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IFN-gamma-inducible Irga6 mediates host resistance against Chlamydia trachomatis via autophagy.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
Chlamydial infection of the host cell induces Gamma interferon (IFNgamma), a central immunoprotector for humans and mice. The primary defense against Chlamydia infection in the mouse involves the IFNgamma-inducible family of IRG proteins; however, the precise mechanisms mediating the pathogens elimination are unknown. In this study, we identify Irga6 as an important resistance factor against C. trachomatis, but not C. muridarum, infection in IFNgamma-stimulated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We show that Irga6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 accumulate at bacterial inclusions in MEFs upon stimulation with IFNgamma, whereas Irgb6 colocalized in the presence or absence of the cytokine. This accumulation triggers a rerouting of bacterial inclusions to autophagosomes that subsequently fuse to lysosomes for elimination. Autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- MEFs and lysosomal acidification impaired cells surrender to infection. Irgm2, Irgm3 and Irgd still localize to inclusions in IFNgamma-induced Atg5-/- cells, but Irga6 localization is disrupted indicating its pivotal role in pathogen resistance. Irga6-deficient (Irga6-/-) MEFs, in which chlamydial growth is enhanced, do not respond to IFNgamma even though Irgb6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 still localize to inclusions. Taken together, we identify Irga6 as a necessary factor in conferring host resistance by remodelling a classically nonfusogenic intracellular pathogen to stimulate fusion with autophagosomes, thereby rerouting the intruder to the lysosomal compartment for destruction.
Authors: Stefan Jerchel, Gudrun Knebel, Peter König, Michael K. Bohlmann, Jan Rupp.
Published: 08-11-2012
Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) are the most frequent transmitted sexually disease in women worldwide. Inefficient clearance or persistence of the pathogens may lead to ascending infections of the upper genital tract and are supposed to cause chronic inflammatory damage to infected tissues 1,2. As a consequence, severe clinical sequelae like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal occlusion and infertility may occur 3,4. Most of the research with C. trachomatis has been conducted in epithelial cell lines (e.g. HEp-2 cells and HeLa-229) or in mice. However, as with cell- culture based models, they do neither reflect the physiology of native tissue nor the pathophysiology of C. trachomatis genital tract infections in vivo 5. Further limitations are given by the fact that central signaling cascades (e.g. IFN-γ mediated JAK/STAT signaling pathway) that control intracellular chlamydial growth fundamentally differ between mice and humans 6,7. We and others therefore established a whole organ fallopian tube model to investigate direct interactions between C. trachomatis and human fallopian tube cells ex vivo 8,9. For this purpose, human fallopian tubes from women undergoing hysterectomy were collected and infected with C. trachomatis serovar D. Within 24 h post infection, specimen where analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect Chlamydia trachomatis mediated epithelial damage as well as C. trachomatis inclusion formation in the fallopian tissue.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
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Forward Genetic Approaches in Chlamydia trachomatis
Authors: Bidong D. Nguyen, Raphael H. Valdivia.
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center.
Chlamydia trachomatis, the etiological agent of sexually transmitted diseases and ocular infections, remains poorly characterized due to its intractability to experimental transformation with recombinant DNA. We developed an approach to perform genetic analysis in C. trachomatis despite the lack of molecular genetic tools. Our method involves: i.) chemical mutagenesis to rapidly generate comprehensive libraries of genetically-defined mutants with distinct phenotypes; ii.) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to map the underlying genetic lesions and to find associations between mutated gene(s) and a common phenotype; iii.) generation of recombinant strains through co-infection of mammalian cells with mutant and wild type bacteria. Accordingly, we were able to establish causal relationships between genotypes and phenotypes. The coupling of chemically-induced gene variation and WGS to establish correlative genotype–phenotype associations should be broadly applicable to the large list of medically and environmentally important microorganisms currently intractable to genetic analysis.
Immunology, Issue 80, genetics, chemical mutagenesis, whole genome sequencing
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Dissecting Host-virus Interaction in Lytic Replication of a Model Herpesvirus
Authors: Xiaonan Dong, Pinghui Feng.
Institutions: UT Southwestern Medical Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center.
