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Pubmed Article
Caveolae act as membrane reserves which limit mechanosensitive I(Cl,swell) channel activation during swelling in the rat ventricular myocyte.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
Many ion channels are preferentially located in caveolae where compartmentalisation/scaffolding with signal transduction components regulates their activity. Channels that are mechanosensitive may be additionally dependent on caveolar control of the mechanical state of the membrane. Here we test which mechanism underlies caveolar-regulation of the mechanosensitive I(Cl,swell) channel in the adult cardiac myocyte.
Authors: Bruce A. Maki, Kirstie A. Cummings, Meaghan A. Paganelli, Swetha E. Murthy, Gabriela K. Popescu.
Published: 06-09-2014
ABSTRACT
Ion channel proteins are universal devices for fast communication across biological membranes. The temporal signature of the ionic flux they generate depends on properties intrinsic to each channel protein as well as the mechanism by which it is generated and controlled and represents an important area of current research. Information about the operational dynamics of ion channel proteins can be obtained by observing long stretches of current produced by a single molecule. Described here is a protocol for obtaining one-channel cell-attached patch-clamp current recordings for a ligand gated ion channel, the NMDA receptor, expressed heterologously in HEK293 cells or natively in cortical neurons. Also provided are instructions on how to adapt the method to other ion channels of interest by presenting the example of the mechano-sensitive channel PIEZO1. This method can provide data regarding the channel’s conductance properties and the temporal sequence of open-closed conformations that make up the channel’s activation mechanism, thus helping to understand their functions in health and disease.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
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Recapitulation of an Ion Channel IV Curve Using Frequency Components
Authors: John R. Rigby, Steven Poelzing.
Institutions: University of Utah.
INTRODUCTION: Presently, there are no established methods to measure multiple ion channel types simultaneously and decompose the measured current into portions attributable to each channel type. This study demonstrates how impedance spectroscopy may be used to identify specific frequencies that highly correlate with the steady state current amplitude measured during voltage clamp experiments. The method involves inserting a noise function containing specific frequencies into the voltage step protocol. In the work presented, a model cell is used to demonstrate that no high correlations are introduced by the voltage clamp circuitry, and also that the noise function itself does not introduce any high correlations when no ion channels are present. This validation is necessary before the technique can be applied to preparations containing ion channels. The purpose of the protocol presented is to demonstrate how to characterize the frequency response of a single ion channel type to a noise function. Once specific frequencies have been identified in an individual channel type, they can be used to reproduce the steady state current voltage (IV) curve. Frequencies that highly correlate with one channel type and minimally correlate with other channel types may then be used to estimate the current contribution of multiple channel types measured simultaneously. METHODS: Voltage clamp measurements were performed on a model cell using a standard voltage step protocol (-150 to +50 mV, 5mV steps). Noise functions containing equal magnitudes of 1-15 kHz frequencies (zero to peak amplitudes: 50 or 100mV) were inserted into each voltage step. The real component of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the output signal was calculated with and without noise for each step potential. The magnitude of each frequency as a function of voltage step was correlated with the current amplitude at the corresponding voltages. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of noise (control), magnitudes of all frequencies except the DC component correlated poorly (|R|<0.5) with the IV curve, whereas the DC component had a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999 in all measurements. The quality of correlation between individual frequencies and the IV curve did not change when a noise function was added to the voltage step protocol. Likewise, increasing the amplitude of the noise function also did not increase the correlation. Control measurements demonstrate that the voltage clamp circuitry by itself does not cause any frequencies above 0 Hz to highly correlate with the steady-state IV curve. Likewise, measurements in the presence of the noise function demonstrate that the noise function does not cause any frequencies above 0 Hz to correlate with the steady-state IV curve when no ion channels are present. Based on this verification, the method can now be applied to preparations containing a single ion channel type with the intent of identifying frequencies whose amplitudes correlate specifically with that channel type.
Biophysics, Issue 48, Ion channel, Kir2.1, impedance spectroscopy, frequency response, voltage clamp, electrophysiology
2361
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Measuring Fast Calcium Fluxes in Cardiomyocytes
Authors: Urszula Golebiewska, Suzanne Scarlata.
Institutions: Queensborough Community College, Stony Brook University.
