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Oxidative inactivation of mitochondrial aconitase results in iron and H2O2-mediated neurotoxicity in rat primary mesencephalic cultures.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a contributing factor in the etiology of numerous neuronal disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) modify cellular targets to induce the death of neurons remains unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if oxidative inactivation of mitochondrial aconitase (m-aconitase) resulted in the release of redox-active iron (Fe2+) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and whether this contributes to cell death.
Authors: Vera Mugoni, Annalisa Camporeale, Massimo M. Santoro.
Published: 07-07-2014
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. This situation causes oxidation of molecules (lipid, DNA, protein) and leads to cell death. Oxidative stress also impacts the progression of several pathological conditions such as diabetes, retinopathies, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Thus, it is important to define tools to investigate oxidative stress conditions not only at the level of single cells but also in the context of whole organisms. Here, we consider the zebrafish embryo as a useful in vivo system to perform such studies and present a protocol to measure in vivo oxidative stress. Taking advantage of fluorescent ROS probes and zebrafish transgenic fluorescent lines, we develop two different methods to measure oxidative stress in vivo: i) a “whole embryo ROS-detection method” for qualitative measurement of oxidative stress and ii) a “single-cell ROS detection method” for quantitative measurements of oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. This protocol is amenable for forward genetic screens and it will help address cause-effect relationships of ROS in animal models of oxidative stress-related pathologies such as neurological disorders and cancer.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
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Ratiometric Biosensors that Measure Mitochondrial Redox State and ATP in Living Yeast Cells
Authors: Jason D. Vevea, Dana M. Alessi Wolken, Theresa C. Swayne, Adam B. White, Liza A. Pon.
Institutions: Columbia University, Columbia University.
Mitochondria have roles in many cellular processes, from energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis to control of cellular lifespan and programmed cell death. These processes affect and are affected by the redox status of and ATP production by mitochondria. Here, we describe the use of two ratiometric, genetically encoded biosensors that can detect mitochondrial redox state and ATP levels at subcellular resolution in living yeast cells. Mitochondrial redox state is measured using redox-sensitive Green Fluorescent Protein (roGFP) that is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Mito-roGFP contains cysteines at positions 147 and 204 of GFP, which undergo reversible and environment-dependent oxidation and reduction, which in turn alter the excitation spectrum of the protein. MitGO-ATeam is a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe in which the ε subunit of the FoF1-ATP synthase is sandwiched between FRET donor and acceptor fluorescent proteins. Binding of ATP to the ε subunit results in conformation changes in the protein that bring the FRET donor and acceptor in close proximity and allow for fluorescence resonance energy transfer from the donor to acceptor.
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, life sciences, roGFP, redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein, GO-ATeam, ATP, FRET, ROS, mitochondria, biosensors, GFP, ImageJ, microscopy, confocal microscopy, cell, imaging
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Visualization of Vascular Ca2+ Signaling Triggered by Paracrine Derived ROS
Authors: Karthik Mallilankaraman, Rajesh Kumar Gandhirajan, Brian J. Hawkins, Muniswamy Madesh.
Institutions: Temple University , University of Washington.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in a number of pathologic conditions including ischemia/reperfusion damage and sepsis. The concept of oxidative stress refers to the aberrant formation of ROS (reactive oxygen species), which include O2•-, H2O2, and hydroxyl radicals. Reactive oxygen species influences a multitude of cellular processes including signal transduction, cell proliferation and cell death1-6. ROS have the potential to damage vascular and organ cells directly, and can initiate secondary chemical reactions and genetic alterations that ultimately result in an amplification of the initial ROS-mediated tissue damage. A key component of the amplification cascade that exacerbates irreversible tissue damage is the recruitment and activation of circulating inflammatory cells. During inflammation, inflammatory cells produce cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and IL-1 that activate endothelial cells (EC) and epithelial cells and further augment the inflammatory response7. Vascular endothelial dysfunction is an established feature of acute inflammation. Macrophages contribute to endothelial dysfunction during inflammation by mechanisms that remain unclear. Activation of macrophages results in the extracellular release of O2•- and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which triggers pathologic signaling in adjacent cells8. NADPH oxidases are the major and primary source of ROS in most of the cell types. Recently, it is shown by us and others9,10 that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases induce the mitochondrial ROS production during many pathophysiological conditions. Hence measuring the mitochondrial ROS production is equally important in addition to measuring cytosolic ROS. Macrophages produce ROS by the flavoprotein enzyme NADPH oxidase which plays a primary role in inflammation. Once activated, phagocytic NADPH oxidase produces copious amounts of O2•- that are important in the host defense mechanism11,12. Although paracrine-derived O2•- plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, visualization of paracrine ROS-induced intracellular signaling including Ca2+ mobilization is still hypothesis. We have developed a model in which activated macrophages are used as a source of O2•- to transduce a signal to adjacent endothelial cells. Using this model we demonstrate that macrophage-derived O2•- lead to calcium signaling in adjacent endothelial cells.
