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Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
 JoVE Biology

Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification

1Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Neural Regeneration Laboratory and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3CIHR Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics, University of Ottawa, 4Carleton Immersive Media Studio, Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism


JoVE 4389

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Pelvic Exam II: Speculum Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source:

Alexandra Duncan, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT

Tiffany Cook, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT

Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Providing comfortable speculum placement is an important skill for providers to develop, since the speculum is a necessary tool in many gynecological procedures. Patients and providers are often anxious about the speculum exam, but it is entirely possible to place a speculum without patient discomfort. It's important for the clinician to be aware of the role language plays in creating a comfortable environment; for instance, a provider should refer to the speculum "bills" rather than "blades" to avoid upsetting the patient. There are two types of speculums: metal and plastic (Figure 1). This demonstration utilizes plastic, as plastic speculums are most commonly used in clinics for routine testing. When using a metal speculum, it's recommended to use a Graves speculum if the patient has given birth vaginally, and a Pederson speculum if the patient has not. Pederson and Graves speculums are different shapes, and both come in many different sizes (me

 JoVE Behavior

Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication

1Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, University Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR 3571, Institut Pasteur, 2Neurophysiology and Behavior, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, CNRS UMR 7102, 3Bio Image Analysis, CNRS URA 2582, Institut Pasteur


JoVE 53871

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Pelvic Exam I: Assessment of the External Genitalia

JoVE Science Education

Source:
Alexandra Duncan, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT
Tiffany Cook, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT
Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

The pelvic exam can feel invasive to patients, so it is important to do everything possible to make patients feel comfortable and empowered, rather than vulnerable. Clinicians should be aware of how they are communicating, both verbally and nonverbally, and should give their patients control whenever possible. There are many ways to do this, from how the exam table is positioned to how the patient is engaged throughout the exam. As many as 1 in 5 patients may have experienced sexual trauma; therefore, it is important to avoid triggering those patients, but it's not always possible to know who they are. The exam in this video demonstrates neutral language and techniques that can be employed with all patients to create the best experience possible. It's important to keep the patient covered wherever possible and to minimize extraneous contact. A clinician should be careful to tuck fingers that aren't being used to examine the patient to avoid accidental contact with the clitoris or anus. Before performing the pelvic e

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 JoVE Medicine

Performing and Processing FNA of Anterior Fat Pad for Amyloid

1Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Current Address: Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine Detroit Medical Center, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Division of Neoplastic Diseases and Related Disorders, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 1747

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Pelvic Exam III: Bimanual and Rectovaginal Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source:

Alexandra Duncan, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT

Tiffany Cook, GTA, Praxis Clinical, New Haven, CT

Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

A bimanual exam is a thorough check of a patient's cervix, uterus, and ovaries. It can tell an experienced provider a great deal, as it may lead to the discovery of abnormalities, such as cysts, fibroids, or malignancies. However, it's useful even in the absence of such findings, as it allows the practitioner to establish an understanding of the patient's anatomy for future reference. Performing the bimanual exam before the speculum exam can help relax patients, mentally and physically, before what is often perceived as the "most invasive" part of the exam. A practitioner already familiar with the patient's anatomy can insert a speculum more smoothly and comfortably. However, lubrication used during the bimanual exam may interfere with processing certain samples obtained during the speculum exam. Providers must be familiar with local laboratory processing requirements before committing to a specific order of examination. This demonstration begins

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 JoVE Biology

Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

1Centre for Medical Parasitology, Department of International Health, Immunology & Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), 3Institute of Infection and Immunology Research, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh


JoVE 4073

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 JoVE Medicine

Fetal Echocardiography and Pulsed-wave Doppler Ultrasound in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

1Division Woman and Child, Department Women, University Hospitals Leuven, 2The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, 3Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 4Fetal and Perinatal Medicine Research Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 5Maternal-Fetal Medicine Department, ICGON, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER)


JoVE 50392

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Detecting Glycogen in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with Periodic Acid Schiff Staining

1Department of Biology, Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, 3Department of Exercise Science, Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, PERFORM Centre, Concordia University


JoVE 52199

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 JoVE Medicine

A Mouse Fetal Skin Model of Scarless Wound Repair

1Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, 4University of Central Florida College of Medicine


JoVE 52297

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 JoVE Behavior

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge


JoVE 52407

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 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Gram Staining of Bacteria from Environmental Sources

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner

The spectrum of research in environmental microbiology is broad in scope and application potential. Whether the work is bench-scale with known bacterial isolates, or in the field collecting soil or water samples containing unknown bacterial isolates, the ability to quickly and visually discern culturable populations of interest remains of great import to environmental microbiologists even today with the abundance of molecular techniques available for use. This video will demonstrate one such technique, known as Gram staining.

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