Cardiomyocytes have multiple Ca2+ fluxes of varying duration that work together to optimize function 1,2. Changes in Ca2+ activity in response to extracellular agents is predominantly regulated by the phospholipase Cβ- Gαq pathway localized on the plasma membrane which is stimulated by agents such as acetylcholine 3,4. We have recently found that plasma membrane protein domains called caveolae5,6 can entrap activated Gαq7. This entrapment has the effect of stabilizing the activated state of Gαq and resulting in prolonged Ca2+ signals in cardiomyocytes and other cell types8. We uncovered this surprising result by measuring dynamic calcium responses on a fast scale in living cardiomyocytes. Briefly, cells are loaded with a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator. In our studies, we used Ca2+ Green (Invitrogen, Inc.) which exhibits an increase in fluorescence emission intensity upon binding of calcium ions. The fluorescence intensity is then recorded for using a line-scan mode of a laser scanning confocal microscope. This method allows rapid acquisition of the time course of fluorescence intensity in pixels along a selected line, producing several hundreds of time traces on the microsecond time scale. These very fast traces are transferred into excel and then into Sigmaplot for analysis, and are compared to traces obtained for electronic noise, free dye, and other controls. To dissect Ca2+ responses of different flux rates, we performed a histogram analysis that binned pixel intensities with time. Binning allows us to group over 500 traces of scans and visualize the compiled results spatially and temporally on a single plot. Thus, the slow Ca2+ waves that are difficult to discern when the scans are overlaid due to different peak placement and noise, can be readily seen in the binned histograms. Very fast fluxes in the time scale of the measurement show a narrow distribution of intensities in the very short time bins whereas longer Ca2+ waves show binned data with a broad distribution over longer time bins. These different time distributions allow us to dissect the timing of Ca2+fluxes in the cells, and to determine their impact on various cellular events.
Cellular Biology, Issue 57, Calcium fluxes, laser scanning microscopy, cardiomyocytes, fluorescent indicators
3505
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A Fluorescent Screening Assay for Identifying Modulators of GIRK Channels
Authors: Maribel Vazquez, Charity A. Dunn, Kenneth B. Walsh.
Institutions: University of South Carolina, School of Medicine.
G protein-gated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels function as cellular mediators of a wide range of hormones and neurotransmitters and are expressed in the brain, heart, skeletal muscle and endocrine tissue1,2. GIRK channels become activated following the binding of ligands (neurotransmitters, hormones, drugs, etc.) to their plasma membrane-bound, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This binding causes the stimulation of G proteins (Gi and Go) which subsequently bind to and activate the GIRK channel. Once opened the GIRK channel allows the movement of K+ out of the cell causing the resting membrane potential to become more negative. As a consequence, GIRK channel activation in neurons decreases spontaneous action potential formation and inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters. In the heart, activation of the GIRK channel inhibits pacemaker activity thereby slowing the heart rate. GIRK channels represent novel targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment neuropathic pain, drug addiction, cardiac arrhythmias and other disorders3. However, the pharmacology of these channels remains largely unexplored. Although a number of drugs including anti-arrhythmic agents, antipsychotic drugs and antidepressants block the GIRK channel, this inhibition is not selective and occurs at relatively high drug concentrations3. Here, we describe a real-time screening assay for identifying new modulators of GIRK channels. In this assay, neuronal AtT20 cells, expressing GIRK channels, are loaded with membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dyes such as bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol [DiBAC4(3)] or HLB 021-152 (Figure 1). The dye molecules become strongly fluorescent following uptake into the cells (Figure 1). Treatment of the cells with GPCR ligands stimulates the GIRK channels to open. The resulting K+ efflux out of the cell causes the membrane potential to become more negative and the fluorescent signal to decrease (Figure 1). Thus, drugs that modulate K+ efflux through the GIRK channel can be assayed using a fluorescent plate reader. Unlike other ion channel screening assays, such atomic absorption spectrometry4 or radiotracer analysis5, the GIRK channel fluorescent assay provides a fast, real-time and inexpensive screening procedure.
Medicine, Issue 62, G protein-gated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels, clonal cell lines, drug screening, fluorescent dyes, K+ channel modulators, Pharmacology
3850
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Patch Clamp and Perfusion Techniques for Studying Ion Channels Expressed in Xenopus oocytes
Authors: Junqiu Yang, Kelli Delaloye, Urvi S. Lee, Jianmin Cui.
Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis, Washington University in St. Louis, Washington University in St. Louis.
The protocol presented here is designed to study the activation of the large conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels. The protocol may also be used to study the structure-function relationship for other ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors1. BK channels are widely expressed in different tissues and have been implicated in many physiological functions, including regulation of smooth muscle contraction, frequency tuning of inner hair cells and regulation of neurotransmitter release2-6. BK channels are activated by membrane depolarization and by intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+6-9. Therefore, the protocol is designed to control both the membrane voltage and the intracellular solution. In this protocol, messenger RNA of BK channels is injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes (stage V-VI) followed by 2-5 days of incubation at 18°C10-13. Membrane patches that contain single or multiple BK channels are excised with the inside-out configuration using patch clamp techniques10-13. The intracellular side of the patch is perfused with desired solutions during recording so that the channel activation under different conditions can be examined. To summarize, the mRNA of BK channels is injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes to express channel proteins on the oocyte membrane; patch clamp techniques are used to record currents flowing through the channels under controlled voltage and intracellular solutions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 47, patch clamp, ion channel, electrophysiology, biophysics, exogenous expression system, Xenopus oocyte, mRNA, transcription
2269
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Exploring Arterial Smooth Muscle Kv7 Potassium Channel Function using Patch Clamp Electrophysiology and Pressure Myography
Authors: Lioubov I. Brueggemann, Bharath K. Mani, Jennifer Haick, Kenneth L. Byron.
Institutions: Loyola University Chicago.
Contraction or relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the walls of resistance arteries determines the artery diameter and thereby controls flow of blood through the vessel and contributes to systemic blood pressure. The contraction process is regulated primarily by cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), which is in turn controlled by a variety of ion transporters and channels. Ion channels are common intermediates in signal transduction pathways activated by vasoactive hormones to effect vasoconstriction or vasodilation. And ion channels are often targeted by therapeutic agents either intentionally (e.g. calcium channel blockers used to induce vasodilation and lower blood pressure) or unintentionally (e.g. to induce unwanted cardiovascular side effects). Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-activated potassium channels have recently been implicated as important physiological and therapeutic targets for regulation of smooth muscle contraction. To elucidate the specific roles of Kv7 channels in both physiological signal transduction and in the actions of therapeutic agents, we need to study how their activity is modulated at the cellular level as well as evaluate their contribution in the context of the intact artery. The rat mesenteric arteries provide a useful model system. The arteries can be easily dissected, cleaned of connective tissue, and used to prepare isolated arterial myocytes for patch clamp electrophysiology, or cannulated and pressurized for measurements of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator responses under relatively physiological conditions. Here we describe the methods used for both types of measurements and provide some examples of how the experimental design can be integrated to provide a clearer understanding of the roles of these ion channels in the regulation of vascular tone.
Physiology, Issue 67, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Anatomy, Vascular smooth muscle, mesenteric artery, patch clamp, Kv channel, vasoconstriction, electrophysiology
4263
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Assessment of Calcium Sparks in Intact Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Authors: Ki Ho Park, Noah Weisleder, Jingsong Zhou, Kristyn Gumpper, Xinyu Zhou, Pu Duann, Jianjie Ma, Pei-Hui Lin.
Institutions: The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Rush University Medical Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.
Maintaining homeostatic Ca2+ signaling is a fundamental physiological process in living cells. Ca2+ sparks are the elementary units of Ca2+ signaling in the striated muscle fibers that appear as highly localized Ca2+ release events mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. Proper assessment of muscle Ca2+ sparks could provide information on the intracellular Ca2+ handling properties of healthy and diseased striated muscles. Although Ca2+ sparks events are commonly seen in resting cardiomyocytes, they are rarely observed in resting skeletal muscle fibers; thus there is a need for methods to generate and analyze sparks in skeletal muscle fibers. Detailed here is an experimental protocol for measuring Ca2+ sparks in isolated flexor digitorm brevis (FDB) muscle fibers using fluorescent Ca2+ indictors and laser scanning confocal microscopy. In this approach, isolated FDB fibers are exposed to transient hypoosmotic stress followed by a return to isotonic physiological solution. Under these conditions, a robust Ca2+ sparks response is detected adjacent to the sarcolemmal membrane in young healthy FDB muscle fibers. Altered Ca2+ sparks response is detected in dystrophic or aged skeletal muscle fibers. This approach has recently demonstrated that membrane-delimited signaling involving cross-talk between inositol (1,4,5)-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) and RyR contributes to Ca2+ spark activation in skeletal muscle. In summary, our studies using osmotic stress induced Ca2+ sparks showed that this intracellular response reflects a muscle signaling mechanism in physiology and aging/disease states, including mouse models of muscle dystrophy (mdx mice) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS model).