In response to viral infection, a host develops various defensive responses, such as activating innate immune signaling pathways that lead to antiviral cytokine production1,2. In order to colonize the host, viruses are obligate to evade host antiviral responses and manipulate signaling pathways. Unraveling the host-virus interaction will shed light on the development of novel therapeutic strategies against viral infection. Murine γHV68 is closely related to human oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epsten-Barr virus3,4. γHV68 infection in laboratory mice provides a tractable small animal model to examine the entire course of host responses and viral infection in vivo, which are not available for human herpesviruses. In this protocol, we present a panel of methods for phenotypic characterization and molecular dissection of host signaling components in γHV68 lytic replication both in vivo and ex vivo. The availability of genetically modified mouse strains permits the interrogation of the roles of host signaling pathways during γHV68 acute infection in vivo. Additionally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from these deficient mouse strains can be used to further dissect roles of these molecules during γHV68 lytic replication ex vivo. Using virological and molecular biology assays, we can pinpoint the molecular mechanism of host-virus interactions and identify host and viral genes essential for viral lytic replication. Finally, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system facilitates the introduction of mutations into the viral factor(s) that specifically interrupt the host-virus interaction. Recombinant γHV68 carrying these mutations can be used to recapitulate the phenotypes of γHV68 lytic replication in MEFs deficient in key host signaling components. This protocol offers an excellent strategy to interrogate host-pathogen interaction at multiple levels of intervention in vivo and ex vivo. Recently, we have discovered that γHV68 usurps an innate immune signaling pathway to promote viral lytic replication5. Specifically, γHV68 de novo infection activates the immune kinase IKKβ and activated IKKβ phosphorylates the master viral transcription factor, replication and transactivator (RTA), to promote viral transcriptional activation. In doing so, γHV68 efficiently couples its transcriptional activation to host innate immune activation, thereby facilitating viral transcription and lytic replication. This study provides an excellent example that can be applied to other viruses to interrogate host-virus interaction.
Immunology, Issue 56, herpesvirus, gamma herpesvirus 68, γHV68, signaling pathways, host-virus interaction, viral lytic replication
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Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts with a Four Transcription Factor, Doxycycline Inducible Lentiviral Transduction System
Authors: Brad Hamilton, Qiang Feng, Mike Ye, G Grant Welstead.
Institutions: Stemgent, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Using a defined set of transcription factors and cell culture conditions, Yamanaka and colleagues demonstrated that retrovirus-mediated delivery and expression of Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 is capable of inducing pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts.1 Subsequent reports have demonstrated the utility of the doxycycline (DOX) inducible lentiviral delivery system for the generation of both primary and secondary iPS cells from a variety of other adult mouse somatic cell types.2,3 Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation and ability to induce teratoma formation. Both types of cell can be used as the pluripotent starting material for the generation of differentiated cells or tissues in regenerative medicine.4-6 iPS cells also have a distinct advantage over ES cells as they exhibit key properties of ES cells without the ethical dilemma of embryo destruction. Here we demonstrate the protocol for reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells with the Stemgent DOX Inducible Mouse TF Lentivirus Set. We also demonstrate that the Stemgent DOX Inducible Mouse TF Lentivirus Set is capable of expressing each of the four transcription factors upon transduction into MEFs thereby inducing a pluripotent stem cell state that displays the pluripotency markers characteristic of ES cells.
Developmental Biology, Issue 33, reprogramming, Doxycycline, DOX, iPS, induced pluripotent stem cells, lentivirus, pluripotency, transduction, stem cells
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Generating iPS Cells from MEFS through Forced Expression of Sox-2, Oct-4, c-Myc, and Klf4
Authors: G. Grant Welstead, Tobias Brambrink, Rudolf Jaenisch.
Institutions: Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Pluripotency can be induced in differentiated murine by viral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006; Wernig, et al., 2007; Okita, et al., 2007; Maherali, et al., 2007). We have devised a reprogramming strategy in which these four transcription factors are expressed from doxycycline (dox)-inducible lentiviral vectors (Brambrink et al., 2008). Using these inducible constructs, we can derive induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In this video, we demonstrate the procedure for the generation of inducible lentiviruses that express the four transcription factors and show how to infect MEFs with these viruses in order to produce iPS cells. By using inducible lentiviruses, the expression of the four factors in controlled by the addition of doxycyline to the culture medium. The advantage of this system over the traditional retroviral infection is the ability to turn the genes on and off so that the kinetics of reprogramming and gene expression requirements can be analyzed in detail.
