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Pubmed Article
Analysis of k-ras nuclear expression in fibroblasts and mesangial cells.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
Ras GTPases are considered cytoplasmic proteins that must be localized to cell membranes for activation, and there are few evidences of the presence of any Ras isoform in nuclei of eukaryotic cells.
Authors: Jean-Marc Taymans, Fangye Gao, Veerle Baekelandt.
Published: 09-18-2013
Leucine rich repeat kinases 1 and 2 (LRRK1 and LRRK2) are paralogs which share a similar domain organization, including a serine-threonine kinase domain, a Ras of complex proteins domain (ROC), a C-terminal of ROC domain (COR), and leucine-rich and ankyrin-like repeats at the N-terminus. The precise cellular roles of LRRK1 and LRRK2 have yet to be elucidated, however LRRK1 has been implicated in tyrosine kinase receptor signaling1,2, while LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease3,4. In this report, we present a protocol to label the LRRK1 and LRRK2 proteins in cells with 32P orthophosphate, thereby providing a means to measure the overall phosphorylation levels of these 2 proteins in cells. In brief, affinity tagged LRRK proteins are expressed in HEK293T cells which are exposed to medium containing 32P-orthophosphate. The 32P-orthophosphate is assimilated by the cells after only a few hours of incubation and all molecules in the cell containing phosphates are thereby radioactively labeled. Via the affinity tag (3xflag) the LRRK proteins are isolated from other cellular components by immunoprecipitation. Immunoprecipitates are then separated via SDS-PAGE, blotted to PVDF membranes and analysis of the incorporated phosphates is performed by autoradiography (32P signal) and western detection (protein signal) of the proteins on the blots. The protocol can readily be adapted to monitor phosphorylation of any other protein that can be expressed in cells and isolated by immunoprecipitation.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
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A Protocol for Genetic Induction and Visualization of Benign and Invasive Tumors in Cephalic Complexes of Drosophila melanogaster
Authors: Ajay Srivastava.
Institutions: Western Kentucky University .
Drosophila has illuminated our understanding of the genetic basis of normal development and disease for the past several decades and today it continues to contribute immensely to our understanding of complex diseases 1-7. Progression of tumors from a benign to a metastatic state is a complex event 8 and has been modeled in Drosophila to help us better understand the genetic basis of this disease 9. Here I present a simple protocol to genetically induce, observe and then analyze the progression of tumors in Drosophila larvae. The tumor induction technique is based on the MARCM system 10 and exploits the cooperation between an activated oncogene, RasV12 and loss of cell polarity genes (scribbled, discs large and lethal giant larvae) to generate invasive tumors 9. I demonstrate how these tumors can be visualized in the intact larvae and then how these can be dissected out for further analysis. The simplified protocol presented here should make it possible for this technique to be utilized by investigators interested in understanding the role of a gene in tumor invasion.
Medicine, Issue 79, Imaginal Discs, Drosophila melanogaster, Neoplasm Metastasis, Drosophila, Invasive Tumors, Benign Tumors, Cephalic Complex, Mosaic Analysis with a Repressible Cell Marker technique
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Spatio-Temporal Manipulation of Small GTPase Activity at Subcellular Level and on Timescale of Seconds in Living Cells
Authors: Robert DeRose, Christopher Pohlmeyer, Nobuhiro Umeda, Tasuku Ueno, Tetsuo Nagano, Scot Kuo, Takanari Inoue.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University, University of Tokyo, Johns Hopkins University.
Dynamic regulation of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with great spatiotemporal precision is essential for various cellular functions and events1, 2. Their spatiotemporally dynamic nature has been revealed by visualization of their activity and localization in real time3. In order to gain deeper understanding of their roles in diverse cellular functions at the molecular level, the next step should be perturbation of protein activities at a precise subcellular location and timing. To achieve this goal, we have developed a method for light-induced, spatio-temporally controlled activation of small GTPases by combining two techniques: (1) rapamycin-induced FKBP-FRB heterodimerization and (2) a photo-caging method of rapamycin. With the use of rapamycin-mediated FKBP-FRB heterodimerization, we have developed a method for rapidly inducible activation or inactivation of small GTPases including Rac4, Cdc424, RhoA4 and Ras5, in which rapamycin induces translocation of FKBP-fused GTPases, or their activators, to the plasma membrane where FRB is anchored. For coupling with this heterodimerization system, we have also developed a photo-caging system of rapamycin analogs. A photo-caged compound is a small molecule whose activity is suppressed with a photocleavable protecting group known as a caging group. To suppress heterodimerization activity completely, we designed a caged rapamycin that is tethered to a macromolecule such that the resulting large complex cannot cross the plasma membrane, leading to virtually no background activity as a chemical dimerizer inside cells6. Figure 1 illustrates a scheme of our system. With the combination of these two systems, we locally recruited a Rac activator to the plasma membrane on a timescale of seconds and achieved light-induced Rac activation at the subcellular level6.