Physiology, Issue 84, flexor digitorm brevis (FDB), sarcoplasmic reticulum, SR Ca2+ release, calcium signaling, ryanodine receptor, confocal imaging, muscle physiology
50898
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Patient-specific Modeling of the Heart: Estimation of Ventricular Fiber Orientations
Authors: Fijoy Vadakkumpadan, Hermenegild Arevalo, Natalia A. Trayanova.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University.
Patient-specific simulations of heart (dys)function aimed at personalizing cardiac therapy are hampered by the absence of in vivo imaging technology for clinically acquiring myocardial fiber orientations. The objective of this project was to develop a methodology to estimate cardiac fiber orientations from in vivo images of patient heart geometries. An accurate representation of ventricular geometry and fiber orientations was reconstructed, respectively, from high-resolution ex vivo structural magnetic resonance (MR) and diffusion tensor (DT) MR images of a normal human heart, referred to as the atlas. Ventricular geometry of a patient heart was extracted, via semiautomatic segmentation, from an in vivo computed tomography (CT) image. Using image transformation algorithms, the atlas ventricular geometry was deformed to match that of the patient. Finally, the deformation field was applied to the atlas fiber orientations to obtain an estimate of patient fiber orientations. The accuracy of the fiber estimates was assessed using six normal and three failing canine hearts. The mean absolute difference between inclination angles of acquired and estimated fiber orientations was 15.4 °. Computational simulations of ventricular activation maps and pseudo-ECGs in sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia indicated that there are no significant differences between estimated and acquired fiber orientations at a clinically observable level.The new insights obtained from the project will pave the way for the development of patient-specific models of the heart that can aid physicians in personalized diagnosis and decisions regarding electrophysiological interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 71, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cardiology, Myocytes, Cardiac, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI, Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiac Electrophysiology, computerized simulation (general), mathematical modeling (systems analysis), Cardiomyocyte, biomedical image processing, patient-specific modeling, Electrophysiology, simulation
50125
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Isolation of Human Atrial Myocytes for Simultaneous Measurements of Ca2+ Transients and Membrane Currents
Authors: Niels Voigt, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Dobromir Dobrev.
Institutions: University of Duisburg-Essen , University of Heidelberg .
The study of electrophysiological properties of cardiac ion channels with the patch-clamp technique and the exploration of cardiac cellular Ca2+ handling abnormalities requires isolated cardiomyocytes. In addition, the possibility to investigate myocytes from patients using these techniques is an invaluable requirement to elucidate the molecular basis of cardiac diseases such as atrial fibrillation (AF).1 Here we describe a method for isolation of human atrial myocytes which are suitable for both patch-clamp studies and simultaneous measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. First, right atrial appendages obtained from patients undergoing open heart surgery are chopped into small tissue chunks ("chunk method") and washed in Ca2+-free solution. Then the tissue chunks are digested in collagenase and protease containing solutions with 20 μM Ca2+. Thereafter, the isolated myocytes are harvested by filtration and centrifugation of the tissue suspension. Finally, the Ca2+ concentration in the cell storage solution is adjusted stepwise to 0.2 mM. We briefly discuss the meaning of Ca2+ and Ca2+ buffering during the isolation process and also provide representative recordings of action potentials and membrane currents, both together with simultaneous Ca2+ transient measurements, performed in these isolated myocytes.
Cellular Biology, Issue 77, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Physiology, Anatomy, Cardiology, Pharmacology, human atrial myocytes, cell isolation, collagenase, calcium transient, calcium current, patch-clamp, ion currents, isolation, cell culture, myocytes, cardiomyocytes, electrophysiology, patch clamp
50235
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Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Authors: Nikki M. Curthoys, Michael J. Mlodzianoski, Dahan Kim, Samuel T. Hess.