Cell Biology, Issue 14, Reprogramming, inducible lentiviruses, iPS cells, MEFs, ES cells, virus transduction, doxycycline
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Mouse Models for Graft Arteriosclerosis
Authors: Lingfeng Qin, Luyang Yu, Wang Min.
Institutions: Yale University School of Medicine , Yale University School of Medicine .
Graft arteriosclerois (GA), also called allograft vasculopathy, is a pathologic lesion that develops over months to years in transplanted organs characterized by diffuse, circumferential stenosis of the entire graft vascular tree. The most critical component of GA pathogenesis is the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells within the intima. When a human coronary artery segment is interposed into the infra-renal aortae of immunodeficient mice, the intimas could be expand in response to adoptively transferred human T cells allogeneic to the artery donor or exogenous human IFN-γ in the absence of human T cells. Interposition of a mouse aorta from one strain into another mouse strain recipient is limited as a model for chronic rejection in humans because the acute cell-mediated rejection response in this mouse model completely eliminates all donor-derived vascular cells from the graft within two-three weeks. We have recently developed two new mouse models to circumvent these problems. The first model involves interposition of a vessel segment from a male mouse into a female recipient of the same inbred strain (C57BL/6J). Graft rejection in this case is directed only against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome (present in the male but not the female) and the rejection response that ensues is sufficiently indolent to preserve donor-derived smooth muscle cells for several weeks. The second model involves interposing an artery segment from a wild type C57BL/6J mouse donor into a host mouse of the same strain and gender that lacks the receptor for IFN-γ followed by administration of mouse IFN-γ (delivered via infection of the mouse liver with an adenoviral vector. There is no rejection in this case as both donor and recipient mice are of the same strain and gender but donor smooth muscle cells proliferate in response to the cytokine while host-derived cells, lacking receptor for this cytokine, are unresponsive. By backcrossing additional genetic changes into the vessel donor, both models can be used to assess the effect of specific genes on GA progression. Here, we describe detailed protocols for our mouse GA models.
Medicine, Issue 75, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cardiology, Pathology, Surgery, Tissue Engineering, Cardiovascular Diseases, vascular biology, graft arteriosclerosis, GA, mouse models, transplantation, graft, vessels, arteries, mouse, animal model, surgical techniques
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Using Reverse Genetics to Manipulate the NSs Gene of the Rift Valley Fever Virus MP-12 Strain to Improve Vaccine Safety and Efficacy
Authors: Birte Kalveram, Olga Lihoradova, Sabarish V. Indran, Tetsuro Ikegami.
Institutions: University of Texas Medical Branch.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which causes hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate abortion and fetal malformation in ruminants1, has been classified as a HHS/USDA overlap select agent and a risk group 3 pathogen. It belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae and is one of the most virulent members of this family. Several reverse genetics systems for the RVFV MP-12 vaccine strain2,3 as well as wild-type RVFV strains 4-6, including ZH548 and ZH501, have been developed since 2006. The MP-12 strain (which is a risk group 2 pathogen and a non-select agent) is highly attenuated by several mutations in its M- and L-segments, but still carries virulent S-segment RNA3, which encodes a functional virulence factor, NSs. The rMP12-C13type (C13type) carrying 69% in-frame deletion of NSs ORF lacks all the known NSs functions, while it replicates as efficient as does MP-12 in VeroE6 cells lacking type-I IFN. NSs induces a shut-off of host transcription including interferon (IFN)-beta mRNA7,8 and promotes degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) at the post-translational level.9,10 IFN-beta is transcriptionally upregulated by interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), NF-kB and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and the binding of IFN-beta to IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) stimulates the transcription of IFN-alpha genes or other interferon stimulated genes (ISGs)11, which induces host antiviral activities, whereas host transcription suppression including IFN-beta gene by NSs prevents the gene upregulations of those ISGs in response to viral replication although IRF-3, NF-kB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) can be activated by RVFV7. . Thus, NSs is an excellent target to further attenuate MP-12, and to enhance host innate immune responses by abolishing the IFN-beta suppression function. Here, we describe a protocol for generating a recombinant MP-12 encoding mutated NSs, and provide an example of a screening method to identify NSs mutants lacking the function to suppress IFN-beta mRNA synthesis. In addition to its essential role in innate immunity, type-I IFN is important for the maturation of dendritic cells and the induction of an adaptive immune response12-14. Thus, NSs mutants inducing type-I IFN are further attenuated, but at the same time are more efficient at stimulating host immune responses than wild-type MP-12, which makes them ideal candidates for vaccination approaches.
