The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle’s body cavity.
In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting.
24 Related JoVE Articles!
A Protocol for Genetic Induction and Visualization of Benign and Invasive Tumors in Cephalic Complexes of Drosophila melanogaster
Institutions: Western Kentucky University .
has illuminated our understanding of the genetic basis of normal development and disease for the past several decades and today it continues to contribute immensely to our understanding of complex diseases 1-7
. Progression of tumors from a benign to a metastatic state is a complex event 8
and has been modeled in Drosophila
to help us better understand the genetic basis of this disease 9
. Here I present a simple protocol to genetically induce, observe and then analyze the progression of tumors in Drosophila
larvae. The tumor induction technique is based on the MARCM system 10
and exploits the cooperation between an activated oncogene, RasV12
and loss of cell polarity genes (scribbled
, discs large
and lethal giant larvae
) to generate invasive tumors 9
. I demonstrate how these tumors can be visualized in the intact larvae and then how these can be dissected out for further analysis. The simplified protocol presented here should make it possible for this technique to be utilized by investigators interested in understanding the role of a gene in tumor invasion.
Medicine, Issue 79, Imaginal Discs, Drosophila melanogaster, Neoplasm Metastasis, Drosophila, Invasive Tumors, Benign Tumors, Cephalic Complex, Mosaic Analysis with a Repressible Cell Marker technique
Imaging Centrosomes in Fly Testes
Institutions: University of Toledo.
Centrosomes are conserved microtubule-based organelles whose structure and function change dramatically throughout the cell cycle and cell differentiation. Centrosomes are essential to determine the cell division axis during mitosis and to nucleate cilia during interphase. The identity of the proteins that mediate these dynamic changes remains only partially known, and the function of many of the proteins that have been implicated in these processes is still rudimentary. Recent work has shown that Drosophila
spermatogenesis provides a powerful system to identify new proteins critical for centrosome function and formation as well as to gain insight into the particular function of known players in centrosome-related processes. Drosophila
is an established genetic model organism where mutants in centrosomal genes can be readily obtained and easily analyzed. Furthermore, recent advances in the sensitivity and resolution of light microscopy and the development of robust genetically tagged centrosomal markers have transformed the ability to use Drosophila
testes as a simple and accessible model system to study centrosomes. This paper describes the use of genetically-tagged centrosomal markers to perform genetic screens for new centrosomal mutants and to gain insight into the specific function of newly identified genes.
Developmental Biology, Issue 79, biology (general), genetics (animal and plant), animal biology, animal models, Life Sciences (General), Centrosome, Spermatogenesis, Spermiogenesis, Drosophila, Centriole, Cilium, Mitosis, Meiosis
Cytological Analysis of Spermatogenesis: Live and Fixed Preparations of Drosophila Testes
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
is a powerful model system that has been widely used to elucidate a variety of biological processes. For example, studies of both the female and male germ lines of Drosophila
have contributed greatly to the current understanding of meiosis as well as stem cell biology. Excellent protocols are available in the literature for the isolation and imaging of Drosophila
ovaries and testes3-12
. Herein, methods for the dissection and preparation of Drosophila
testes for microscopic analysis are described with an accompanying video demonstration. A protocol for isolating testes from the abdomen of adult males and preparing slides of live tissue for analysis by phase-contrast microscopy as well as a protocol for fixing and immunostaining testes for analysis by fluorescence microscopy are presented. These techniques can be applied in the characterization of Drosophila
mutants that exhibit defects in spermatogenesis as well as in the visualization of subcellular localizations of proteins.
Basic Protocol, Issue 83, Drosophila melanogaster, dissection, testes, spermatogenesis, meiosis, germ cells, phase-contrast microscopy, immunofluorescence
Design and Analysis of Temperature Preference Behavior and its Circadian Rhythm in Drosophila
Institutions: Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, JST.