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
50680
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Yeast Luminometric and Xenopus Oocyte Electrophysiological Examinations of the Molecular Mechanosensitivity of TRPV4
Authors: Jinfeng Teng, Stephen Loukin, Xinliang Zhou, Ching Kung.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin – Madison, University of Wisconsin – Madison.
TRPV4 (Transient Receptor Potentials, vanilloid family, type 4) is widely expressed in vertebrate tissues and is activated by several stimuli, including by mechanical forces. Certain TRPV4 mutations cause complex hereditary bone or neuronal pathologies in human. Wild-type or mutant TRPV4 transgenes are commonly expressed in cultured mammalian cells and examined by Fura-2 fluorometry and by electrodes. In terms of the mechanism of mechanosensitivity and the molecular bases of the diseases, the current literature is confusing and controversial. To complement existing methods, we describe two additional methods to examine the molecular properties of TRPV4. (1) Rat TRPV4 and an aequorin transgene are transformed into budding yeast. A hypo-osmtic shock of the transformant population yields a luminometric signal due to the combination of aequorin with Ca2+, released through the TRPV4 channel. Here TRPV4 is isolated from its usual mammalian partner proteins and reveals its own mechanosensitivity. (2) cRNA of TRPV4 is injected into Xenopus oocytes. After a suitable period of incubation, the macroscopic TRPV4 current is examined with a two-electrode voltage clamp. The current rise upon removal of inert osmoticum from the oocyte bath is indicative of mechanosensitivity. The microAmpere (10-6 to 10-4 A) currents from oocytes are much larger than the subnano- to nanoAmpere (10-10 to 10-9 A) currents from cultured cells, yielding clearer quantifications and more confident assessments. Microscopic currents reflecting the activities of individual channel proteins can also be directly registered under a patch clamp, in on-cell or excised mode. The same oocyte provides multiple patch samples, allowing better data replication. Suctions applied to the patches can activate TRPV4 to directly assess mechanosensitivity. These methods should also be useful in the study of other types of TRP channels.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Eukaryota, Archaea, Bacteria, Life Sciences (General), Mechanosensation, Ion channels, Lipids, patch clamp, Xenopus Oocytes, yeast, luminometry, force sensing, voltage clamp, TRPV4, electrophysiology
50816
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Isolation, Culture, and Functional Characterization of Adult Mouse Cardiomyoctyes
Authors: Evan Lee Graham, Cristina Balla, Hannabeth Franchino, Yonathan Melman, Federica del Monte, Saumya Das.
Institutions: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Sapienza University.
The use of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) in culture has provided a powerful complement to murine models of heart disease in advancing our understanding of heart disease. In particular, the ability to study ion homeostasis, ion channel function, cellular excitability and excitation-contraction coupling and their alterations in diseased conditions and by disease-causing mutations have led to significant insights into cardiac diseases. Furthermore, the lack of an adequate immortalized cell line to mimic adult CMs, and the limitations of neonatal CMs (which lack many of the structural and functional biomechanics characteristic of adult CMs) in culture have hampered our understanding of the complex interplay between signaling pathways, ion channels and contractile properties in the adult heart strengthening the importance of studying adult isolated cardiomyocytes. Here, we present methods for the isolation, culture, manipulation of gene expression by adenoviral-expressed proteins, and subsequent functional analysis of cardiomyocytes from the adult mouse. The use of these techniques will help to develop mechanistic insight into signaling pathways that regulate cellular excitability, Ca2+ dynamics and contractility and provide a much more physiologically relevant characterization of cardiovascular disease.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Medicine, Cardiology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Mice, Ion Channels, Primary Cell Culture, Cardiac Electrophysiology, adult mouse cardiomyocytes, cell isolation, IonOptix, Cell Culture, adenoviral transfection, patch clamp, fluorescent nanosensor
50289
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The Xenopus Oocyte Cut-open Vaseline Gap Voltage-clamp Technique With Fluorometry
Authors: Michael W. Rudokas, Zoltan Varga, Angela R. Schubert, Alexandra B. Asaro, Jonathan R. Silva.
Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis.