Immunology, Issue 57, Rift Valley fever virus, reverse genetics, NSs, MP-12, vaccine development
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Monitoring Activation of the Antiviral Pattern Recognition Receptors RIG-I And PKR By Limited Protease Digestion and Native PAGE
Authors: Michaela Weber, Friedemann Weber.
Institutions: Philipps-University Marburg.
Host defenses to virus infection are dependent on a rapid detection by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system. In the cytoplasm, the PRRs RIG-I and PKR bind to specific viral RNA ligands. This first mediates conformational switching and oligomerization, and then enables activation of an antiviral interferon response. While methods to measure antiviral host gene expression are well established, methods to directly monitor the activation states of RIG-I and PKR are only partially and less well established. Here, we describe two methods to monitor RIG-I and PKR stimulation upon infection with an established interferon inducer, the Rift Valley fever virus mutant clone 13 (Cl 13). Limited trypsin digestion allows to analyze alterations in protease sensitivity, indicating conformational changes of the PRRs. Trypsin digestion of lysates from mock infected cells results in a rapid degradation of RIG-I and PKR, whereas Cl 13 infection leads to the emergence of a protease-resistant RIG-I fragment. Also PKR shows a virus-induced partial resistance to trypsin digestion, which coincides with its hallmark phosphorylation at Thr 446. The formation of RIG-I and PKR oligomers was validated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Upon infection, there is a strong accumulation of RIG-I and PKR oligomeric complexes, whereas these proteins remained as monomers in mock infected samples. Limited protease digestion and native PAGE, both coupled to western blot analysis, allow a sensitive and direct measurement of two diverse steps of RIG-I and PKR activation. These techniques are relatively easy and quick to perform and do not require expensive equipment.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 89, innate immune response, virus infection, pathogen recognition receptor, RIG-I, PKR, IRF-3, limited protease digestion, conformational switch, native PAGE, oligomerization
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Development of an IFN-γ ELISpot Assay to Assess Varicella-Zoster Virus-specific Cell-mediated Immunity Following Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation
Authors: Insaf Salem Fourati, Anne-Julie Grenier, Élyse Jolette, Natacha Merindol, Philippe Ovetchkine, Hugo Soudeyns.
Institutions: Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal.
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). For this reason, antiherpetic prophylaxis is administrated systematically to pediatric UCBT recipients to prevent complications associated with VZV infection, but there is no strong, evidence based consensus that defines its optimal duration. Because T cell mediated immunity is responsible for the control of VZV infection, assessing the reconstitution of VZV specific T cell responses following UCBT could provide indications as to whether prophylaxis should be maintained or can be discontinued. To this end, a VZV specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay was developed to characterize IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes in response to in vitro stimulation with irradiated live attenuated VZV vaccine. This assay provides a rapid, reproducible and sensitive measurement of VZV specific cell mediated immunity suitable for monitoring the reconstitution of VZV specific immunity in a clinical setting and assessing immune responsiveness to VZV antigens.  
Immunology, Issue 89, Varicella zoster virus, cell-mediated immunity, T cells, interferon gamma, ELISpot, umbilical cord blood transplantation
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Use of Interferon-γ Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay to Characterize Novel T-cell Epitopes of Human Papillomavirus
Authors: Xuelian Wang, William W. Greenfield, Hannah N. Coleman, Lindsey E. James, Mayumi Nakagawa.
