Here are some highlights from the September 2011 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
Guide Wire Assisted Catheterization and Colored Dye Injection for Vascular Mapping of Monochorionic Twin Placentas
1Division of Pediatric and Fetal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alberta, 3Department of Obstretics and Gynecology, University of California, San Francisco, 4Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco
Vascular mapping of monochorionic (MC) twin placentas after birth provides a means for detailed demonstration of vascular connections between the twins’ circulations. Imbalance of these connections is thought to play a pivotal role in the development of complications of MC twinning including twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2Department of Biomedical Informatics, The Ohio State University, 3Comprehensive Wound Center, The Ohio State University, 4Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University
A dual-mode imaging system was developed for non-contact assessment of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and vascular function.
Imaging Odor-Evoked Activities in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb using Optical Reflectance and Autofluorescence Signals
This article presents the protocols of intrinsic optical signals and flavoproteins autofluorescence signals imaging to map odor-evoked activities at the surface of the olfactory bulb in mice.
1Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, 2Departments of Cardiac Surgery, Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School
This article describes a high temporal and spatial resolution technique to optically image action potential movement on the surface of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts using a potentiometric dye (di-8-ANEPPS).
Effective pulmonary vein isolation utilizing a cryoballoon depends on complete pulmonary vein occlusion. The point of occlusion can be effectively predicted by direct analysis of pulmonary vein pressure waveform analysis during balloon inflation using a simple and reproducible technique.
Generation and Labeling of Murine Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells with Qdot Nanocrystals for Tracking Studies
1Molecular and Cell Biology Program, Ohio University, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University
Dendritic cells uptake antigens and migrate towards immune organs to present processed antigens to T cells. Qdot nanocrystal labeling provides a long-lasting and stable fluorescent signal. This allows tracking of dendritic cells to different organs by fluorescent microscopy.
Microscopic imaging of live endothelial cells expressing GFP-actin allows characterization of dynamic changes in cytoskeletal structures. Unlike techniques that use fixed specimens, this method provides a detailed assessment of temporal changes in the actin cytoskeleton in the same cells before, during, and after various physical, pharmacological, or inflammatory stimuli.
1Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, 2Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary
Neural circuits are topographically organized into functional compartments with specific molecular profiles. Here, we provide the practical and technical steps for revealing global brain topography using a versatile wholemount immunohistochemical staining approach. We demonstrate the utility of the method using the well-understood cytoarchitecture and circuitry of cerebellum.
An accurate, short, sophisticated and cheap method is described that assesses telomere length in multiple tissues and species using qRT-PCR. In addition, we will describe a simple assay to assess telomerase activity as a complementary backbone test for telomere length.
In situ Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap: A Rat Model of Myocutaneous Ischemia Reperfusion Injury
1Department of Surgery, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 2Department of Nephrology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh
Free tissue transfer is widely employed in reconstructive surgery to restore form and function following oncological resection and trauma. Preconditioning this tissue prior to surgery may improve outcome. This article describes an in situ transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM) in rats as a means for testing preconditioning strategies.
Trypsin digest is one of the most commonly used methods to analyze retinal vasculature. This manuscript describes the method in detail, including key alterations to optimize the technique and remove the non-vascular tissue while preserving the overall architecture of the vessels.
1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, 2Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Biostatistics Division, Thomas Jefferson University, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University
Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive, relatively inexpensive methodology for directly visualizing the microcirculation. The forearm blood flow technique provides accepted non-invasive measures of endothelial function.
Remote Magnetic Navigation for Accurate, Real-time Catheter Positioning and Ablation in Cardiac Electrophysiology Procedures
This report provides a detailed description of a new remote navigation system based on magnetic driven forces, which has been recently introduced as a new robotic tool for human cardiac electrophysiology procedures.
This video presents a case of laparoscopic left liver sectoriectomy perfomed in a 53 year old man suffering from Caroli's disease limited to segment II and III of the liver.
The present article presents the details pertaining to the application of resistance training associated to vascular occlusion in IBM patients.
Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an emerging technology capable of imaging optical absorption contrasts in vivo with cellular resolution and sensitivity. Here, we provide a visualized instruction on the experimental protocols of OR-PAM, including system configuration, system alignment, typical in vivo experimental procedures, and functional imaging schemes.
1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, 2Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kettering University, 43Scan, 5Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University
The full process from brain specimen preparation to serial sectioning imaging using the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope, to data visualization and analysis is described. This technique is currently used to acquire mouse brain data, but it is applicable to other organs, other species.
1Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 2London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, 3Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, 4Translational Prostate Cancer Research Group, London Health Science Centre
We present a novel approach to quantify nanoparticle localization in the vasculature of human xenografted tumors using dynamic, real-time intravital imaging in an avian embryo model.
1Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco
In this article, we present a simple, practical technique for cerebrovascular casting that is easy to perform and can be utilized to image the vascular tree of the adult mouse brain.
Analysis of rodent cerebrovascular anatomy plays an important role in experimental stroke research. In this context, intravascular perfusion with colored latex has been considered as a standard tool for several years. However, this technique implies distinct technical limitations, which undermine its reproducibility. Here, we describe a simple method to visualize cerebral vessels in a reproducible manner. Injection of a mixture of two commercially available carbon black inks through the left myocardial ventricle results in adequate filling of cerebral vessels with high contrast visualization. We have successfully applied this technique to identify anastomotic points between cerebral vascular territories of mice with different genetic backgrounds. We finally give evidence that this novel and simple method for vessel staining can be combined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining - a widely used tool to observe and analyze infarct volumes in mice.
Intravital microscopy to follow temporal and spatial hemodynamic and inflammatory events in the pial microcirculation.
1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2Division of Fetal Therapy, Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 3Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Center
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and twin anemia polycythemia sequence are two potentially devastating problems in perinatal medicine. Both disorders occur only in monochorionic twins and result from unbalanced blood flow through placental vascular anastomoses. We provide a simple protocol to accurately evaluate the presence of vascular anastomoses using colored dye injection of placental vessels after birth.
Tilt Testing with Combined Lower Body Negative Pressure: a "Gold Standard" for Measuring Orthostatic Tolerance
We describe a "gold standard" for evaluating orthostatic tolerance (OT) using tilt testing with combined lower body negative pressure (LBNP). This can be combined with non-invasive evaluations of cardiovascular reflex control. Normal and abnormal responses are defined.
In pressure myography, an intact small segment of a vessel is mounted onto two small cannulas and pressurized to a suitable luminal pressure. Here, we describe the method to measure vasorelaxation response of the mouse 3rd order mesenteric arteries in c57 and sGCα1-/- mice using pressure myography.
Targeted Labeling of Neurons in a Specific Functional Micro-domain of the Neocortex by Combining Intrinsic Signal and Two-photon Imaging
A method is described for labeling neurons with fluorescent dyes in predetermined functional micro-domains of the neocortex. First, intrinsic signal optical imaging is used to obtain a functional map. Then two-photon microscopy is used to label and image neurons within a micro-domain of the map.
We have developed a minimally invasive technique to create a rabbit ischemic ear wound model by dividing the central artery and nerve and the cranial neurovascular bundle. A subcutaneous tunnel then cuts all subcutaneous tissues. This procedure causes minimal skin disruption and can be safely used in diabetic animals.
The endothelial glycocalyx/endothelial surface layer is ideally studied using intravital microscopy. Intravital microscopy is technically challenging in a moving organ such as the lung. We demonstrate how simultaneous brightfield and fluorescent microscopy may be used to estimate endothelial surface layer thickness in a freely-moving in vivo mouse lung.
Right Hemihepatectomy by Suprahilar Intrahepatic Transection of the Right Hemipedicle using a Vascular Stapler
This video describes a right hemihepatectomy with intrahepatic transection of the right hemipedicle leaving the hepatoduodenal ligament completely untouched.
Whole-mount Immunohistochemical Analysis for Embryonic Limb Skin Vasculature: a Model System to Study Vascular Branching Morphogenesis in Embryo
We introduce a whole-mount immunohistochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy with multiple labelling for analyzing intricate vascular network formation in mouse embryonic limb skin.
1Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, 2Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute, University of Massachusetts, 3Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts
A tube formation assay is used to evaluate vascular activity of tumor cells.
Retrograde Perfusion and Filling of Mouse Coronary Vasculature as Preparation for Micro Computed Tomography Imaging
1Department of Pathology, Center for Cardiovascular Biology, and Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington, 2Departments of Bioengineering and Medicine/Cardiology, University of Washington
Visualization of the coronary vessels is critical to advancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases. Here we describe a method for perfusing murine coronary vasculature with a radiopaque silicone rubber (Microfil), in preparation for micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) imaging.
Using High Resolution Computed Tomography to Visualize the Three Dimensional Structure and Function of Plant Vasculature
1U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California - Davis, 3Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, 4Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 5Citrus Research & Education Center, University of Florida
High resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRCT) is a non-destructive diagnostic imaging technique that can be used to study the structure and function of plant vasculature in 3D. We demonstrate how HRCT facilitates exploration of xylem networks across a wide range of plant tissues and species.
Our group has developed a bioreactor culture system that mimics the physiological pulsatile stresses of the cardiovascular system to regenerate implantable small-diameter vascular grafts.
Large animal models have good translational values in the examination of physiology and pharmacology of neonatal asphyxia. Using newborn piglets, we develop an experimental protocol to simulate neonatal asphyxia which has advantages of studying the systemic and regional hemodynamics, oxygen transport with biochemical and pathologic pathways and correlations.