Molecular Biology, Issue 58, Reactive oxygen species, Calcium, paracrine superoxide, endothelial cells, confocal microscopy
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Multi-parameter Measurement of the Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Isolated Mouse Heart Mitochondria
Authors: Raluca Marcu, Chris K. Neeley, Georgios Karamanlidis, Brian J. Hawkins.
Institutions: University of Washington, Seattle.
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) is a non specific channel that forms in the inner mitochondrial membrane to transport solutes with a molecular mass smaller than 1.5 kDa. Although the definitive molecular identity of the pore is still under debate, proteins such as cyclophilin D, VDAC and ANT contribute to mtPTP formation. While the involvement of mtPTP opening in cell death is well established1, accumulating evidence indicates that the mtPTP serves a physiologic role during mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis2, bioenergetics and redox signaling 3. mtPTP opening is triggered by matrix Ca2+ but its activity can be modulated by several other factors such as oxidative stress, adenine nucleotide depletion, high concentrations of Pi, mitochondrial membrane depolarization or uncoupling, and long chain fatty acids4. In vitro, mtPTP opening can be achieved by increasing Ca2+ concentration inside the mitochondrial matrix through exogenous additions of Ca2+ (calcium retention capacity). When Ca2+ levels inside mitochondria reach a certain threshold, the mtPTP opens and facilitates Ca2+ release, dissipation of the proton motive force, membrane potential collapse and an increase in mitochondrial matrix volume (swelling) that ultimately leads to the rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane and irreversible loss of organelle function. Here we describe a fluorometric assay that allows for a comprehensive characterization of mtPTP opening in isolated mouse heart mitochondria. The assay involves the simultaneous measurement of 3 mitochondrial parameters that are altered when mtPTP opening occurs: mitochondrial Ca2+ handling (uptake and release, as measured by Ca2+ concentration in the assay medium), mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial volume. The dyes employed for Ca2+ measurement in the assay medium and mitochondrial membrane potential are Fura FF, a membrane impermeant, ratiometric indicator which undergoes a shift in the excitation wavelength in the presence of Ca2+, and JC-1, a cationic, ratiometric indicator which forms green monomers or red aggregates at low and high membrane potential, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial volume are measured by recording light scattering by the mitochondrial suspension. Since high-quality, functional mitochondria are required for the mtPTP opening assay, we also describe the steps necessary to obtain intact, highly coupled and functional isolated heart mitochondria.
Cellular Biology, Issue 67, Mitochondria, respiration, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), membrane potential, swelling, calcium, spectrofluorometer
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Primary Culture of Mouse Dopaminergic Neurons
Authors: Florence Gaven, Philippe Marin, Sylvie Claeysen.
Institutions: Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Montpellier, U661, Montpellier, Universités de Montpellier.
Dopaminergic neurons represent less than 1% of the total number of neurons in the brain. This low amount of neurons regulates important brain functions such as motor control, motivation, and working memory. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). This progressive neuronal loss is unequivocally associated with the motors symptoms of the pathology (bradykinesia, resting tremor, and muscular rigidity). The main agent responsible of dopaminergic neuron degeneration is still unknown. However, these neurons appear to be extremely vulnerable in diverse conditions. Primary cultures constitute one of the most relevant models to investigate properties and characteristics of dopaminergic neurons. These cultures can be submitted to various stress agents that mimic PD pathology and to neuroprotective compounds in order to stop or slow down neuronal degeneration. The numerous transgenic mouse models of PD that have been generated during the last decade further increased the interest of researchers for dopaminergic neuron cultures. Here, the video protocol focuses on the delicate dissection of embryonic mouse brains. Precise excision of ventral mesencephalon is crucial to obtain neuronal cultures sufficiently rich in dopaminergic cells to allow subsequent studies. This protocol can be realized with embryonic transgenic mice and is suitable for immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, second messenger quantification, or neuronal death/survival assessment.