Bioengineering, Issue 61, Small GTPase, rapamycin, caged compound, spatiotemporal control, heterodimerization, FKBP, FRB, light irradiation
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The use of SC1 (Pluripotin) to Support mESC Self-renewal in the Absence of LIF
Authors: Wen Xiong, Yan Gao, Xun Cheng, Charles Martin, Dongmei Wu, Shuyuan Yao, Min-Ju Kim, Yang Liu.
Institutions: Stemgent, Stemgent.
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are conventionally cultured with Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) to maintain self-renewal.1 However, LIF is expensive and activation of the LIF/JAK/STAT3 pathway is not absolutely required to maintain the self-renewal state.2 The SC1 small molecule may be an economical alternative to LIF. SC1 functions through dual inhibition of Ras-GAP and ERK1.3 Illustration of its mechanism of action makes it a useful tool to study the fundamental molecular mechanism of self-renewal. Here we demonstrate the procedure for culturing mouse ES cells in the presence of SC1 and show that they are able to maintain self-renewal in the absence of LIF. Cells cultured with SC1 showed similar morphology compared to cells maintained with LIF. Both exhibited typical mouse ES morphology after five passages. Expression of typical pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and SSEA1) was observed after five passages in the presence of SC1. Furthermore, SC1 caused no overt toxicity on mouse ES cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 33, SC1(Pluripotin), LIF, mESC, mouse ESC, mouse ES cells, pluripotency, self-renewal, small molecule
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Analyzing the Function of Small GTPases by Microinjection of Plasmids into Polarized Epithelial Cells
Authors: Rita Nokes Cook, Su Fen Ang, Richard Seung-on Kang, Heike Fölsch.
Institutions: Northwestern University.
Epithelial cells polarize their plasma membrane into biochemically and functionally distinct apical and basolateral domains where the apical domain faces the 'free' surfaces and the basolateral membrane is in contact with the substrate and neighboring cells. Both membrane domains are separated by tight junctions, which form a diffusion barrier. Apical-basolateral polarization can be recapitulated successfully in culture when epithelial cells such as Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are seeded at high density on polycarbonate filters and cultured for several days 1 2. Establishment and maintenance of cell polarity is regulated by an array of small GTPases of the Ras superfamily such as RalA, Cdc42, Rab8, Rab10 and Rab13 3 4 5 6 7. Like all GTPases these proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. Specific mutations in the nucleotide binding regions interfere with this cycling 8. For example, Rab13T22N is permanently locked in the GDP-form and thus dubbed 'dominant negative', whereas Rab13Q67L can no longer hydrolyze GTP and is thus locked in a 'dominant active' state 7. To analyze their function in cells both dominant negative and dominant active alleles of GTPases are typically expressed at high levels to interfere with the function of the endogenous proteins 9. An elegant way to achieve high levels of overexpression in a short amount of time is to introduce the plasmids encoding the relevant proteins directly into the nuclei of polarized cells grown on filter supports using microinjection technique. This is often combined with the co-injection of reporter plasmids that encode plasma membrane receptors that are specifically sorted to the apical or basolateral domain. A cargo frequently used to analyze cargo sorting to the basolateral domain is a temperature sensitive allele of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVGts045) 10. This protein cannot fold properly at 39°C and will thus be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) while the regulatory protein of interest is assembled in the cytosol. A shift to 31°C will then allow VSVGts045 to fold properly, leave the ER and travel to the plasma membrane 11. This chase is typically performed in the presence of cycloheximide to prevent further protein synthesis leading to cleaner results. Here we describe in detail the procedure of microinjecting plasmids into polarized cells and subsequent incubations including temperature shifts that allow a comprehensive analysis of regulatory proteins involved in basolateral sorting.