Institutions: China Medical University , University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences , University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences .
A protocol has been developed to overcome the difficulties of isolating and characterizing rare T cells specific for pathogens, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), that cause localized infections. The steps involved are identifying region(s) of HPV proteins that contain T-cell epitope(s) from a subject, selecting for the peptide-specific T cells based on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion, and growing and characterizing the T-cell clones (Fig. 1). Subject 1 was a patient who was recently diagnosed with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion by biopsy and underwent loop electrical excision procedure for treatment on the day the T cells were collected1. A region within the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) E6 and E7 proteins which contained a T-cell epitope was identified using an IFN- g enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay performed with overlapping synthetic peptides (Fig. 2). The data from this assay were used not only to identify a region containing a T-cell epitope, but also to estimate the number of epitope specific T cells and to isolate them on the basis of IFN- γ secretion using commercially available magnetic beads (CD8 T-cell isolation kit, Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn CA). The selected IFN-γ secreting T cells were diluted and grown singly in the presence of an irradiated feeder cell mixture in order to support the growth of a single T-cell per well. These T-cell clones were screened using an IFN- γ ELISPOT assay in the presence of peptides covering the identified region and autologous Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs, obtained how described by Walls and Crawford)2 in order to minimize the number of T-cell clone cells needed. Instead of using 1 x 105 cells per well typically used in ELISPOT assays1,3, 1,000 T-cell clone cells in the presence of 1 x 105 autologous LCLs were used, dramatically reducing the number of T-cell clone cells needed. The autologous LCLs served not only to present peptide antigens to the T-cell clone cells, but also to keep a high cell density in the wells allowing the epitope-specific T-cell clone cells to secrete IFN-γ. This assures successful performance of IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Similarly, IFN- γ ELISPOT assays were utilized to characterize the minimal and optimal amino acid sequence of the CD8 T-cell epitope (HPV 16 E6 52-61 FAFRDLCIVY) and its HLA class I restriction element (B58). The IFN- γ ELISPOT assay was also performed using autologous LCLs infected with vaccinia virus expressing HPV 16 E6 or E7 protein. The result demonstrated that the E6 T-cell epitope was endogenously processed. The cross-recognition of homologous T-cell epitope of other high-risk HPV types was shown. This method can also be used to describe CD4 T-cell epitopes4.
Immunology, Issue 61, Interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay, T-cell, epitope, human papillomavirus
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A Protocol to Infect Caenorhabditis elegans with Salmonella typhimurium
Authors: Jiuli Zhang, Kailiang Jia.
Institutions: Florida Atlantic University.
In the last decade, C. elegans has emerged as an invertebrate organism to study interactions between hosts and pathogens, including the host defense against gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Salmonella establishes persistent infection in the intestine of C. elegans and results in early death of infected animals. A number of immunity mechanisms have been identified in C. elegans to defend against Salmonella infections. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, has been shown to limit the Salmonella replication in C. elegans and in mammals. Here, a protocol is described to infect C. elegans with Salmonella typhimurium, in which the worms are exposed to Salmonella for a limited time, similar to Salmonella infection in humans. Salmonella infection significantly shortens the lifespan of C. elegans. Using the essential autophagy gene bec-1 as an example, we combined this infection method with C. elegans RNAi feeding approach and showed this protocol can be used to examine the function of C. elegans host genes in defense against Salmonella infection. Since C. elegans whole genome RNAi libraries are available, this protocol makes it possible to comprehensively screen for C. elegans genes that protect against Salmonella and other intestinal pathogens using genome-wide RNAi libraries.
Immunology, Issue 88, C. elegans, Salmonella typhimurium, autophagy, infection, pathogen, host, RNAi
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Expansion of Human Peripheral Blood γδ T Cells using Zoledronate
Authors: Makoto Kondo, Takamichi Izumi, Nao Fujieda, Atsushi Kondo, Takeharu Morishita, Hirokazu Matsushita, Kazuhiro Kakimi.
Institutions: University of Tokyo Hospital, MEDINET Co., Ltd.