The circadian clock regulates many aspects of life, including sleep, locomotor activity, and body temperature (BTR) rhythms1,2
. We recently identified a novel Drosophila
circadian output, called the temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which the preferred temperature in flies rises during the day and falls during the night 3
. Surprisingly, the TPR and locomotor activity are controlled through distinct circadian neurons3
locomotor activity is a well known circadian behavioral output and has provided strong contributions to the discovery of many conserved mammalian circadian clock genes and mechanisms4
. Therefore, understanding TPR will lead to the identification of hitherto unknown molecular and cellular circadian mechanisms. Here, we describe how to perform and analyze the TPR assay. This technique not only allows for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms of TPR, but also provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms of the brain functions that integrate different environmental signals and regulate animal behaviors. Furthermore, our recently published data suggest that the fly TPR shares features with the mammalian BTR3
are ectotherms, in which the body temperature is typically behaviorally regulated. Therefore, TPR is a strategy used to generate a rhythmic body temperature in these flies5-8
. We believe that further exploration of Drosophila
TPR will facilitate the characterization of the mechanisms underlying body temperature control in animals.
Basic Protocol, Issue 83, Drosophila, circadian clock, temperature, temperature preference rhythm, locomotor activity, body temperature rhythms
Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei from Drosophila Tissues for Gene Expression Analysis
Institutions: Purdue University.
embryonic and larval tissues often contain a highly heterogeneous mixture of cell types, which can complicate the analysis of gene expression in these tissues. Thus, to analyze cell-specific gene expression profiles from Drosophila
tissues, it may be necessary to isolate specific cell types with high purity and at sufficient yields for downstream applications such as transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation. However, the irregular cellular morphology in tissues such as the central nervous system, coupled with the rare population of specific cell types in these tissues, can pose challenges for traditional methods of cell isolation such as laser microdissection and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Here, an alternative approach to characterizing cell-specific gene expression profiles using affinity-based isolation of tagged nuclei, rather than whole cells, is described. Nuclei in the specific cell type of interest are genetically labeled with a nuclear envelope-localized EGFP tag using the Gal4/UAS binary expression system. These EGFP-tagged nuclei can be isolated using antibodies against GFP that are coupled to magnetic beads. The approach described in this protocol enables consistent isolation of nuclei from specific cell types in the Drosophila
larval central nervous system at high purity and at sufficient levels for expression analysis, even when these cell types comprise less than 2% of the total cell population in the tissue. This approach can be used to isolate nuclei from a wide variety of Drosophila
embryonic and larval cell types using specific Gal4 drivers, and may be useful for isolating nuclei from cell types that are not suitable for FACS or laser microdissection.
Biochemistry, Issue 85, Gene Expression, nuclei isolation, Drosophila, KASH, GFP, cell-type specific
Sonication-facilitated Immunofluorescence Staining of Late-stage Embryonic and Larval Drosophila Tissues In Situ
Institutions: College of William & Mary.
Studies performed in Drosophila melanogaster
embryos and larvae provide crucial insight into developmental processes such as cell fate specification and organogenesis. Immunostaining allows for the visualization of developing tissues and organs. However, a protective cuticle that forms at the end of embryogenesis prevents permeation of antibodies into late-stage embryos and larvae. While dissection prior to immunostaining is regularly used to analyze Drosophila
larval tissues, it proves inefficient for some analyses because small tissues may be difficult to locate and isolate. Sonication provides an alternative to dissection in larval Drosophila
immunostaining protocols. It allows for quick, simultaneous processing of large numbers of late-stage embryos and larvae and maintains in situ
morphology. After fixation in formaldehyde, a sample is sonicated. Sample is then subjected to immunostaining with antigen-specific primary antibodies and fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies to visualize target cell types and specific proteins via fluorescence microscopy. During the process of sonication, proper placement of a sonicating probe above the sample, as well as the duration and intensity of sonication, is critical. Additonal minor modifications to standard immunostaining protocols may be required for high quality stains. For antibodies with low signal to noise ratio, longer incubation times are typically necessary. As a proof of concept for this sonication-facilitated protocol, we show immunostains of three tissue types (testes, ovaries, and neural tissues) at a range of developmental stages.