Cellular Biology, Issue 51, Epithelial cells, cell polarity, microinjection, basolateral sorting, MDCK
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Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation
Authors: Katy A. Wong, John P. O'Bryan.
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago.
Defining the subcellular distribution of signaling complexes is imperative to understanding the output from that complex. Conventional methods such as immunoprecipitation do not provide information on the spatial localization of complexes. In contrast, BiFC monitors the interaction and subcellular compartmentalization of protein complexes. In this method, a fluororescent protein is split into amino- and carboxy-terminal non-fluorescent fragments which are then fused to two proteins of interest. Interaction of the proteins results in reconstitution of the fluorophore (Figure 1)1,2. A limitation of BiFC is that once the fragmented fluorophore is reconstituted the complex is irreversible3. This limitation is advantageous in detecting transient or weak interactions, but precludes a kinetic analysis of complex dynamics. An additional caveat is that the reconstituted flourophore requires 30min to mature and fluoresce, again precluding the observation of real time interactions4. BiFC is a specific example of the protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) which employs reporter proteins such as green fluorescent protein variants (BiFC), dihydrofolate reductase, b-lactamase, and luciferase to measure protein:protein interactions5,6. Alternative methods to study protein:protein interactions in cells include fluorescence co-localization and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)7. For co-localization, two proteins are individually tagged either directly with a fluorophore or by indirect immunofluorescence. However, this approach leads to high background of non-interacting proteins making it difficult to interpret co-localization data. In addition, due to the limits of resolution of confocal microscopy, two proteins may appear co-localized without necessarily interacting. With BiFC, fluorescence is only observed when the two proteins of interest interact. FRET is another excellent method for studying protein:protein interactions, but can be technically challenging. FRET experiments require the donor and acceptor to be of similar brightness and stoichiometry in the cell. In addition, one must account for bleed through of the donor into the acceptor channel and vice versa. Unlike FRET, BiFC has little background fluorescence, little post processing of image data, does not require high overexpression, and can detect weak or transient interactions. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a method similar to FRET except the donor is an enzyme (e.g. luciferase) that catalyzes a substrate to become bioluminescent thereby exciting an acceptor. BRET lacks the technical problems of bleed through and high background fluorescence but lacks the ability to provide spatial information due to the lack of substrate localization to specific compartments8. Overall, BiFC is an excellent method for visualizing subcellular localization of protein complexes to gain insight into compartmentalized signaling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 50, Fluorescence, imaging, compartmentalized signaling, subcellular localization, signal transduction
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Imaging G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR)-mediated Signaling Events that Control Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium Discoideum
Authors: Xuehua Xu, Tian Jin.
Institutions: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
Many eukaryotic cells can detect gradients of chemical signals in their environments and migrate accordingly 1. This guided cell migration is referred as chemotaxis, which is essential for various cells to carry out their functions such as trafficking of immune cells and patterning of neuronal cells 2, 3. A large family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) detects variable small peptides, known as chemokines, to direct cell migration in vivo 4. The final goal of chemotaxis research is to understand how a GPCR machinery senses chemokine gradients and controls signaling events leading to chemotaxis. To this end, we use imaging techniques to monitor, in real time, spatiotemporal concentrations of chemoattractants, cell movement in a gradient of chemoattractant, GPCR mediated activation of heterotrimeric G-protein, and intracellular signaling events involved in chemotaxis of eukaryotic cells 5-8. The simple eukaryotic organism, Dictyostelium discoideum, displays chemotaxic behaviors that are similar to those of leukocytes, and D. discoideum is a key model system for studying eukaryotic chemotaxis. As free-living amoebae, D. discoideum cells divide in rich medium. Upon starvation, cells enter a developmental program in which they aggregate through cAMP-mediated chemotaxis to form multicullular structures. Many components involved in chemotaxis to cAMP have been identified in D. discoideum. The binding of cAMP to a GPCR (cAR1) induces dissociation of heterotrimeric G-proteins into Gγ and Gβγ subunits 7, 9, 10. Gβγ subunits activate Ras, which in turn activates PI3K, converting PIP2 into PIP3 on the cell membrane 11-13. PIP3 serve as binding sites for proteins with pleckstrin Homology (PH) domains, thus recruiting these proteins to the membrane 14, 15. Activation of cAR1 receptors also controls the membrane associations of PTEN, which dephosphorylates PIP3 to PIP216, 17. The molecular mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved in chemokine GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of human cells such as neutrophils 18. We present following methods for studying chemotaxis of D. discoideum cells. 1. Preparation of chemotactic component cells. 2. Imaging chemotaxis of cells in a cAMP gradient. 3. Monitoring a GPCR induced activation of heterotrimeric G-protein in single live cells. 4. Imaging chemoattractant-triggered dynamic PIP3 responses in single live cells in real time. Our developed imaging methods can be applied to study chemotaxis of human leukocytes.