Human γδ T cells can recognize and respond to a wide variety of stress-induced antigens, thereby developing innate broad anti-tumor and anti-infective activity.1 The majority of γδ T cells in peripheral blood have the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor. These cells recognize antigen in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner and develop strong cytolytic and Th1-like effector functions.1Therefore, γδ T cells are attractive candidate effector cells for cancer immunotherapy. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to phosphoantigens such as (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), which is synthesized in bacteria via isoprenoid biosynthesis;2 and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is produced in eukaryotic cells through the mevalonate pathway.3 In physiological condition, the generation of IPP in nontransformed cell is not sufficient for the activation of γδ T cells. Dysregulation of mevalonate pathway in tumor cells leads to accumulation of IPP and γδ T cells activation.3 Because aminobisphosphonates (such as pamidronate or zoledronate) inhibit farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), the enzyme acting downstream of IPP in the mevalonate pathway, intracellular levels of IPP and sensitibity to γδ T cells recognition can be therapeutically increased by aminobisphosphonates. IPP accumulation is less efficient in nontransfomred cells than tumor cells with a pharmacologically relevant concentration of aminobisphosphonates, that allow us immunotherapy for cancer by activating γδ T cells with aminobisphosphonates. 4 Interestingly, IPP accumulates in monocytes when PBMC are treated with aminobisphosphonates, because of efficient drug uptake by these cells. 5 Monocytes that accumulate IPP become antigen-presenting cells and stimulate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in the peripheral blood.6 Based on these mechanisms, we developed a technique for large-scale expansion of γδ T cell cultures using zoledronate and interleukin-2 (IL-2).7 Other methods for expansion of γδ T cells utilize the synthetic phosphoantigens bromohydrin pyrophosphate (BrHPP)8 or 2-methyl-3-butenyl-1-pyrophosphate (2M3B1PP).9 All of these methods allow ex vivo expansion, resulting in large numbers of γδ T cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy. However, only zoledronate is an FDA-approved commercially available reagent. Zoledronate-expanded γδ T cells display CD27-CD45RA- effector memory phenotype and thier function can be evaluated by IFN-γ production assay. 7
Immunology, Issue 55, γδ T Cell, zoledronate, PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells
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Fluorescence Microscopy Methods for Determining the Viability of Bacteria in Association with Mammalian Cells
Authors: M. Brittany Johnson, Alison K. Criss.
Institutions: University of Virginia Health Sciences Center.
Central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability to define if and how microbes survive after exposure to eukaryotic cells. Current protocols to address these questions include colony count assays, gentamicin protection assays, and electron microscopy. Colony count and gentamicin protection assays only assess the viability of the entire bacterial population and are unable to determine individual bacterial viability. Electron microscopy can be used to determine the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding their localization in host cells. However, bacteria often display a range of electron densities, making assessment of viability difficult. This article outlines protocols for the use of fluorescent dyes that reveal the viability of individual bacteria inside and associated with host cells. These assays were developed originally to assess survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in primary human neutrophils, but should be applicable to any bacterium-host cell interaction. These protocols combine membrane-permeable fluorescent dyes (SYTO9 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]), which stain all bacteria, with membrane-impermeable fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide and SYTOX Green), which are only accessible to nonviable bacteria. Prior to eukaryotic cell permeabilization, an antibody or fluorescent reagent is added to identify extracellular bacteria. Thus these assays discriminate the viability of bacteria adherent to and inside eukaryotic cells. A protocol is also provided for using the viability dyes in combination with fluorescent antibodies to eukaryotic cell markers, in order to determine the subcellular localization of individual bacteria. The bacterial viability dyes discussed in this article are a sensitive complement and/or alternative to traditional microbiology techniques to evaluate the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding where bacteria survive in host cells.
Microbiology, Issue 79, Immunology, Infection, Cancer Biology, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Microscopy, Confocal, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Bacteria, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, bacteria, infection, viability, fluorescence microscopy, cell, imaging
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Use of Shigella flexneri to Study Autophagy-Cytoskeleton Interactions
Authors: Maria J. Mazon Moya, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy.
Institutions: Imperial College London, Institut Pasteur, Unité Macrophages et Développement de l'Immunité.