Neurobiology, Issue 91, Mus musculus, mesencephalon, embryonic, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, Parkinson's disease in vitro model
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Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) for the Study of RNA-Protein Interactions: The IRE/IRP Example
Authors: Carine Fillebeen, Nicole Wilkinson, Kostas Pantopoulos.
Institutions: Jewish General Hospital, McGill University.
RNA/protein interactions are critical for post-transcriptional regulatory pathways. Among the best-characterized cytosolic RNA-binding proteins are iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2. They bind to iron responsive elements (IREs) within the untranslated regions (UTRs) of several target mRNAs, thereby controlling the mRNAs translation or stability. IRE/IRP interactions have been widely studied by EMSA. Here, we describe the EMSA protocol for analyzing the IRE-binding activity of IRP1 and IRP2, which can be generalized to assess the activity of other RNA-binding proteins as well. A crude protein lysate containing an RNA-binding protein, or a purified preparation of this protein, is incubated with an excess of32 P-labeled RNA probe, allowing for complex formation. Heparin is added to preclude non-specific protein to probe binding. Subsequently, the mixture is analyzed by non-denaturing electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel. The free probe migrates fast, while the RNA/protein complex exhibits retarded mobility; hence, the procedure is also called “gel retardation” or “bandshift” assay. After completion of the electrophoresis, the gel is dried and RNA/protein complexes, as well as free probe, are detected by autoradiography. The overall goal of the protocol is to detect and quantify IRE/IRP and other RNA/protein interactions. Moreover, EMSA can also be used to determine specificity, binding affinity, and stoichiometry of the RNA/protein interaction under investigation.
Biochemistry, Issue 94, RNA metabolism, mRNA translation, post-transcriptional gene regulation, mRNA stability, IRE, IRP1, IRP2, iron metabolism, ferritin, transferrin receptor
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Viability Assays for Cells in Culture
Authors: Jessica M. Posimo, Ajay S. Unnithan, Amanda M. Gleixner, Hailey J. Choi, Yiran Jiang, Sree H. Pulugulla, Rehana K. Leak.
Institutions: Duquesne University.
Manual cell counts on a microscope are a sensitive means of assessing cellular viability but are time-consuming and therefore expensive. Computerized viability assays are expensive in terms of equipment but can be faster and more objective than manual cell counts. The present report describes the use of three such viability assays. Two of these assays are infrared and one is luminescent. Both infrared assays rely on a 16 bit Odyssey Imager. One infrared assay uses the DRAQ5 stain for nuclei combined with the Sapphire stain for cytosol and is visualized in the 700 nm channel. The other infrared assay, an In-Cell Western, uses antibodies against cytoskeletal proteins (α-tubulin or microtubule associated protein 2) and labels them in the 800 nm channel. The third viability assay is a commonly used luminescent assay for ATP, but we use a quarter of the recommended volume to save on cost. These measurements are all linear and correlate with the number of cells plated, but vary in sensitivity. All three assays circumvent time-consuming microscopy and sample the entire well, thereby reducing sampling error. Finally, all of the assays can easily be completed within one day of the end of the experiment, allowing greater numbers of experiments to be performed within short timeframes. However, they all rely on the assumption that cell numbers remain in proportion to signal strength after treatments, an assumption that is sometimes not met, especially for cellular ATP. Furthermore, if cells increase or decrease in size after treatment, this might affect signal strength without affecting cell number. We conclude that all viability assays, including manual counts, suffer from a number of caveats, but that computerized viability assays are well worth the initial investment. Using all three assays together yields a comprehensive view of cellular structure and function.
Cellular Biology, Issue 83, In-cell Western, DRAQ5, Sapphire, Cell Titer Glo, ATP, primary cortical neurons, toxicity, protection, N-acetyl cysteine, hormesis
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Isolation of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells from Neonatal Mice
Authors: Keng Jin Lee, Lyubov Czech, Gregory B. Waypa, Kathryn N. Farrow.
Institutions: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al.26 that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.