The cut-open oocyte Vaseline gap (COVG) voltage clamp technique allows for analysis of electrophysiological and kinetic properties of heterologous ion channels in oocytes. Recordings from the cut-open setup are particularly useful for resolving low magnitude gating currents, rapid ionic current activation, and deactivation. The main benefits over the two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) technique include increased clamp speed, improved signal-to-noise ratio, and the ability to modulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu. Here, we employ the human cardiac sodium channel (hNaV1.5), expressed in Xenopus oocytes, to demonstrate the cut-open setup and protocol as well as modifications that are required to add voltage clamp fluorometry capability. The properties of fast activating ion channels, such as hNaV1.5, cannot be fully resolved near room temperature using TEVC, in which the entirety of the oocyte membrane is clamped, making voltage control difficult. However, in the cut-open technique, isolation of only a small portion of the cell membrane allows for the rapid clamping required to accurately record fast kinetics while preventing channel run-down associated with patch clamp techniques. In conjunction with the COVG technique, ion channel kinetics and electrophysiological properties can be further assayed by using voltage clamp fluorometry, where protein motion is tracked via cysteine conjugation of extracellularly applied fluorophores, insertion of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, or the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into the region of interest1. This additional data yields kinetic information about voltage-dependent conformational rearrangements of the protein via changes in the microenvironment surrounding the fluorescent molecule.
Developmental Biology, Issue 85, Voltage clamp, Cut-open, Oocyte, Voltage Clamp Fluorometry, Sodium Channels, Ionic Currents, Xenopus laevis
51040
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A Method for Culturing Embryonic C. elegans Cells
Authors: Rachele Sangaletti, Laura Bianchi.
Institutions: University of Miami .
C. elegans is a powerful model system, in which genetic and molecular techniques are easily applicable. Until recently though, techniques that require direct access to cells and isolation of specific cell types, could not be applied in C. elegans. This limitation was due to the fact that tissues are confined within a pressurized cuticle which is not easily digested by treatment with enzymes and/or detergents. Based on early pioneer work by Laird Bloom, Christensen and colleagues 1 developed a robust method for culturing C. elegans embryonic cells in large scale. Eggs are isolated from gravid adults by treatment with bleach/NaOH and subsequently treated with chitinase to remove the eggshells. Embryonic cells are then dissociated by manual pipetting and plated onto substrate-covered glass in serum-enriched media. Within 24 hr of isolation cells begin to differentiate by changing morphology and by expressing cell specific markers. C. elegans cells cultured using this method survive for up 2 weeks in vitro and have been used for electrophysiological, immunochemical, and imaging analyses as well as they have been sorted and used for microarray profiling.
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, embryonic cells
50649
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Membrane Potentials, Synaptic Responses, Neuronal Circuitry, Neuromodulation and Muscle Histology Using the Crayfish: Student Laboratory Exercises
Authors: Brittany Baierlein, Alison L. Thurow, Harold L. Atwood, Robin L. Cooper.
Institutions: University of Kentucky, University of Toronto.
The purpose of this report is to help develop an understanding of the effects caused by ion gradients across a biological membrane. Two aspects that influence a cell's membrane potential and which we address in these experiments are: (1) Ion concentration of K+ on the outside of the membrane, and (2) the permeability of the membrane to specific ions. The crayfish abdominal extensor muscles are in groupings with some being tonic (slow) and others phasic (fast) in their biochemical and physiological phenotypes, as well as in their structure; the motor neurons that innervate these muscles are correspondingly different in functional characteristics. We use these muscles as well as the superficial, tonic abdominal flexor muscle to demonstrate properties in synaptic transmission. In addition, we introduce a sensory-CNS-motor neuron-muscle circuit to demonstrate the effect of cuticular sensory stimulation as well as the influence of neuromodulators on certain aspects of the circuit. With the techniques obtained in this exercise, one can begin to answer many questions remaining in other experimental preparations as well as in physiological applications related to medicine and health. We have demonstrated the usefulness of model invertebrate preparations to address fundamental questions pertinent to all animals.
Neuroscience, Issue 47, Invertebrate, Crayfish, neurophysiology, muscle, anatomy, electrophysiology
2322
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Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Authors: Eva Wagner, Sören Brandenburg, Tobias Kohl, Stephan E. Lehnart.