Shigella flexneri is an intracellular pathogen that can escape from phagosomes to reach the cytosol, and polymerize the host actin cytoskeleton to promote its motility and dissemination. New work has shown that proteins involved in actin-based motility are also linked to autophagy, an intracellular degradation process crucial for cell autonomous immunity. Strikingly, host cells may prevent actin-based motility of S. flexneri by compartmentalizing bacteria inside ‘septin cages’ and targeting them to autophagy. These observations indicate that a more complete understanding of septins, a family of filamentous GTP-binding proteins, will provide new insights into the process of autophagy. This report describes protocols to monitor autophagy-cytoskeleton interactions caused by S. flexneri in vitro using tissue culture cells and in vivo using zebrafish larvae. These protocols enable investigation of intracellular mechanisms that control bacterial dissemination at the molecular, cellular, and whole organism level.
Infection, Issue 91, ATG8/LC3, autophagy, cytoskeleton, HeLa cells, p62, septin, Shigella, zebrafish
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Dissecting Innate Immune Signaling in Viral Evasion of Cytokine Production
Authors: Junjie Zhang, Lining Zhu, Pinghui Feng.
Institutions: Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California.
In response to a viral infection, the host innate immune response is activated to up-regulate gene expression and production of antiviral cytokines. Conversely, viruses have evolved intricate strategies to evade and exploit host immune signaling for survival and propagation. Viral immune evasion, entailing host defense and viral evasion, provides one of the most fascinating and dynamic interfaces to discern the host-virus interaction. These studies advance our understanding in innate immune regulation and pave our way to develop novel antiviral therapies. Murine γHV68 is a natural pathogen of murine rodents. γHV68 infection of mice provides a tractable small animal model to examine the antiviral response to human KSHV and EBV of which perturbation of in vivo virus-host interactions is not applicable. Here we describe a protocol to determine the antiviral cytokine production. This protocol can be adapted to other viruses and signaling pathways. Recently, we have discovered that γHV68 hijacks MAVS and IKKβ, key innate immune signaling components downstream of the cytosolic RIG-I and MDA5, to abrogate NFΚB activation and antiviral cytokine production. Specifically, γHV68 infection activates IKKβ and that activated IKKβ phosphorylates RelA to accelerate RelA degradation. As such, γHV68 efficiently uncouples NFΚB activation from its upstream activated IKKβ, negating antiviral cytokine gene expression. This study elucidates an intricate strategy whereby the upstream innate immune activation is intercepted by a viral pathogen to nullify the immediate downstream transcriptional activation and evade antiviral cytokine production.
Immunology, Issue 85, Herpesviridae, Cytokines, Antiviral Agents, Innate, gamma-HV68, mice infection, MEF, antiviral cytokine
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Analysis of the Epithelial Damage Produced by Entamoeba histolytica Infection
Authors: Abigail Betanzos, Michael Schnoor, Rosario Javier-Reyna, Guillermina García-Rivera, Cecilia Bañuelos, Jonnatan Pais-Morales, Esther Orozco.
Institutions: Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute.
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis, a major cause of diarrhea and hepatic abscess in tropical countries. Infection is initiated by interaction of the pathogen with intestinal epithelial cells. This interaction leads to disruption of intercellular structures such as tight junctions (TJ). TJ ensure sealing of the epithelial layer to separate host tissue from gut lumen. Recent studies provide evidence that disruption of TJ by the parasitic protein EhCPADH112 is a prerequisite for E. histolytica invasion that is accompanied by epithelial barrier dysfunction. Thus, the analysis of molecular mechanisms involved in TJ disassembly during E. histolytica invasion is of paramount importance to improve our understanding of amoebiasis pathogenesis. This article presents an easy model that allows the assessment of initial host-pathogen interactions and the parasite invasion potential. Parameters to be analyzed include transepithelial electrical resistance, interaction of EhCPADH112 with epithelial surface receptors, changes in expression and localization of epithelial junctional markers and localization of parasite molecules within epithelial cells.