Basic Protocol, Issue 80, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Cardiovascular Abnormalities, Hypertension, Pulmonary, vascular smooth muscle, pulmonary hypertension, development, phosphodiesterases, cGMP, immunostaining
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A Rapid and Specific Microplate Assay for the Determination of Intra- and Extracellular Ascorbate in Cultured Cells
Authors: Darius J. R. Lane, Alfons Lawen.
Institutions: University of Sydney, Monash University.
Vitamin C (ascorbate) plays numerous important roles in cellular metabolism, many of which have only come to light in recent years. For instance, within the brain, ascorbate acts in a neuroprotective and neuromodulatory manner that involves ascorbate cycling between neurons and vicinal astrocytes - a relationship that appears to be crucial for brain ascorbate homeostasis. Additionally, emerging evidence strongly suggests that ascorbate has a greatly expanded role in regulating cellular and systemic iron metabolism than is classically recognized. The increasing recognition of the integral role of ascorbate in normal and deregulated cellular and organismal physiology demands a range of medium-throughput and high-sensitivity analytic techniques that can be executed without the need for highly expensive specialist equipment. Here we provide explicit instructions for a medium-throughput, specific and relatively inexpensive microplate assay for the determination of both intra- and extracellular ascorbate in cell culture.
Biochemistry, Issue 86, Vitamin C, Ascorbate, Cell swelling, Glutamate, Microplate assay, Astrocytes
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Production and Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Cancers
Authors: Danli Wu, Patricia Yotnda.
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine.
Reactive oxygen species include a number of molecules that damage DNA and RNA and oxidize proteins and lipids (lipid peroxydation). These reactive molecules contain an oxygen and include H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), O2- (oxide anion), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), hydrochlorous acid (HOCl), and hydroxyl radical (OH-). Oxidative species are produced not only under pathological situations (cancers, ischemic/reperfusion, neurologic and cardiovascular pathologies, infectious diseases, inflammatory diseases 1, autoimmune diseases 2, etc…) but also during physiological (non-pathological) situations such as cellular metabolism 3, 4. Indeed, ROS play important roles in many cellular signaling pathways (proliferation, cell activation 5, 6, migration 7 etc..). ROS can be detrimental (it is then referred to as "oxidative and nitrosative stress") when produced in high amounts in the intracellular compartments and cells generally respond to ROS by upregulating antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) that protects them by converting dangerous free radicals to harmless molecules (i.e. water). Vitamins C and E have also been described as ROS scavengers (antioxidants). Free radicals are beneficial in low amounts 3. Macrophage and neutrophils-mediated immune responses involve the production and release of NO, which inhibits viruses, pathogens and tumor proliferation 8. NO also reacts with other ROS and thus, also has a role as a detoxifier (ROS scavenger). Finally NO acts on vessels to regulate blood flow which is important for the adaptation of muscle to prolonged exercise 9, 10. Several publications have also demonstrated that ROS are involved in insulin sensitivity 11, 12. Numerous methods to evaluate ROS production are available. In this article we propose several simple, fast, and affordable assays; these assays have been validated by many publications and are routinely used to detect ROS or its effects in mammalian cells. While some of these assays detect multiple ROS, others detect only a single ROS.
Medicine, Issue 57, reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress, ischemia, cancer, chemotherapy, immune response
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Methods to Assess Subcellular Compartments of Muscle in C. elegans
Authors: Christopher J. Gaffney, Joseph J. Bass, Thomas F. Barratt, Nathaniel J. Szewczyk.
Institutions: University of Nottingham.
Muscle is a dynamic tissue that responds to changes in nutrition, exercise, and disease state. The loss of muscle mass and function with disease and age are significant public health burdens. We currently understand little about the genetic regulation of muscle health with disease or age. The nematode C. elegans is an established model for understanding the genomic regulation of biological processes of interest. This worm’s body wall muscles display a large degree of homology with the muscles of higher metazoan species. Since C. elegans is a transparent organism, the localization of GFP to mitochondria and sarcomeres allows visualization of these structures in vivo. Similarly, feeding animals cationic dyes, which accumulate based on the existence of a mitochondrial membrane potential, allows the assessment of mitochondrial function in vivo. These methods, as well as assessment of muscle protein homeostasis, are combined with assessment of whole animal muscle function, in the form of movement assays, to allow correlation of sub-cellular defects with functional measures of muscle performance. Thus, C. elegans provides a powerful platform with which to assess the impact of mutations, gene knockdown, and/or chemical compounds upon muscle structure and function. Lastly, as GFP, cationic dyes, and movement assays are assessed non-invasively, prospective studies of muscle structure and function can be conducted across the whole life course and this at present cannot be easily investigated in vivo in any other organism.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, Physiology, C. elegans, muscle, mitochondria, sarcomeres, ageing
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Determination of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Reactive Oxygen Species in Live Rat Cortical Neurons
Authors: Dinesh C. Joshi, Joanna C. Bakowska.