Molecular Biology, Issue 55, Chemotaxis, directional sensing, GPCR, PCR, G-proteins, signal transduction, Dictyostelium discoideum
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Biophysical Assays to Probe the Mechanical Properties of the Interphase Cell Nucleus: Substrate Strain Application and Microneedle Manipulation
Authors: Maria L. Lombardi, Monika Zwerger, Jan Lammerding.
Institutions: Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Cornell University.
In most eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is the largest organelle and is typically 2 to 10 times stiffer than the surrounding cytoskeleton; consequently, the physical properties of the nucleus contribute significantly to the overall biomechanical behavior of cells under physiological and pathological conditions. For example, in migrating neutrophils and invading cancer cells, nuclear stiffness can pose a major obstacle during extravasation or passage through narrow spaces within tissues.1 On the other hand, the nucleus of cells in mechanically active tissue such as muscle requires sufficient structural support to withstand repetitive mechanical stress. Importantly, the nucleus is tightly integrated into the cellular architecture; it is physically connected to the surrounding cytoskeleton, which is a critical requirement for the intracellular movement and positioning of the nucleus, for example, in polarized cells, synaptic nuclei at neuromuscular junctions, or in migrating cells.2 Not surprisingly, mutations in nuclear envelope proteins such as lamins and nesprins, which play a critical role in determining nuclear stiffness and nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling, have been shown recently to result in a number of human diseases, including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and dilated cardiomyopathy.3 To investigate the biophysical function of diverse nuclear envelope proteins and the effect of specific mutations, we have developed experimental methods to study the physical properties of the nucleus in single, living cells subjected to global or localized mechanical perturbation. Measuring induced nuclear deformations in response to precisely applied substrate strain application yields important information on the deformability of the nucleus and allows quantitative comparison between different mutations or cell lines deficient for specific nuclear envelope proteins. Localized cytoskeletal strain application with a microneedle is used to complement this assay and can yield additional information on intracellular force transmission between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton. Studying nuclear mechanics in intact living cells preserves the normal intracellular architecture and avoids potential artifacts that can arise when working with isolated nuclei. Furthermore, substrate strain application presents a good model for the physiological stress experienced by cells in muscle or other tissues (e.g., vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to vessel strain). Lastly, while these tools have been developed primarily to study nuclear mechanics, they can also be applied to investigate the function of cytoskeletal proteins and mechanotransduction signaling.
Biophysics, Issue 55, nuclear envelope, nuclear stiffness, nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling, lamin, nesprin, cytoskeleton, biomechanics, nuclear deformation, force transmission
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A Novel Stretching Platform for Applications in Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology
Authors: Dominique Tremblay, Charles M. Cuerrier, Lukasz Andrzejewski, Edward R. O'Brien, Andrew E. Pelling.
Institutions: University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa, University of Calgary, University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa.