Molecular Biology, Issue 90,
Drosophila, embryo, larvae, sonication, fixation, immunostain, immunofluorescence, organogenesis, development
Live Imaging of Drosophila Larval Neuroblasts
Institutions: National Institutes of Health.
Stem cells divide asymmetrically to generate two progeny cells with unequal fate potential: a self-renewing stem cell and a differentiating cell. Given their relevance to development and disease, understanding the mechanisms that govern asymmetric stem cell division has been a robust area of study. Because they are genetically tractable and undergo successive rounds of cell division about once every hour, the stem cells of the Drosophila
central nervous system, or neuroblasts, are indispensable models for the study of stem cell division. About 100 neural stem cells are located near the surface of each of the two larval brain lobes, making this model system particularly useful for live imaging microscopy studies. In this work, we review several approaches widely used to visualize stem cell divisions, and we address the relative advantages and disadvantages of those techniques that employ dissociated versus intact brain tissues. We also detail our simplified protocol used to explant whole brains from third instar larvae for live cell imaging and fixed analysis applications.
Neuroscience, Issue 89, live imaging, Drosophila, neuroblast, stem cell, asymmetric division, centrosome, brain, cell cycle, mitosis
Dissection and Immunostaining of Imaginal Discs from Drosophila melanogaster
Institutions: Indiana University.
A significant portion of post-embryonic development in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster
, takes place within a set of sac-like structures called imaginal discs. These discs give rise to a high percentage of adult structures that are found within the adult fly. Here we describe a protocol that has been optimized to recover these discs and prepare them for analysis with antibodies, transcriptional reporters and protein traps. This procedure is best suited for thin tissues like imaginal discs, but can be easily modified for use with thicker tissues such as the larval brain and adult ovary. The written protocol and accompanying video will guide the reader/viewer through the dissection of third instar larvae, fixation of tissue, and treatment of imaginal discs with antibodies. The protocol can be used to dissect imaginal discs from younger first and second instar larvae as well. The advantage of this protocol is that it is relatively short and it has been optimized for the high quality preservation of the dissected tissue. Another advantage is that the fixation procedure that is employed works well with the overwhelming number of antibodies that recognize Drosophila
proteins. In our experience, there is a very small number of sensitive antibodies that do not work well with this procedure. In these situations, the remedy appears to be to use an alternate fixation cocktail while continuing to follow the guidelines that we have set forth for the dissection steps and antibody incubations.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, Drosophila, imaginal discs, eye, retina, dissection, developmental biology
Ex vivo Culture of Drosophila Pupal Testis and Single Male Germ-line Cysts: Dissection, Imaging, and Pharmacological Treatment
Institutions: Philipps-Universität Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster,
male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin—the histone-to-protamine switch.
Studying the role of a protein in post-meiotic spermatogenesis using mutagenesis or other genetic tools is often impeded by essential embryonic, pre-meiotic, or meiotic functions of the protein under investigation. The post-meiotic phenotype of a mutant of such a protein could be obscured through an earlier developmental block, or the interpretation of the phenotype could be complicated. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster
offers a bypass to this problem: intact testes and even cysts of germ cells dissected from early pupae are able to develop ex vivo
in culture medium. Making use of such cultures allows microscopic imaging of living germ cells in testes and of germ-line cysts. Importantly, the cultivated testes and germ cells also become accessible to pharmacological inhibitors, thereby permitting manipulation of enzymatic functions during spermatogenesis, including post-meiotic stages.