Institutions: Loyola University Chicago.
Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. A significant loss of ΔΨm renders cells depleted of energy with subsequent death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules, but their accumulation in pathological conditions leads to oxidative stress. The two major sources of ROS in cells are environmental toxins and the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases; therefore, the ability to determine ΔΨm and ROS can provide important clues about the physiological status of the cell and the function of the mitochondria. Several fluorescent probes (Rhodamine 123, TMRM, TMRE, JC-1) can be used to determine Δψm in a variety of cell types, and many fluorescence indicators (Dihydroethidium, Dihydrorhodamine 123, H2DCF-DA) can be used to determine ROS. Nearly all of the available fluorescence probes used to assess ΔΨm or ROS are single-wavelength indicators, which increase or decrease their fluorescence intensity proportional to a stimulus that increases or decreases the levels of ΔΨm or ROS. Thus, it is imperative to measure the fluorescence intensity of these probes at the baseline level and after the application of a specific stimulus. This allows one to determine the percentage of change in fluorescence intensity between the baseline level and a stimulus. This change in fluorescence intensity reflects the change in relative levels of ΔΨm or ROS. In this video, we demonstrate how to apply the fluorescence indicator, TMRM, in rat cortical neurons to determine the percentage change in TMRM fluorescence intensity between the baseline level and after applying FCCP, a mitochondrial uncoupler. The lower levels of TMRM fluorescence resulting from FCCP treatment reflect the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. We also show how to apply the fluorescence probe H2DCF-DA to assess the level of ROS in cortical neurons, first at baseline and then after application of H2O2. This protocol (with minor modifications) can be also used to determine changes in ∆Ψm and ROS in different cell types and in neurons isolated from other brain regions.
Neuroscience, Issue 51, Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, neuroscience, cortical neurons
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Screening Assay for Oxidative Stress in a Feline Astrocyte Cell Line, G355-5
Authors: Maria Pia Testa, Omar Alvarado, Andrea Wournell, Jonathan Lee, Frederick T. Guilford, Steven H. Henriksen, Tom R. Phillips.
Institutions: Western University of Health Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Products.
An often-suggested mechanism of virus induced neuronal damage is oxidative stress. Astrocytes have an important role in controlling oxidative stress of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Astrocytes help maintain a homeostatic environment for neurons as well as protecting neurons from Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). CM-H2DCFDA is a cell-permeable indicator for the presence of ROS. CM-H2DCFDA enters the cell as a non-fluorescent compound, and becomes fluorescent after cellular esterases remove the acetate groups, and the compound is oxidized. The number of cells, measured by flow cytometry, that are found to be green fluorescing is an indication of the number of cells that are in an oxidative state. CM-H2DCFDA is susceptible to oxidation by a large number of different ROS. This lack of specificity, regarding which ROS can oxidize CM-H2DCFDA, makes this compound a valuable regent for use in the early stages of a pathogenesis investigation, as this assay can be used to screen for an oxidative cellular environment regardless of which oxygen radical or combination of ROS are responsible for the cellular conditions. Once it has been established that ROS are present by oxidation of CM-H2DCFDA, then additional experiments can be performed to determine which ROS or combination of ROSs are involved in the particular pathogenesis process. The results of this study demonstrate that with the addition of hydrogen peroxide an increase in CM-H2DCFDA fluoresce was detected relative to the saline controls, indicating that this assay is a valuable test for detecting an oxidative environment within G355-5 cells, a feline astrocyte cell line.
Neuroscience, Issue 53, Astrocytes, oxidative stress, flow cytometry, CM-H2DCFDA
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Confocal Imaging of Single Mitochondrial Superoxide Flashes in Intact Heart or In Vivo
Authors: Guohua Gong, Wang Wang.
Institutions: University of Washington.