Tools that allow the application of mechanical forces to cells and tissues or that can quantify the mechanical properties of biological tissues have contributed dramatically to the understanding of basic mechanobiology. These techniques have been extensively used to demonstrate how the onset and progression of various diseases are heavily influenced by mechanical cues. This article presents a multi-functional biaxial stretching (BAXS) platform that can either mechanically stimulate single cells or quantify the mechanical stiffness of tissues. The BAXS platform consists of four voice coil motors that can be controlled independently. Single cells can be cultured on a flexible substrate that can be attached to the motors allowing one to expose the cells to complex, dynamic, and spatially varying strain fields. Conversely, by incorporating a force load cell, one can also quantify the mechanical properties of primary tissues as they are exposed to deformation cycles. In both cases, a proper set of clamps must be designed and mounted to the BAXS platform motors in order to firmly hold the flexible substrate or the tissue of interest. The BAXS platform can be mounted on an inverted microscope to perform simultaneous transmitted light and/or fluorescence imaging to examine the structural or biochemical response of the sample during stretching experiments. This article provides experimental details of the design and usage of the BAXS platform and presents results for single cell and whole tissue studies. The BAXS platform was used to measure the deformation of nuclei in single mouse myoblast cells in response to substrate strain and to measure the stiffness of isolated mouse aortas. The BAXS platform is a versatile tool that can be combined with various optical microscopies in order to provide novel mechanobiological insights at the sub-cellular, cellular and whole tissue levels.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, cell stretching, tissue mechanics, nuclear mechanics, uniaxial, biaxial, anisotropic, mechanobiology
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Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Authors: Nikki M. Curthoys, Michael J. Mlodzianoski, Dahan Kim, Samuel T. Hess.
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
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Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei from Drosophila Tissues for Gene Expression Analysis
Authors: Jingqun Ma, Vikki Marie Weake.
Institutions: Purdue University.
Drosophila melanogaster embryonic and larval tissues often contain a highly heterogeneous mixture of cell types, which can complicate the analysis of gene expression in these tissues. Thus, to analyze cell-specific gene expression profiles from Drosophila tissues, it may be necessary to isolate specific cell types with high purity and at sufficient yields for downstream applications such as transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation. However, the irregular cellular morphology in tissues such as the central nervous system, coupled with the rare population of specific cell types in these tissues, can pose challenges for traditional methods of cell isolation such as laser microdissection and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Here, an alternative approach to characterizing cell-specific gene expression profiles using affinity-based isolation of tagged nuclei, rather than whole cells, is described. Nuclei in the specific cell type of interest are genetically labeled with a nuclear envelope-localized EGFP tag using the Gal4/UAS binary expression system. These EGFP-tagged nuclei can be isolated using antibodies against GFP that are coupled to magnetic beads. The approach described in this protocol enables consistent isolation of nuclei from specific cell types in the Drosophila larval central nervous system at high purity and at sufficient levels for expression analysis, even when these cell types comprise less than 2% of the total cell population in the tissue. This approach can be used to isolate nuclei from a wide variety of Drosophila embryonic and larval cell types using specific Gal4 drivers, and may be useful for isolating nuclei from cell types that are not suitable for FACS or laser microdissection.
Biochemistry, Issue 85, Gene Expression, nuclei isolation, Drosophila, KASH, GFP, cell-type specific
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Initiation of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Targeting of the Ductal Epithelium with Adenovirus-Cre: A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer
Authors: Melanie R. Rutkowski, Michael J. Allegrezza, Nikolaos Svoronos, Amelia J. Tesone, Tom L. Stephen, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Jenny Nguyen, Paul J. Zhang, Steven N. Fiering, Julia Tchou, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia.
Institutions: Wistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania.
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease involving complex cellular interactions between the developing tumor and immune system, eventually resulting in exponential tumor growth and metastasis to distal tissues and the collapse of anti-tumor immunity. Many useful animal models exist to study breast cancer, but none completely recapitulate the disease progression that occurs in humans. In order to gain a better understanding of the cellular interactions that result in the formation of latent metastasis and decreased survival, we have generated an inducible transgenic mouse model of YFP-expressing ductal carcinoma that develops after sexual maturity in immune-competent mice and is driven by consistent, endocrine-independent oncogene expression. Activation of YFP, ablation of p53, and expression of an oncogenic form of K-ras was achieved by the delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase into the mammary duct of sexually mature, virgin female mice. Tumors begin to appear 6 weeks after the initiation of oncogenic events. After tumors become apparent, they progress slowly for approximately two weeks before they begin to grow exponentially. After 7-8 weeks post-adenovirus injection, vasculature is observed connecting the tumor mass to distal lymph nodes, with eventual lymphovascular invasion of YFP+ tumor cells to the distal axillary lymph nodes. Infiltrating leukocyte populations are similar to those found in human breast carcinomas, including the presence of αβ and γδ T cells, macrophages and MDSCs. This unique model will facilitate the study of cellular and immunological mechanisms involved in latent metastasis and dormancy in addition to being useful for designing novel immunotherapeutic interventions to treat invasive breast cancer.