The protocol presented describes how to dissect and cultivate pupal testes and germ-line cysts. Information on the development of pupal testes and culture conditions are provided alongside microscope imaging data of live testes and germ-line cysts in culture. We also describe a pharmacological assay to study post-meiotic spermatogenesis, exemplified by an assay targeting the histone-to-protamine switch using the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor anacardic acid. In principle, this cultivation method could be adapted to address many other research questions in pre- and post-meiotic spermatogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 91,
Ex vivo culture, testis, male germ-line cells, Drosophila, imaging, pharmacological assay
Acquisition of High-Quality Digital Video of Drosophila Larval and Adult Behaviors from a Lateral Perspective
Institutions: Willamette University.
is a powerful experimental model system for studying the function of the nervous system. Gene mutations that cause dysfunction of the nervous system often produce viable larvae and adults that have locomotion defective phenotypes that are difficult to adequately describe with text or completely represent with a single photographic image. Current modes of scientific publishing, however, support the submission of digital video media as supplemental material to accompany a manuscript. Here we describe a simple and widely accessible microscopy technique for acquiring high-quality digital video of both Drosophila
larval and adult phenotypes from a lateral perspective. Video of larval and adult locomotion from a side-view is advantageous because it allows the observation and analysis of subtle distinctions and variations in aberrant locomotive behaviors. We have successfully used the technique to visualize and quantify aberrant crawling behaviors in third instar larvae, in addition to adult mutant phenotypes and behaviors including grooming.
Neuroscience, Issue 92, Drosophila, behavior, coordination, crawling, locomotion, nervous system, neurodegeneration, larva
The Utility of Stage-specific Mid-to-late Drosophila Follicle Isolation
Institutions: University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.
oogenesis or follicle development has been widely used to advance the understanding of complex developmental and cell biologic processes. This methods paper describes how to isolate mid-to-late stage follicles (Stage 10B-14) and utilize them to provide new insights into the molecular and morphologic events occurring during tight windows of developmental time. Isolated follicles can be used for a variety of experimental techniques, including in vitro
development assays, live imaging, mRNA expression analysis and western blot analysis of proteins. Follicles at Stage 10B (S10B) or later will complete development in culture; this allows one to combine genetic or pharmacologic perturbations with in vitro
development to define the effects of such manipulations on the processes occurring during specific periods of development. Additionally, because these follicles develop in culture, they are ideally suited for live imaging studies, which often reveal new mechanisms that mediate morphological events. Isolated follicles can also be used for molecular analyses. For example, changes in gene expression that result from genetic perturbations can be defined for specific developmental windows. Additionally, protein level, stability, and/or posttranslational modification state during a particular stage of follicle development can be examined through western blot analyses. Thus, stage-specific isolation of Drosophila
follicles provides a rich source of information into widely conserved processes of development and morphogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 82, Drosophila melanogaster, Organ Culture Techniques, Gene Expression Profiling, Microscopy, Confocal, Cell Biology, Genetic Research, Molecular Biology, Pharmacology, Drosophila, oogenesis, follicle, live-imaging, gene expression, development
An Injury Paradigm to Investigate Central Nervous System Repair in Drosophila
Institutions: University of Birmingham .
An experimental method has been developed to investigate the cellular responses to central nervous system (CNS) injury using the fruit-fly Drosophila
. Understanding repair and regeneration in animals is a key question in biology. The damaged human CNS does not regenerate, and understanding how to promote the regeneration is one of main goals of medical neuroscience. The powerful genetic toolkit of Drosophila
can be used to tackle the problem of CNS regeneration.
A lesion to the CNS ventral nerve cord (VNC, equivalent to the vertebrate spinal cord) is applied manually with a tungsten needle. The VNC can subsequently be filmed in time-lapse using laser scanning confocal microscopy for up to 24 hr to follow the development of the lesion over time. Alternatively, it can be cultured, then fixed and stained using immunofluorescence to visualize neuron and glial cells with confocal microscopy. Using appropriate markers, changes in cell morphology and cell state as a result of injury can be visualized. With ImageJ and purposely developed plug-ins, quantitative and statistical analyses can be carried out to measure changes in wound size over time and the effects of injury in cell proliferation and cell death. These methods allow the analysis of large sample sizes. They can be combined with the powerful genetics of Drosophila
to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying CNS regeneration and repair.