Mitochondrion is a critical intracellular organelle responsible for energy production and intracellular signaling in eukaryotic systems. Mitochondrial dysfunction often accompanies and contributes to human disease. Majority of the approaches that have been developed to evaluate mitochondrial function and dysfunction are based on in vitro or ex vivo measurements. Results from these experiments have limited ability in determining mitochondrial function in vivo. Here, we describe a novel approach that utilizes confocal scanning microscopy for the imaging of intact tissues in live aminals, which allows the evaluation of single mitochondrial function in a real-time manner in vivo. First, we generate transgenic mice expressing the mitochondrial targeted superoxide indicator, circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein (mt-cpYFP). Anesthetized mt-cpYFP mouse is fixed on a custom-made stage adaptor and time-lapse images are taken from the exposed skeletal muscles of the hindlimb. The mouse is subsequently sacrificed and the heart is set up for Langendorff perfusion with physiological solutions at 37 °C. The perfused heart is positioned in a special chamber on the confocal microscope stage and gentle pressure is applied to immobilize the heart and suppress heart beat induced motion artifact. Superoxide flashes are detected by real-time 2D confocal imaging at a frequency of one frame per second. The perfusion solution can be modified to contain different respiration substrates or other fluorescent indicators. The perfusion can also be adjusted to produce disease models such as ischemia and reperfusion. This technique is a unique approach for determining the function of single mitochondrion in intact tissues and in vivo.
Physiology, Issue 81, Heart Diseases, Metabolic Diseases, Microscopy, Confocal, Time-Lapse Imaging, Physiological Processes, Confocal imaging, mt-cpYFP transgenic mice, Superoxide flashes, Single mitochondrial measurement, Langendorff perfused heart, Skeletal muscles, in vivo
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Assessment of Mitochondrial Functions and Cell Viability in Renal Cells Overexpressing Protein Kinase C Isozymes
Authors: Grażyna Nowak, Diana Bakajsova.
Institutions: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences .
The protein kinase C (PKC) family of isozymes is involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Our recent data demonstrate that PKC regulates mitochondrial function and cellular energy status. Numerous reports demonstrated that the activation of PKC-a and PKC-ε improves mitochondrial function in the ischemic heart and mediates cardioprotection. In contrast, we have demonstrated that PKC-α and PKC-ε are involved in nephrotoxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in kidney cells. Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop an in vitro model of renal cells maintaining active mitochondrial functions in which PKC isozymes could be selectively activated or inhibited to determine their role in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and cell survival. Primary cultures of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) were cultured in improved conditions resulting in mitochondrial respiration and activity of mitochondrial enzymes similar to those in RPTC in vivo. Because traditional transfection techniques (Lipofectamine, electroporation) are inefficient in primary cultures and have adverse effects on mitochondrial function, PKC-ε mutant cDNAs were delivered to RPTC through adenoviral vectors. This approach results in transfection of over 90% cultured RPTC. Here, we present methods for assessing the role of PKC-ε in: 1. regulation of mitochondrial morphology and functions associated with ATP synthesis, and 2. survival of RPTC in primary culture. PKC-ε is activated by overexpressing the constitutively active PKC-ε mutant. PKC-ε is inhibited by overexpressing the inactive mutant of PKC-ε. Mitochondrial function is assessed by examining respiration, integrity of the respiratory chain, activities of respiratory complexes and F0F1-ATPase, ATP production rate, and ATP content. Respiration is assessed in digitonin-permeabilized RPTC as state 3 (maximum respiration in the presence of excess substrates and ADP) and uncoupled respirations. Integrity of the respiratory chain is assessed by measuring activities of all four complexes of the respiratory chain in isolated mitochondria. Capacity of oxidative phosphorylation is evaluated by measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production rate, and activity of F0F1-ATPase. Energy status of RPTC is assessed by determining the intracellular ATP content. Mitochondrial morphology in live cells is visualized using MitoTracker Red 580, a fluorescent dye that specifically accumulates in mitochondria, and live monolayers are examined under a fluorescent microscope. RPTC viability is assessed using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry to determine apoptosis and oncosis. These methods allow for a selective activation/inhibition of individual PKC isozymes to assess their role in cellular functions in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions that can be reproduced in in vitro.