Medicine, Issue 85, Transgenic mice, breast cancer, metastasis, intraductal injection, latent mutations, adenovirus-Cre
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A Functional Assay for Gap Junctional Examination; Electroporation of Adherent Cells on Indium-Tin Oxide
Authors: Mulu Geletu, Stephanie Guy, Kevin Firth, Leda Raptis.
Institutions: Queen's University, Ask Science Products Inc..
In this technique, cells are cultured on a glass slide that is partly coated with indium-tin oxide (ITO), a transparent, electrically conductive material. A variety of molecules, such as peptides or oligonucleotides can be introduced into essentially 100% of the cells in a non-traumatic manner.  Here, we describe how it can be used to study intercellular, gap junctional communication. Lucifer yellow penetrates into the cells when an electric pulse, applied to the conductive surface on which they are growing, causes pores to form through the cell membrane. This is electroporation. Cells growing on the nonconductive glass surface immediately adjacent to the electroporated region do not take up Lucifer yellow by electroporation but do acquire the fluorescent dye as it is passed to them via gap junctions that link them to the electroporated cells. The results of the transfer of dye from cell to cell can be observed microscopically under fluorescence illumination. This technique allows for precise quantitation of gap junctional communication. In addition, it can be used for the introduction of peptides or other non-permeant molecules, and the transfer of small electroporated peptides via gap junctions to inhibit the signal in the adjacent, non-electroporated cells is a powerful demonstration of signal inhibition.
Molecular Biology, Issue 92, Electroporation, Indium-Tin oxide, signal transduction, gap junctional communication, peptides, Stat3
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Isolation of CA1 Nuclear Enriched Fractions from Hippocampal Slices to Study Activity-dependent Nuclear Import of Synapto-nuclear Messenger Proteins
Authors: Pingan Yuanxiang, Sujoy Bera, Anna Karpova, Michael R. Kreutz, Marina Mikhaylova.
Institutions: Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Utrecht University.
Studying activity dependent protein expression, subcellular translocation, or phosphorylation is essential to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) induced in acute hippocampal slices are widely accepted as cellular models of learning and memory. There are numerous studies that use live cell imaging or immunohistochemistry approaches to visualize activity dependent protein dynamics. However these methods rely on the suitability of antibodies for immunocytochemistry or overexpression of fluorescence-tagged proteins in single neurons. Immunoblotting of proteins is an alternative method providing independent confirmation of the findings. The first limiting factor in preparation of subcellular fractions from individual tetanized hippocampal slices is the low amount of material. Second, the handling procedure is crucial because even very short and minor manipulations of living slices might induce activation of certain signaling cascades. Here we describe an optimized workflow in order to obtain sufficient quantity of nuclear enriched fraction of sufficient purity from the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices from rat brain. As a representative example we show that the ERK1/2 phosphorylated form of the synapto-nuclear protein messenger Jacob actively translocates to the nucleus upon induction of LTP and can be detected in a nuclear enriched fraction from CA1 neurons.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, Hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation LTP, nucleus, NMDA receptors, NLS, immunoblotting, Jacob, nuclear enriched protein preparations
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Visualization of G3BP Stress Granules Dynamics in Live Primary Cells
Authors: Sophie Martin, Jamal Tazi.
Institutions: Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, CNRS UMR 5535.
SGs can be visualized in cells by immunostaining of specific protein components or polyA+ mRNAs. SGs are highly dynamic and the study of their assembly and fate is important to understand the cellular response to stress. The deficiency in key factors of SGs like G3BP (RasGAP SH3 domain Binding Protein) leads to developmental defects in mice and alterations of the Central Nervous System. To study the dynamics of SGs in cells from an organism, one can culture primary cells and follow the localization of a transfected tagged component of SGs. We describe time-lapse experiment to observe G3BP1-containing SGs in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs). This technique can also be used to study G3BP-containing SGs in live neurons, which is crucial as it was recently shown that these SGs are formed at the onset of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease. This approach can be adapted to any other cellular body and granule protein component, and performed with transgenic animals, allowing the live study of granules dynamics for example in the absence of a specific factor of these granules.
Cellular Biology, Issue 87, Stress granule (SG), G3BP, primary cells, neurons
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Experimental Generation of Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) from Human Mammary Fibroblasts
Authors: Urszula M. Polanska, Ahmet Acar, Akira Orimo.