Neurobiology, Issue 73, Developmental Biology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Central Nervous System, Neuroglia, Drosophila, fruit fly, animal models, Wounds and Injuries, Cell Physiological Phenomena, Genetic Phenomena, injury, repair, regeneration, central nervous system, ventral nerve cord, larva, live imaging, cell counting, Repo, GS2, glia, neurons, nerves, CNS, animal model
Appetitive Associative Olfactory Learning in Drosophila Larvae
Institutions: University of Konstanz, University of Fribourg.
In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila
larvae. The setup, in combination with genetic interference, provides a handle to analyze the neuronal and molecular fundamentals of specifically associative
learning in a simple larval brain.
Organisms can use past experience to adjust present behavior. Such acquisition of behavioral potential can be defined as learning, and the physical bases of these potentials as memory traces1-4
. Neuroscientists try to understand how these processes are organized in terms of molecular and neuronal changes in the brain by using a variety of methods in model organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates5,6
. For such endeavors it is helpful to use model systems that are simple and experimentally accessible. The Drosophila
larva has turned out to satisfy these demands based on the availability of robust behavioral assays, the existence of a variety of transgenic techniques and the elementary organization of the nervous system comprising only about 10,000 neurons (albeit with some concessions: cognitive limitations, few behavioral options, and richness of experience questionable)7-10
larvae can form associations between odors and appetitive gustatory reinforcement like sugar11-14
. In a standard assay, established in the lab of B. Gerber, animals receive a two-odor reciprocal training: A first group of larvae is exposed to an odor A together with a gustatory reinforcer (sugar reward) and is subsequently exposed to an odor B without reinforcement 9
. Meanwhile a second group of larvae receives reciprocal training while experiencing odor A without reinforcement and subsequently being exposed to odor B with reinforcement (sugar reward). In the following both groups are tested for their preference between the two odors. Relatively higher preferences for the rewarded odor reflect associative learning - presented as a performance index (PI). The conclusion regarding the associative nature of the performance index is compelling, because apart from the contingency between odors and tastants, other parameters, such as odor and reward exposure, passage of time and handling do not differ between the two groups9
Neuroscience, Issue 72, Developmental Biology, Neurobiology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Physiology, Behavior, Drosophila, fruit fly, larvae, instar, olfaction, olfactory system, odor, 1-octanol, OCT, learning, reward, sugar, feeding, animal model
Ex vivo Culturing of Whole, Developing Drosophila Brains
Institutions: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
We describe a method for ex vivo
culturing of whole Drosophila
brains. This can be used as a counterpoint to chronic genetic manipulations for investigating the cell biology and development of central brain structures by allowing acute pharmacological interventions and live imaging of cellular processes. As an example of the technique, prior work from our lab1
has shown that a previously unrecognized subcellular compartment lies between the axonal and somatodendritic compartments of axons of the Drosophila
central brain. The development of this compartment, referred to as the axon initial segment (AIS)2
, was shown genetically to depend on the neuron-specific cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdk5. We show here that ex vivo
treatment of wild-type Drosophila
larval brains with the Cdk5-specific pharmacological inhibitors roscovitine and olomoucine3
causes acute changes in actin organization, and in localization of the cell-surface protein Fasciclin 2, that mimic the changes seen in mutants that lack Cdk5 activity genetically.