Improved Visualization of Lung Metastases at Single Cell Resolution in Mice by Combined In-situ Perfusion of Lung Tissue and X-Gal Staining of lacZ-Tagged Tumor Cells
The novel protocol reported in the present study allows selective detection of lung metastases at single cell resolution in mice by combined in-situ lung perfusion and fixation and X-Gal staining of lacZ-tagged tumor cells.
Real-time Imaging of Heterotypic Platelet-neutrophil Interactions on the Activated Endothelium During Vascular Inflammation and Thrombus Formation in Live Mice
Here we report an experimental technique of fluorescence intravital microscopy to visualize heterotypic platelet-neutrophil interactions on the activated endothelium during vascular inflammation and thrombus formation in live mice. This microscopic technology will be valuable to study the molecular mechanism of vascular disease and to test pharmacologic agents under pathophysiological conditions.
Magnetically-Assisted Remote Controlled Microcatheter Tip Deflection under Magnetic Resonance Imaging
1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 2School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Medical Center, 4University of California, San Francisco, 5Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA
Current applied to an endovascular microcatheter with microcoil tip made by laser lathe lithography can achieve controllable deflections under magnetic resonance (MR) guidance, which may improve speed and efficacy of navigation of vasculature during various endovascular procedures.
Generation of High Quality Chromatin Immunoprecipitation DNA Template for High-throughput Sequencing (ChIP-seq)
The combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and ultra-high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) can identify and map protein-DNA interactions in a given tissue or cell line. Outlined is how to generate a high quality ChIP template for subsequent sequencing, using experience with the transcription factor TCF7L2 as an example.
Here, we describe a methodology to deliver human cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embedded in a collagen/fibronectin gel, subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. This cell/gel combination generates a human vascular network that connects with the mouse vasculature.
Directed Cellular Self-Assembly to Fabricate Cell-Derived Tissue Rings for Biomechanical Analysis and Tissue Engineering
This article outlines a versatile method to create cell-derived tissue rings by cellular self-assembly. Smooth muscle cells seeded into ring-shaped agarose wells aggregate and contract to form robust three-dimensional (3D) tissues within 7 days. Millimeter-scale tissue rings are conducive to mechanical testing and serve as building blocks for tissue assembly.
Rat Mesentery Exteriorization: A Model for Investigating the Cellular Dynamics Involved in Angiogenesis
This article describes a simple model for stimulating angiogenesis in the rat mesentery. The model produces dramatic increases in capillary sprouting, vascular area and vascular density over a relatively short time course in a tissue that allows en face visualization of entire microvascular networks down to the single cell level.
1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Center for Stem Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, 3Department of Biology, Duke University
A method of visualizing and quantifying the 3-dimensional structure of mouse hepatic portal vein or intrahepatic bile duct is described. This resin cast technique can also be applied to other ductal or vascular systems and allows for in situ visualization or quantification of a system's intact communicating architecture.
Murine Spinotrapezius Model to Assess the Impact of Arteriolar Ligation on Microvascular Function and Remodeling
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, 3Office of Animal Welfare, University of Virginia, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering & Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University
We demonstrate a novel arterial ligation model in murine spinotrapezius muscle, including a step-by-step procedure and description of required instrumentation. We describe the surgery and relevant outcome measurements relating to vascular network remodeling and functional vasodilation using intravital and confocal microscopy.
This paper introduces an approach of combining laser scanning photostimulation with whole cell recordings in transgenic mice expressing GFP in limited inhibitory neuron populations. The technique allows for extensive mapping and quantitative analysis of local synaptic circuits of specific inhibitory cortical neurons.
Quantification of Atherosclerotic Plaque Activity and Vascular Inflammation using [18-F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT)
1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, 3Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine
There is great need to identify atherosclerosis non-invasively, and here we demonstrate how FDG-PET/CT can be used to detect and quantify atherosclerotic plaque activity and vascular inflammation.
1Department of Visceral, Transplant, and Thoracic Surgery, Daniel Swarovski Research Laboratory, Innsbruck Medical University, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Here we describe the orthotopic rat hind-limb transplantation procedure, which seems to be the gold standard in vivo model for composite tissue allotransplantation research.
This article describes a method for labeling embryonic skin and thymus blood vessels.
We are presenting an in vivo assay to test blood vessel permeability. This assay is based on intravenous injection of a dye and subsequent visualization of its diffusion into interstitial spaces.
Spectral Karyotyping to Study Chromosome Abnormalities in Humans and Mice with Polycystic Kidney Disease
Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) is an advanced cytogenetics technique to identify genomic and chromosomal aberrations. This technique takes advantage of chromosome painting probes, which allow classification of all chromosomes. SKY can also identify complex chromosome aberrations and segregation defects in mice and humans with various diseases, including polycystic kidney disease.