Institutions: University of Manchester, Juntendo University.
Carcinomas are complex tissues comprised of neoplastic cells and a non-cancerous compartment referred to as the 'stroma'. The stroma consists of extracellular matrix (ECM) and a variety of mesenchymal cells, including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes and leukocytes 1-3. The tumour-associated stroma is responsive to substantial paracrine signals released by neighbouring carcinoma cells. During the disease process, the stroma often becomes populated by carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) including large numbers of myofibroblasts. These cells have previously been extracted from many different types of human carcinomas for their in vitro culture. A subpopulation of CAFs is distinguishable through their up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression4,5. These cells are a hallmark of 'activated fibroblasts' that share similar properties with myofibroblasts commonly observed in injured and fibrotic tissues 6. The presence of this myofibroblastic CAF subset is highly related to high-grade malignancies and associated with poor prognoses in patients. Many laboratories, including our own, have shown that CAFs, when injected with carcinoma cells into immunodeficient mice, are capable of substantially promoting tumourigenesis 7-10. CAFs prepared from carcinoma patients, however, frequently undergo senescence during propagation in culture limiting the extensiveness of their use throughout ongoing experimentation. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a novel technique to experimentally generate immortalised human mammary CAF cell lines (exp-CAFs) from human mammary fibroblasts, using a coimplantation breast tumour xenograft model. In order to generate exp-CAFs, parental human mammary fibroblasts, obtained from the reduction mammoplasty tissue, were first immortalised with hTERT, the catalytic subunit of the telomerase holoenzyme, and engineered to express GFP and a puromycin resistance gene. These cells were coimplanted with MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells expressing an activated ras oncogene (MCF-7-ras cells) into a mouse xenograft. After a period of incubation in vivo, the initially injected human mammary fibroblasts were extracted from the tumour xenografts on the basis of their puromycin resistance 11. We observed that the resident human mammary fibroblasts have differentiated, adopting a myofibroblastic phenotype and acquired tumour-promoting properties during the course of tumour progression. Importantly, these cells, defined as exp-CAFs, closely mimic the tumour-promoting myofibroblastic phenotype of CAFs isolated from breast carcinomas dissected from patients. Our tumour xenograft-derived exp-CAFs therefore provide an effective model to study the biology of CAFs in human breast carcinomas. The described protocol may also be extended for generating and characterising various CAF populations derived from other types of human carcinomas.
Medicine, Issue 56, cancer, stromal myofibroblasts, experimentally generated carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (exp-CAFs), fibroblast, human mammary carcinomas, tumour xenografts
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Hydrogel Nanoparticle Harvesting of Plasma or Urine for Detecting Low Abundance Proteins
Authors: Ruben Magni, Benjamin H. Espina, Lance A. Liotta, Alessandra Luchini, Virginia Espina.
Institutions: George Mason University, Ceres Nanosciences.
Novel biomarker discovery plays a crucial role in providing more sensitive and specific disease detection. Unfortunately many low-abundance biomarkers that exist in biological fluids cannot be easily detected with mass spectrometry or immunoassays because they are present in very low concentration, are labile, and are often masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin or immunoglobulin. Bait containing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAm) based nanoparticles are able to overcome these physiological barriers. In one step they are able to capture, concentrate and preserve biomarkers from body fluids. Low-molecular weight analytes enter the core of the nanoparticle and are captured by different organic chemical dyes, which act as high affinity protein baits. The nanoparticles are able to concentrate the proteins of interest by several orders of magnitude. This concentration factor is sufficient to increase the protein level such that the proteins are within the detection limit of current mass spectrometers, western blotting, and immunoassays. Nanoparticles can be incubated with a plethora of biological fluids and they are able to greatly enrich the concentration of low-molecular weight proteins and peptides while excluding albumin and other high-molecular weight proteins. Our data show that a 10,000 fold amplification in the concentration of a particular analyte can be achieved, enabling mass spectrometry and immunoassays to detect previously undetectable biomarkers.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, biomarker, hydrogel, low abundance, mass spectrometry, nanoparticle, plasma, protein, urine
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Efficient Production and Purification of Recombinant Murine Kindlin-3 from Insect Cells for Biophysical Studies
Authors: Luke A. Yates, Robert J. C. Gilbert.