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+ release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
51823
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Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies
Authors: Sungsoo Lee, Hui Zheng, Liang Shi, Qiu-Xing Jiang.
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
To study the lipid-protein interaction in a reductionistic fashion, it is necessary to incorporate the membrane proteins into membranes of well-defined lipid composition. We are studying the lipid-dependent gating effects in a prototype voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, and have worked out detailed procedures to reconstitute the channels into different membrane systems. Our reconstitution procedures take consideration of both detergent-induced fusion of vesicles and the fusion of protein/detergent micelles with the lipid/detergent mixed micelles as well as the importance of reaching an equilibrium distribution of lipids among the protein/detergent/lipid and the detergent/lipid mixed micelles. Our data suggested that the insertion of the channels in the lipid vesicles is relatively random in orientations, and the reconstitution efficiency is so high that no detectable protein aggregates were seen in fractionation experiments. We have utilized the reconstituted channels to determine the conformational states of the channels in different lipids, record electrical activities of a small number of channels incorporated in planar lipid bilayers, screen for conformation-specific ligands from a phage-displayed peptide library, and support the growth of 2D crystals of the channels in membranes. The reconstitution procedures described here may be adapted for studying other membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, especially for the investigation of the lipid effects on the eukaryotic voltage-gated ion channels.
Molecular Biology, Issue 77, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Structural Biology, Biophysics, Membrane Lipids, Phospholipids, Carrier Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Micelles, Molecular Motor Proteins, life sciences, biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, lipid-protein interaction, channel reconstitution, lipid-dependent gating, voltage-gated ion channel, conformation-specific ligands, lipids
50436
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Isolation and Functional Characterization of Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes from Fresh Surgical Samples
Authors: Raffaele Coppini, Cecila Ferrantini, Alessandro Aiazzi, Luca Mazzoni, Laura Sartiani, Alessandro Mugelli, Corrado Poggesi, Elisabetta Cerbai.
Institutions: University of Florence, University of Florence.
Cardiomyocytes from diseased hearts are subjected to complex remodeling processes involving changes in cell structure, excitation contraction coupling and membrane ion currents. Those changes are likely to be responsible for the increased arrhythmogenic risk and the contractile alterations leading to systolic and diastolic dysfunction in cardiac patients. However, most information on the alterations of myocyte function in cardiac diseases has come from animal models. Here we describe and validate a protocol to isolate viable myocytes from small surgical samples of ventricular myocardium from patients undergoing cardiac surgery operations. The protocol is described in detail. Electrophysiological and intracellular calcium measurements are reported to demonstrate the feasibility of a number of single cell measurements in human ventricular cardiomyocytes obtained with this method. The protocol reported here can be useful for future investigations of the cellular and molecular basis of functional alterations of the human heart in the presence of different cardiac diseases. Further, this method can be used to identify novel therapeutic targets at cellular level and to test the effectiveness of new compounds on human cardiomyocytes, with direct translational value.
Medicine, Issue 86, cardiology, cardiac cells, electrophysiology, excitation-contraction coupling, action potential, calcium, myocardium, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac patients, cardiac disease
51116
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Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology
Authors: F. Aura Kullmann, Stephanie L. Daugherty, William C. de Groat, Lori A. Birder.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to pharmaceutical development of compounds currently used clinically for bladder management.
Medicine, Issue 90, Krebs, species differences, in vitro, smooth muscle contractility, neural stimulation
51807
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Mechanical Stimulation-induced Calcium Wave Propagation in Cell Monolayers: The Example of Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells
Authors: Catheleyne D'hondt, Bernard Himpens, Geert Bultynck.
Institutions: KU Leuven.