A second example of the ex vivo
culture technique is provided for remodeling of the connections of embryonic mushroom body (MB) gamma neurons during metamorphosis from larva to adult. The mushroom body is the center of olfactory learning and memory in the fly4
, and these gamma neurons prune their axonal and dendritic branches during pupal development and then re-extend branches at a later timepoint to establish the adult innervation pattern5
. Pruning of these neurons of the MB has been shown to occur via local degeneration of neurite branches6
, by a mechanism that is triggered by ecdysone, a steroid hormone, acting at the ecdysone receptor B17
, and that is dependent on the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system6
. Our method of ex vivo
culturing can be used to interrogate further the mechanism of developmental remodeling. We found that in the ex vivo
culture setting, gamma neurons of the MB recapitulated the process of developmental pruning with a time course similar to that in vivo
. It was essential, however, to wait until 1.5 hours after puparium formation before explanting the tissue in order for the cells to commit irreversibly to metamorphosis; dissection of animals at the onset of pupariation led to little or no metamorphosis in culture. Thus, with appropriate modification, the ex vivo
culture approach can be applied to study dynamic as well as steady state aspects of central brain biology.
Neuroscience, Issue 65, Developmental Biology, Physiology, Drosophila, mushroom body, ex vivo, organ culture, pruning, pharmacology
Local and Global Methods of Assessing Thermal Nociception in Drosophila Larvae
Institutions: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Houston-Downtown, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
In this article, we demonstrate assays to study thermal nociception in Drosophila
larvae. One assay involves spatially-restricted (local) stimulation of thermal nociceptors1,2
while the second involves a wholesale (global) activation of most or all such neurons3
. Together, these techniques allow visualization and quantification of the behavioral functions of Drosophila
nociceptive sensory neurons.
larva is an established model system to study thermal nociception, a sensory response to potentially harmful temperatures that is evolutionarily conserved across species1,2
. The advantages of Drosophila
for such studies are the relative simplicity of its nervous system and the sophistication of the genetic techniques that can be used to dissect the molecular basis of the underlying biology4-6
, as in all metazoans, the response to noxious thermal stimuli generally involves a "nocifensive" aversive withdrawal to the presented stimulus7
. Such stimuli are detected through free nerve endings or nociceptors and the amplitude of the organismal response depends on the number of nociceptors receiving the noxious stimulus8
. In Drosophila
, it is the class IV dendritic arborization sensory neurons that detect noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli9
in addition to their recently discovered role as photoreceptors10
. These neurons, which have been very well studied at the developmental level, arborize over the barrier epidermal sheet and make contacts with nearly all epidermal cells11,12
. The single axon of each class IV neuron projects into the ventral nerve cord of the central nervous system11
where they may connect to second-order neurons that project to the brain.
Under baseline conditions, nociceptive sensory neurons will not fire until a relatively high threshold is reached. The assays described here allow the investigator to quantify baseline behavioral responses or, presumably, the sensitization that ensues following tissue damage. Each assay provokes distinct but related locomotory behavioral responses to noxious thermal stimuli and permits the researcher to visualize and quantify various aspects of thermal nociception in Drosophila
larvae. The assays can be applied to larvae of desired genotypes or to larvae raised under different environmental conditions that might impact nociception. Since thermal nociception is conserved across species, the findings gleaned from genetic dissection in Drosophila
will likely inform our understanding of thermal nociception in other species, including vertebrates.
Neuroscience, Issue 63, Drosophila sensory neurons, thermal nociception, nociceptive sensitization, tissue damage, fly behavioral response, dendritic arborization neurons, allodynia, hyperalgesia, behavioral assay
Immunohistological Labeling of Microtubules in Sensory Neuron Dendrites, Tracheae, and Muscles in the Drosophila Larva Body Wall
Institutions: RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama University.