Immunology, Issue 88, Entamoeba histolytica, EhCPADH112, cell adhesion, MDCK, Caco-2, tight junction disruption, amoebiasis, host-pathogen interaction, infection model, actin cytoskeleton
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Following in Real Time the Impact of Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in an Acute Mouse Pneumonia Model Using Bioluminescent Bacteria
Authors: Malek Saleh, Mohammed R. Abdullah, Christian Schulz, Thomas Kohler, Thomas Pribyl, Inga Jensch, Sven Hammerschmidt.
Institutions: University of Greifswald.
Pneumonia is one of the major health care problems in developing and industrialized countries and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in knowledge of this illness, the availability of intensive care units (ICU), and the use of potent antimicrobial agents and effective vaccines, the mortality rates remain high1. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of bacteremia in humans. This pathogen is equipped with an armamentarium of surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors contributing to pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae pathogenicity mechanisms. Murine models of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis are being used to determine the impact of pneumococcal factors at different stages of the infection. Here we describe a protocol to monitor in real-time pneumococcal dissemination in mice after intranasal or intraperitoneal infections with bioluminescent bacteria. The results show the multiplication and dissemination of pneumococci in the lower respiratory tract and blood, which can be visualized and evaluated using an imaging system and the accompanying analysis software.
Infection, Issue 84, Gram-Positive Bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Respiratory Tract Infections, animal models, community-acquired pneumonia, invasive pneumococcal diseases, Pneumococci, bioimaging, virulence factor, dissemination, bioluminescence, IVIS Spectrum
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Authors: George Papadopoulos, Carolyn D. Kramer, Connie S. Slocum, Ellen O. Weinberg, Ning Hua, Cynthia V. Gudino, James A. Hamilton, Caroline A. Genco.
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90, Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
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In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Authors: Mark E. Kusek, Michael A. Pazos, Waheed Pirzai, Bryan P. Hurley.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state.  Cocultured in vitro models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa (PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli (MC1000).  The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
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Building a Better Mosquito: Identifying the Genes Enabling Malaria and Dengue Fever Resistance in A. gambiae and A. aegypti Mosquitoes
Authors: George Dimopoulos.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University.
In this interview, George Dimopoulos focuses on the physiological mechanisms used by mosquitoes to combat Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infections. Explanation is given for how key refractory genes, those genes conferring resistance to vector pathogens, are identified in the mosquito and how this knowledge can be used to generate transgenic mosquitoes that are unable to carry the malaria parasite or dengue virus.
Cellular Biology, Issue 5, Translational Research, mosquito, malaria, virus, dengue, genetics, injection, RNAi, transgenesis, transgenic
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From MEFs to Matrigel I: Passaging hESCs in the Presence of MEFs
Authors: Jin Zhang, Ivan Khvorostov, Michael Teitell.
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles.
This video demonstrates how to grow human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 16, human embryonic stem cell (hESC), mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF), matrigel, conditioned-media, feeder cell, pluripotency
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Passaging HuES Human Embryonic Stem Cell-lines with Trypsin
Authors: Erin Trish, John Dimos, Kevin Eggan.
Institutions: Harvard.
In this video we demonstrate how our lab routinely passages HuES human embryonic stem cell lines with trypsin. Human embryonic stem cells are artifacts of cell culture, and tend to acquire karyotypic abnormalities with high population doublings. Proper passaging is essential for maintaining a healthy, undifferentiated, karyotypically normal HuES human embryonic stem cell culture. First, an expanding culture is washed in PBS to remove residual media and cell debris, then cells are overlaid with a minimal volume of warm 0.05% Trypsin-EDTA. Trypsin is left on the cells for up to five minutes, then cells are gently dislodged with a 2mL serological pipette. The cell suspension is collected and mixed with a large volume of HuES media, then cells are collected by gentle centrifugation. The inactivated trypsin media mixture is removed, and cells resuspended in pre-warmed HuES media. An appropriate split ratio is calculated (generally 1:10 to 1:20), and cells re-plated onto a 1-2 day old plate containing a monolayer of irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells. The newly seeded HuES culture plate is left undisturbed for 48 hrs, then media is changed every day thereafter. It is important not to trpsinize down to a single cell suspension, as this increases the risk of introducing karyotypic abnormalities.
Cellular Biology, Issue 1, embryonic stem cells, ES, tissue culture
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