Cellular Biology, Issue 71, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Pharmacology, Physiology, Medicine, Protein, Mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondria, protein kinase C, renal proximal tubular cells, reactive oxygen species, oxygen consumption, electron transport chain, respiratory complexes, ATP, adenovirus, primary culture, ischemia, cells, flow cytometry
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Bioenergetics and the Oxidative Burst: Protocols for the Isolation and Evaluation of Human Leukocytes and Platelets
Authors: Philip A. Kramer, Balu K. Chacko, Saranya Ravi, Michelle S. Johnson, Tanecia Mitchell, Victor M. Darley-Usmar.
Institutions: University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is known to play a significant role in a number of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, septic shock, and neurodegenerative diseases but assessing changes in bioenergetic function in patients is challenging. Although diseases such as diabetes or atherosclerosis present clinically with specific organ impairment, the systemic components of the pathology, such as hyperglycemia or inflammation, can alter bioenergetic function in circulating leukocytes or platelets. This concept has been recognized for some time but its widespread application has been constrained by the large number of primary cells needed for bioenergetic analysis. This technical limitation has been overcome by combining the specificity of the magnetic bead isolation techniques, cell adhesion techniques, which allow cells to be attached without activation to microplates, and the sensitivity of new technologies designed for high throughput microplate respirometry. An example of this equipment is the extracellular flux analyzer. Such instrumentation typically uses oxygen and pH sensitive probes to measure rates of change in these parameters in adherent cells, which can then be related to metabolism. Here we detail the methods for the isolation and plating of monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets, without activation, from human blood and the analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function in these cells. In addition, we demonstrate how the oxidative burst in monocytes and neutrophils can also be measured in the same samples. Since these methods use only 8-20 ml human blood they have potential for monitoring reactive oxygen species generation and bioenergetics in a clinical setting.
Immunology, Issue 85, bioenergetics, translational, mitochondria, oxidative stress, reserve capacity, leukocytes
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Enhancement of Apoptotic and Autophagic Induction by a Novel Synthetic C-1 Analogue of 7-deoxypancratistatin in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma and Neuroblastoma Cells with Tamoxifen
Authors: Dennis Ma, Jonathan Collins, Tomas Hudlicky, Siyaram Pandey.
Institutions: University of Windsor, Brock University.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers amongst women in North America. Many current anti-cancer treatments, including ionizing radiation, induce apoptosis via DNA damage. Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells. We have reported selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by the natural compound pancratistatin (PST). Recently, a novel PST analogue, a C-1 acetoxymethyl derivative of 7-deoxypancratistatin (JCTH-4), was produced by de novo synthesis and it exhibits comparable selective apoptosis inducing activity in several cancer cell lines. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in malignancies as both pro-survival and pro-death mechanisms in response to chemotherapy. Tamoxifen (TAM) has invariably demonstrated induction of pro-survival autophagy in numerous cancers. In this study, the efficacy of JCTH-4 alone and in combination with TAM to induce cell death in human breast cancer (MCF7) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was evaluated. TAM alone induced autophagy, but insignificant cell death whereas JCTH-4 alone caused significant induction of apoptosis with some induction of autophagy. Interestingly, the combinatory treatment yielded a drastic increase in apoptotic and autophagic induction. We monitored time-dependent morphological changes in MCF7 cells undergoing TAM-induced autophagy, JCTH-4-induced apoptosis and autophagy, and accelerated cell death with combinatorial treatment using time-lapse microscopy. We have demonstrated these compounds to induce apoptosis/autophagy by mitochondrial targeting in these cancer cells. Importantly, these treatments did not affect the survival of noncancerous human fibroblasts. Thus, these results indicate that JCTH-4 in combination with TAM could be used as a safe and very potent anti-cancer therapy against breast cancer and neuroblastoma cells.
Cancer Biology, Issue 63, Medicine, Biochemistry, Breast adenocarcinoma, neuroblastoma, tamoxifen, combination therapy, apoptosis, autophagy
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Respirometric Oxidative Phosphorylation Assessment in Saponin-permeabilized Cardiac Fibers
Authors: Curtis C. Hughey, Dustin S. Hittel, Virginia L. Johnsen, Jane Shearer.
Institutions: University of Calgary, University of Calgary.