To understand how differences in complex cell shapes are achieved, it is important to accurately follow microtubule organization. The Drosophila
larval body wall contains several cell types that are models to study cell and tissue morphogenesis. For example tracheae are used to examine tube morphogenesis1
, and the dendritic arborization (DA) sensory neurons of the Drosophila
larva have become a primary system for the elucidation of general and neuron-class-specific mechanisms of dendritic differentiation2-5
The shape of dendrite branches can vary significantly between neuron classes, and even among different branches of a single neuron7,8
. Genetic studies in DA neurons suggest that differential cytoskeletal organization can underlie morphological differences in dendritic branch shape4,9-11
. We provide a robust immunological labeling method to assay in vivo
microtubule organization in DA sensory neuron dendrite arbor (Figures 1, 2, Movie 1). This protocol illustrates the dissection and immunostaining of first instar larva, a stage when active sensory neuron dendrite outgrowth and branching organization is occurring 12,13
In addition to staining sensory neurons, this method achieves robust labeling of microtubule organization in muscles (Movies 2, 3), trachea (Figure 3, Movie 3), and other body wall tissues. It is valuable for investigators wishing to analyze microtubule organization in situ
in the body wall when investigating mechanisms that control tissue and cell shape.
Neuroscience, Issue 57, developmental biology, Drosophila larvae, immunohistochemistry, microtubule, trachea, dendritic arborization neurons
Dissection and Staining of Drosophila Larval Ovaries
Institutions: Weizmann Institute of Science.
Many organs depend on stem cells for their development during embryogenesis and for maintenance or repair during adult life. Understanding how stem cells form, and how they interact with their environment is therefore crucial for understanding development, homeostasis and disease. The ovary of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster
has served as an influential model for the interaction of germ line stem cells (GSCs) with their somatic support cells (niche) 1, 2
. The known location of the niche and the GSCs, coupled to the ability to genetically manipulate them, has allowed researchers to elucidate a variety of interactions between stem cells and their niches 3-12
Despite the wealth of information about mechanisms controlling GSC maintenance and differentiation, relatively little is known about how GSCs and their somatic niches form during development. About 18 somatic niches, whose cellular components include terminal filament and cap cells (Figure 1), form during the third larval instar 13-17
. GSCs originate from primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGCs proliferate at early larval stages, but following the formation of the niche a subgroup of PGCs becomes GSCs 7, 16, 18, 19
. Together, the somatic niche cells and the GSCs make a functional unit that produces eggs throughout the lifetime of the organism.
Many questions regarding the formation of the GSC unit remain unanswered. Processes such as coordination between precursor cells for niches and stem cell precursors, or the generation of asymmetry within PGCs as they become GSCs, can best be studied in the larva. However, a methodical study of larval ovary development is physically challenging. First, larval ovaries are small. Even at late larval stages they are only 100μm across. In addition, the ovaries are transparent and are embedded in a white fat body. Here we describe a step-by-step protocol for isolating ovaries from late third instar (LL3) Drosophila
larvae, followed by staining with fluorescent antibodies. We offer some technical solutions to problems such as locating the ovaries, staining and washing tissues that do not sink, and making sure that antibodies penetrate into the tissue. This protocol can be applied to earlier larval stages and to larval testes as well.
Cellular Biology, Issue 51, development, Drosophila, ovaries, larvae, dissection, niche, germ line stem cells
Dissection of Larval CNS in Drosophila Melanogaster
Institutions: Princeton University.
The central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila larvae is complex and poorly understood. One way to investigate the CNS is to use immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of various novel and marker proteins. Staining of whole larvae is impractical because the tough cuticle prevents antibodies from penetrating inside the body cavity. In order to stain these tissues it is necessary to dissect the animal prior to fixing and staining. In this article we demonstrate how to dissect Drosophila larvae without damaging the CNS. Begin by tearing the larva in half with a pair of fine forceps, and then turn the cuticle "inside-out" to expose the CNS. If the dissection is performed carefully the CNS will remain attached to the cuticle. We usually keep the CNS attached to the cuticle throughout the fixation and staining steps, and only completely remove the CNS from the cuticle just prior to mounting the samples on glass slides. We also show some representative images of a larval CNS stained with Eve, a transcription factor expressed in a subset of neurons in the CNS. The article concludes with a discussion of some of the practical uses of this technique and the potential difficulties that may arise.