Intercellular communication is essential for the coordination of physiological processes between cells in a variety of organs and tissues, including the brain, liver, retina, cochlea and vasculature. In experimental settings, intercellular Ca2+-waves can be elicited by applying a mechanical stimulus to a single cell. This leads to the release of the intracellular signaling molecules IP3 and Ca2+ that initiate the propagation of the Ca2+-wave concentrically from the mechanically stimulated cell to the neighboring cells. The main molecular pathways that control intercellular Ca2+-wave propagation are provided by gap junction channels through the direct transfer of IP3 and by hemichannels through the release of ATP. Identification and characterization of the properties and regulation of different connexin and pannexin isoforms as gap junction channels and hemichannels are allowed by the quantification of the spread of the intercellular Ca2+-wave, siRNA, and the use of inhibitors of gap junction channels and hemichannels. Here, we describe a method to measure intercellular Ca2+-wave in monolayers of primary corneal endothelial cells loaded with Fluo4-AM in response to a controlled and localized mechanical stimulus provoked by an acute, short-lasting deformation of the cell as a result of touching the cell membrane with a micromanipulator-controlled glass micropipette with a tip diameter of less than 1 μm. We also describe the isolation of primary bovine corneal endothelial cells and its use as model system to assess Cx43-hemichannel activity as the driven force for intercellular Ca2+-waves through the release of ATP. Finally, we discuss the use, advantages, limitations and alternatives of this method in the context of gap junction channel and hemichannel research.
Cellular Biology, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Gap Junctions, Connexins, Connexin 43, Calcium Signaling, Ca2+, Cell Communication, Paracrine Communication, Intercellular communication, calcium wave propagation, gap junctions, hemichannels, endothelial cells, cell signaling, cell, isolation, cell culture
50443
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Preparation of Artificial Bilayers for Electrophysiology Experiments
Authors: Ruchi Kapoor, Jung H. Kim, Helgi Ingolfson, Olaf Sparre Andersen.
Institutions: Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University.
Planar lipid bilayers, also called artificial lipid bilayers, allow you to study ion-conducting channels in a well-defined environment. These bilayers can be used for many different studies, such as the characterization of membrane-active peptides, the reconstitution of ion channels or investigations on how changes in lipid bilayer properties alter the function of bilayer-spanning channels. Here, we show how to form a planar bilayer and how to isolate small patches from the bilayer, and in a second video will also demonstrate a procedure for using gramicidin channels to determine changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties. We also demonstrate the individual steps needed to prepare the bilayer chamber, the electrodes and how to test that the bilayer is suitable for single-channel measurements.
Cellular Biology, Issue 20, Springer Protocols, Artificial Bilayers, Bilayer Patch Experiments, Lipid Bilayers, Bilayer Punch Electrodes, Electrophysiology
1033
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Patch Clamp Recording of Ion Channels Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes
Authors: Austin L Brown, Brandon E. Johnson, Miriam B. Goodman.
Institutions: Stanford University , Stanford University School of Medicine.
Since its development by Sakmann and Neher 1, 2, the patch clamp has become established as an extremely useful technique for electrophysiological measurement of single or multiple ion channels in cells. This technique can be applied to ion channels in both their native environment and expressed in heterologous cells, such as oocytes harvested from the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Here, we describe the well-established technique of patch clamp recording from Xenopus oocytes. This technique is used to measure the properties of expressed ion channels either in populations (macropatch) or individually (single-channel recording). We focus on techniques to maximize the quality of oocyte preparation and seal generation. With all factors optimized, this technique gives a probability of successful seal generation over 90 percent. The process may be optimized differently by every researcher based on the factors he or she finds most important, and we present the approach that have lead to the greatest success in our hands.
Cellular Biology, Issue 20, Electrophysiology, Patch Clamp, Voltage Clamp, Oocytes, Biophysics, Gigaseal, Ion Channels
936
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Single Molecule Methods for Monitoring Changes in Bilayer Elastic Properties
Authors: Helgi Ingolfson, Ruchi Kapoor, Shemille A. Collingwood, Olaf Sparre Andersen.
Institutions: Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University.
Membrane protein function is regulated by the cell membrane lipid composition. This regulation is due to a combination of specific lipid-protein interactions and more general lipid bilayer-protein interactions. These interactions are particularly important in pharmacological research, as many current pharmaceuticals on the market can alter the lipid bilayer material properties, which can lead to altered membrane protein function. The formation of gramicidin channels are dependent on conformational changes in gramicidin subunits which are in turn dependent on the properties of the lipid. Hence the gramicidin channel current is a reporter of altered properties of the bilayer due to certain compounds.
Cellular Biology, Issue 21, Springer Protocols, Membrane Biophysics, Gramicidin Channels, Artificial Bilayers, Bilayer Elastic Properties,
1032
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