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Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the trigeminal ganglion and project to the trigeminal nucleus of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction, therefore any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical, therefore while performing the examination each side should be compared to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a systematic fashion and go through the

 JoVE Neuroscience

Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining

1Virus and Centromere Team, Centre de Génétique et Physiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 5534, 2Université de Lyon 1, 3Laboratoire d'excellence, LabEX DEVweCAN, 4Institut de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS UPR 3296, 5Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, INSERM U1052, CNRS UMR 5286


JoVE 51091

 JoVE Behavior

Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida


JoVE 50336

 JoVE Neuroscience

Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

1Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 51749

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve (CN) examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination of the cranial nerves begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles that are innervated by the cranial nerve VII can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII, the Facial nerve, also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in the patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of CN VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve, manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII, the Acoustic nerve, has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division, and the vestibular division, which innervates the semicirc

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine


JoVE 3823

 JoVE Neuroscience

Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Charité, University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York


JoVE 2744

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 JoVE Neuroscience

In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital


JoVE 54576

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan


JoVE 50998

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