Developmental Biology, Issue 1, Drosophila, fly, CNS, larvae
Dissection of Imaginal Discs from 3rd Instar Drosophila Larvae
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Developmental Biology, Issue 2, Drosophila, Imaginal Disks, Dissection Technique
Wolbachia Bacterial Infection in Drosophila
Institutions: Boston University.
Developmental Biology, Issue 2, Drosophila, infection, fly
Loading Drosophila Nerve Terminals with Calcium Indicators
Institutions: University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA).
Calcium plays many roles in the nervous system but none more impressive than as the trigger for neurotransmitter release, and none more profound than as the messenger essential for the synaptic plasticity that supports learning and memory. To further elucidate the molecular underpinnings of Ca2+
-dependent synaptic mechanisms, a model system is required that is both genetically malleable and physiologically accessible. Drosophila melanogaster provides such a model. In this system, genetically-encoded fluorescent indicators are available to detect Ca2+
changes in nerve terminals. However, these indicators have limited sensitivity to Ca2+
and often show a non-linear response. Synthetic fluorescent indicators are better suited for measuring the rapid Ca2+
changes associated with nerve activity. Here we demonstrate a technique for loading dextran-conjugated synthetic Ca2+
indicators into live nerve terminals in Drosophila larvae. Particular emphasis is placed on those aspects of the protocol most critical to the technique's success, such as how to avoid static electricity discharges along the isolated nerves, maintaining the health of the preparation during extended loading periods, and ensuring axon survival by providing Ca2+
to promote sealing of severed axon endings. Low affinity dextran-conjugated Ca2+
-indicators, such as fluo-4 and rhod, are available which show a high signal-to-noise ratio while minimally disrupting presynaptic Ca2+
dynamics. Dextran-conjugation helps prevent Ca2+
indicators being sequestered into organelles such as mitochondria. The loading technique can be applied equally to larvae, embryos and adults.
Neuroscience, Issue 6, Drosophila, neuron, imaging
Drosophila Larval NMJ Immunohistochemistry
Institutions: Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is an established model system used for the study of synaptic development and plasticity. The widespread use of the Drosophila
motor system is due to its high accessibility. It can be analyzed with single-cell resolution. There are 30 muscles per hemisegment whose arrangement within the peripheral body wall are known. A total of 31 motor neurons attach to these muscles in a pattern that has high fidelity. Using molecular biology and genetics, one can create transgenic animals or mutants. Then, one can study the developmental consequences on the morphology and function of the NMJ. Immunohistochemistry can be used to clearly image the components of the NMJ. In this article, we demonstrate how to use antibody staining to visualize the Drosophila
Developmental Biology, Issue 25, NMJ, Drosophila, Larvae, Immunohistochemistry, Neuroscience
A Novel RFP Reporter to Aid in the Visualization of the Eye Imaginal Disc in Drosophila
Institutions: King's College London.
eye is a powerful model system for studying areas such as neurogenesis, signal transduction and neurodegeneration. Many of the discoveries made using this system have taken advantage of the spatiotemporal nature of photoreceptor differentiation in the developing eye imaginal disc. To use this system it is first necessary for the researcher to learn to identify and dissect the eye disc. We describe a novel RFP reporter to aid in the identification of the eye disc and the visualization of specific cell types in the developing eye. We detail a methodology for dissection of the eye imaginal disc from third instar larvae and describe how the eye-RFP reporter can aid in this dissection. This eye-RFP reporter is only expressed in the eye and can be visualized using fluorescence microscopy either in live tissue or after fixation without the need for signal amplification. We also show how this reporter can be used to identify specific cells types within the eye disc. This protocol and the use of the eye-RFP reporter will aid researchers using the Drosophila
eye to address fundamentally important biological questions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 34, fluorescence microscopy, Drosophila, eye, RFP, dissection, imaginal disc
Dissection of Drosophila Ovaries
Institutions: Princeton University.
Neuroscience, Issue 1, Protocol, Stem Cells, Cerebral Cortex, Brain Development, Electroporation, Intra Uterine Injections, transfection