detail a procedure for evaluating this "incubation of craving" in rats that have self-administered sucrose.
Published November 4, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, addiction, craving, cue-reactivity, extinction, reinstatement, relapse, sucrose seeking
1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum
Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.
Published June 2, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, pigeon, single unit recording, learning, memory, extinction, spike sorting, operant conditioning, reward, electrophysiology, animal cognition, model species
1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam
Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.
Published December 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Fear memory, reconsolidation, noradrenergic β-blocker, human fear conditioning, startle potentiation, translational research.
1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, Riverside, 2Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 3Institute of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, University of São Paulo - USP, 4ISCA Technologies
We proposed a system that uses inexpensive, noninvasive pseudo-acoustic optical sensors to automatically and accurately detect, count, and classify flying insects based on their flying sound.
Published October 15, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, flying insect detection, automatic insect classification, pseudo-acoustic optical sensors, Bayesian classification framework, flight sound, circadian rhythm
1Discipline of Biomedical Science, University of Sydney, 2The Bosch Institute Animal Behavioural Facility, University of Sydney
Motor control and balance performance are known to deteriorate with age. This paper presents a number of standard noninvasive behavioral tests with the addition of a simple rotary stimulus to challenge the vestibular system and show changes in balance performance in a murine model of aging.
Published July 11, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, vestibular, behavior, balance, rotarod, balance beam, aging
1Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University, 2Institute of Biomedical Studies, Baylor University
In the following experiment we describe a protocol for trace fear conditioning in mice. This type of associative memory includes a trace period that separates the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.
Published March 20, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, fear conditioning, learning, trace conditioning, memory, conditioned and unconditioned stimulus, neutral stimulus, amygdala-dependent learning
1Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia
Retraining abnormal movement patterns following injury or disease is a key component of physical rehabilitation. Recent advances in technology have permitted accurate assessment of movement during a variety of tasks, with near instantaneous quantification of results. This provides new opportunities for modification of faulty movement patterns in real time.
Published January 17, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Biophysics, Anatomy, Physiology, Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Behavior, Psychology, Kinesiology, Physical Therapy, Musculoskeletal System, Biofeedback, biomechanics, gait, movement, walking, rehabilitation, clinical, training
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, 2Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 3Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University
A fully automated protocol for rodent operant conditioning is proposed. The protocol relies on precise temporal control of behavioral events to investigate the extent to which this control influences neural activity underlying sensorimotor integration and cognitive control experiments.
Published April 15, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, operant conditioning, cognitive function, sensorimotor integration, decision making, Neurophysiology
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2Department of Radiology, University of Calgary
We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms. Oriented structures are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect sites of radiating tissue patterns. Each site is characterized and classified using measures to represent spiculating patterns. The methods should assist in the detection of breast cancer.
Published August 30, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, angular spread, architectural distortion, breast cancer, Computer-Assisted Diagnosis, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), entropy, fractional Brownian motion, fractal dimension, Gabor filters, Image Processing, Medical Informatics, node map, oriented texture, Pattern Recognition, phase portraits, prior mammograms, spectral analysis
1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco
Here we will describe a rodent behavioral assay that can detect recovery of both proximal and distal forelimb function including digit movements during a naturally occurring behavior that does not require extensive training or deprivation to enhance motivation.
Published December 16, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, spinal cord injury, recovery of function, forelimb function, neurological test, cervical injuries
1Fachbereich Bio/Chem/Pharm, Institut für Biologie – Neurobiologie, Freie Universität Berlin
We demonstrate how to implement a behavioral pharmacology method in an appetitive olfactory conditioning paradigm in honeybees (Apis mellifera) by systemic application of drugs. This method allows investigation of the mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in a simple and reliable way.
Published January 24, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Classical conditioning, behavioural pharmacology, insect, invertebrate, honeybee, learning, memory
1College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Texas at Austin
A method to determine the time course of ethanol concentration in the brains of rats during operant ethanol self-administration is described. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is used to quantify ethanol in the dialysate samples, because it has the sensitivity required for the small volumes that are generated.
Published September 5, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Microdialysis, operant ethanol self-administration, gas chromatography, appetitive, consummatory, sterotaxic surgery