Institutions: University of Oxford.
Kindlins are essential coactivators, with talin, of the cell surface receptors integrins and also participate in integrin outside-in signalling, and the control of gene transcription in the cell nucleus. The kindlins are ~75 kDa multidomain proteins and bind to an NPxY motif and upstream T/S cluster of the integrin β-subunit cytoplasmic tail. The hematopoietically-important kindlin isoform, kindlin-3, is critical for platelet aggregation during thrombus formation, leukocyte rolling in response to infection and inflammation and osteoclast podocyte formation in bone resorption. Kindlin-3's role in these processes has resulted in extensive cellular and physiological studies. However, there is a need for an efficient method of acquiring high quality milligram quantities of the protein for further studies. We have developed a protocol, here described, for the efficient expression and purification of recombinant murine kindlin-3 by use of a baculovirus-driven expression system in Sf9 cells yielding sufficient amounts of high purity full-length protein to allow its biophysical characterization. The same approach could be taken in the study of the other mammalian kindlin isoforms.
Virology, Issue 85, Heterologous protein expression, insect cells, Spodoptera frugiperda, baculovirus, protein purification, kindlin, cell adhesion
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Live Imaging of Drug Responses in the Tumor Microenvironment in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
Authors: Elizabeth S. Nakasone, Hanne A. Askautrud, Mikala Egeblad.
Institutions: Watson School of Biological Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital.
The tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and the response to anti-cancer therapies. Three-dimensional co-culture systems are frequently used to explicate tumor-stroma interactions, including their role in drug responses. However, many of the interactions that occur in vivo in the intact microenvironment cannot be completely replicated in these in vitro settings. Thus, direct visualization of these processes in real-time has become an important tool in understanding tumor responses to therapies and identifying the interactions between cancer cells and the stroma that can influence these responses. Here we provide a method for using spinning disk confocal microscopy of live, anesthetized mice to directly observe drug distribution, cancer cell responses and changes in tumor-stroma interactions following administration of systemic therapy in breast cancer models. We describe procedures for labeling different tumor components, treatment of animals for observing therapeutic responses, and the surgical procedure for exposing tumor tissues for imaging up to 40 hours. The results obtained from this protocol are time-lapse movies, in which such processes as drug infiltration, cancer cell death and stromal cell migration can be evaluated using image analysis software.
Cancer Biology, Issue 73, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Oncology, Pharmacology, Surgery, Tumor Microenvironment, Intravital imaging, chemotherapy, Breast cancer, time-lapse, mouse models, cancer cell death, stromal cell migration, cancer, imaging, transgenic, animal model
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Visualization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Localized mRNAs in Mammalian Cells
Authors: Xianying A. Cui, Alexander F. Palazzo.
Institutions: University of Toronto.
In eukaryotes, most of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that encode secreted and membrane proteins are localized to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the visualization of these mRNAs can be challenging. This is especially true when only a fraction of the mRNA is ER-associated and their distribution to this organelle is obstructed by non-targeted (i.e. "free") transcripts. In order to monitor ER-associated mRNAs, we have developed a method in which cells are treated with a short exposure to a digitonin extraction solution that selectively permeabilizes the plasma membrane, and thus removes the cytoplasmic contents, while simultaneously maintaining the integrity of the ER. When this method is coupled with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), one can clearly visualize ER-bound mRNAs by fluorescent microscopy. Using this protocol the degree of ER-association for either bulk poly(A) transcripts or specific mRNAs can be assessed and even quantified. In the process, one can use this assay to investigate the nature of mRNA-ER interactions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 70, Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics, mRNA localization, RNA, digitonin extraction, cell fractionation, endoplasmic reticulum, secretion, microscopy, imaging, fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH, cell biology
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In Vitro Nuclear Assembly Using Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts
Authors: Marie Cross, Maureen Powers.
Institutions: Emory University.
Nuclear membrane assembly is an essential step in the cell division cycle; this process can be replicated in the test tube by combining Xenopus sperm chromatin, cytosol, and light membrane fractions. Complete nuclei are formed, including nuclear membranes with pore complexes, and these reconstituted nuclei are capable of normal nuclear processes.
Cellular Biology, Issue 19, Current Protocols Wiley, Xenopus Egg Extracts, Nuclear Assembly, Nuclear Membrane
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