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September 2014: This Month in JoVE - Visualizing Coral, Injecting Hydra, Engineering Corneal Implants, and Assessing Traumatic Brain injury in Children

1, 2

1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production

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    Summary

    Date Published: 9/02/2014, Issue 91; doi: 10.3791/5509

    Cite this Article

    Chao, W., Kolski-Andreaco, A. September 2014: This Month in JoVE - Visualizing Coral, Injecting Hydra, Engineering Corneal Implants, and Assessing Traumatic Brain injury in Children. J. Vis. Exp. (91), e5509, doi:10.3791/5509 (2014).

    Abstract

    Here's a look at what's coming up in the September 2014 issue of JoVE: The Journal of Visualized Experiments.

    As summer comes to an end in the Earth's northern hemisphere, JoVE Environment takes us to the southern Caribbean Sea where year-round warm temperatures support the growth of corals, which are marine invertebrates in the phylum Cnidaria. Although coral reefs occupy less than 0.1% of the ocean floor, they are home to about 25% of all marine life. These delicate ecosystems provide a wealth of natural resources but they are vulnerable to environmental threats, including climate change. To better predict how environmental factors will affect coral reefs, Sivaguru et al. have developed a way to construct 3D images of coral with fine details of the coral structure. This method can help establish a baseline for healthy coral and to visualize changes caused by different environmental conditions.

    In JoVE Biology we examine Hydra, which are freshwater relatives of coral and also in the phylum Cnidaria Named after the multi-headed serpent that was killed by Hercules in Greek mythology, Hydra have been the subject of tissue regeneration studies since the 1700s. But it wasn't until 2006 that transgenic manipulation techniques were developed for Hydra. Juliano et al. demonstrate how to microinject Hydra embryos with plasmid DNA and to generate stable transgenic lines Transgenic Hydra can then be used in studies of cell fate, gene expression, and tissue regeneration.

    In JoVE Bioengineering, we examine methods for regenerating tissues of the cornea, the clear front window of the eye. The edge of the cornea, or the limbus, is critical for corneal health. It prevents the ingrowth of blood vessels, thus keeping the cornea clear, and it is the source of stem cells that renew the outer corneal epithelium. If the corneal limbus is damaged or diseased, blindness can result, so in this issue, Ortega et al. focus on methods for bioengineering the corneal limbus. Using microstereolithography and electrospinning, they create membranes that mimic the limbus. When these membranes are placed on corneal wound models. A new multi-layered corneal epithelium forms. This may lead to therapeutic devices that can regenerate the corneal epithelium and preserve vision in conditions that affect the limbus.

    In JoVE Clinical & Translational Medicine, we feature a protocol on concussions, which may have long-term physical and psychological effects. Although concussions are very common sports-related injuries in children, there is surprisingly little known about how a young brain responds to a concussion. Therefore, Reed et al. have developed methods for assessing cognitive performance, balance and various agility/motor skills This may help optimize the treatment and rehabilitation of pediatric concussions.

    You've just had a sneak peek of the September 2014 issue of JoVE. Visit the website to see the full-length articles, plus many more.

    Protocol

    Generation of Transgenic Hydra by Embryo Microinjection

    Celina E. Juliano1, Haifan Lin1, Robert E. Steele2

    1Yale Stem Cell Center and Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Biological Chemistry and the Developmental Biology Center, University of California, Irvine

    Stably transgenic Hydra are made by microinjection of plasmid DNA into embryos followed by random genomic integration and asexual propagation to establish a uniform line. Transgenic Hydra are used to track cell movements, overexpress genes, study promoter function, or knock down gene expression using RNAi.

    A Multi-Modal Approach to Assessing Recovery in Youth Athletes Following Concussion

    Nick Reed1,2,3, James Murphy1, Talia Dick1, Katie Mah3, Melissa Paniccia3, Lee Verweel3, Danielle Dobney3, Michelle Keightley1,2,3

    1Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, 2Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 3Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto

    This article provides an overview of a multi-modal approach to assessing recovery following concussion in youth athletes. The described protocol uses pre- and post-concussion assessment of performance across a wide variety of domains and can inform the development of improved concussion rehabilitation protocols specific to the youth sport community.

    Combination of Microstereolithography and Electrospinning to Produce Membranes Equipped with Niches for Corneal Regeneration

    Ílida Ortega1, Farshid Sefat1, Pallavi Deshpande1, Thomas Paterson1, Charanya Ramachandran3, Anthony J. Ryan2, Sheila MacNeil1, Frederik Claeyssens1

    1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, 3L. V. Prasad Eye Institute

    We report a technique for the fabrication of micropockets within electrospun membranes in which to study cell behavior. Specifically, we describe a combination of microstereolithography and electrospinning for the production of PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) corneal biomaterial devices equipped with microfeatures.

    Multimodal Optical Microscopy Methods Reveal Polyp Tissue Morphology and Structure in Caribbean Reef Building Corals

    Mayandi Sivaguru1, Glenn A. Fried1, Carly A. H. Miller1,2, Bruce W. Fouke1,2,3

    1Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    An integrated suite of imaging techniques has been applied to determine polyp morphology and tissue structure in the Caribbean corals Montastraeaannularis and M. faveolata. Fluorescence, serial block face, and two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy have identified lobate structure, polyp walls, and estimated chromatophore and zooxanthellae densities and distributions.

    Disclosures

    No conflicts of interest declared.

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