Investigation of mitochondrial function represents an important parameter of cardiac physiology as mitochondria are involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, aging, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and drug toxicity. Given this, technologies to measure cardiac mitochondrial function are in demand. One technique that employs an integrative approach to measure mitochondrial function is respirometric oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) analysis. The principle of respirometric OXPHOS assessment is centered around measuring oxygen concentration utilizing a Clark electrode. As the permeabilized fiber bundle consumes oxygen, oxygen concentration in the closed chamber declines. Using selected substrate-inhibitor-uncoupler titration protocols, electrons are provided to specific sites of the electron transport chain, allowing evaluation of mitochondrial function. Prior to respirometric analysis of mitochondrial function, mechanical and chemical preparatory techniques are utilized to permeabilize the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. Chemical permeabilization employs saponin to selectively perforate the cell membrane while maintaining cellular architecture. This paper thoroughly describes the steps involved in preparing saponin-skinned cardiac fibers for oxygen consumption measurements to evaluate mitochondrial OXPHOS. Additionally, troubleshooting advice as well as specific substrates, inhibitors and uncouplers that may be used to determine mitochondria function at specific sites of the electron transport chain are provided. Importantly, the described protocol may be easily applied to cardiac and skeletal tissue of various animal models and human samples.
Physiology, Issue 48, cardiac fibers, mitochondria, oxygen consumption, mouse, methodology
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Sex Stratified Neuronal Cultures to Study Ischemic Cell Death Pathways
Authors: Stacy L. Fairbanks, Rebekah Vest, Saurabh Verma, Richard J. Traystman, Paco S. Herson.
Institutions: University of Colorado School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, University of Colorado School of Medicine.
Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome.
Neuroscience, Issue 82, male, female, sex, neuronal culture, ischemia, cell death, neuroprotection
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A Microfluidic Device with Groove Patterns for Studying Cellular Behavior
Authors: Bong Geun Chung, Amir Manbachi, Ali Khademhosseini.
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital.
We describe a microfluidic device with microgrooved patterns for studying cellular behavior. This microfluidic platform consists of a top fluidic channel and a bottom microgrooved substrate. To fabricate the microgrooved channels, a top poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold containing the impression of the microfluidic channels was aligned and bonded to a microgrooved substrate. Using this device, mouse fibroblast cells were immobilized and patterned within microgrooved substrates (25, 50, 75, and 100 μm wide). To study apoptosis in a microfluidic device, media containing hydrogen peroxide, Annexin V, and propidium iodide was perfused into the fluidic channel for 2 hours. We found that cells exposed to the oxidative stress became apoptotic. These apoptotic cells were confirmed by Annexin V that bound to phosphatidylserine at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane during the apoptosis process. Using this microfluidic device with microgrooved patterns, the apoptosis process was observed in real-time and analyzed by using an inverted microscope containing an incubation chamber (37°C, 5% CO2). Therefore, this microfluidic device incorporated with microgrooved substrates could be useful for studying the cellular behavior and performing high-throughput drug screening.
Issue 7, Cell Biology, tissue engineering, microfluidic, apoptosis
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Purification of Mitochondria from Yeast Cells
Authors: Christopher Gregg, Pavlo Kyryakov, Vladimir I. Titorenko.
Institutions: Concordia University.
Mitochondria are the main site of ATP production during aerobic metabolism in eukaryotic non-photosynthetic cells1. These complex organelles also play essential roles in apoptotic cell death2, cell survival3, mammalian development4, neuronal development and function4, intracellular signalling5, and longevity regulation6. Our understanding of these complex biological processes controlled by mitochondria relies on robust methods for assessing their morphology, their protein and lipid composition, the integrity of their DNA, and their numerous vital functions. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a genetically and biochemically manipulable unicellular eukaryote with annotated genome and well-defined proteome, is a valuable model for studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying essential biological functions of mitochondria. For these types of studies, it is crucial to have highly pure mitochondria. Here we present a detailed description of a rapid and effective method for purification of yeast mitochondria. This method enables the isolation of highly pure mitochondria that are essentially free of contamination by other organelles and retain their structural and functional integrity after their purification. Mitochondria purified by this method are suitable for cell-free reconstitution of essential mitochondrial processes and can be used for the analysis of mitochondrial structure and functions, mitochondrial proteome and lipidome, and mitochondrial DNA.
Cellular Biology, Issue 30, subcellular fractionation, organelles, organelle purification, mitochondria
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