Rejection of the transplanted kidney in humans is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The mouse model of renal transplantation closely replicates both the technical and pathological processes that occur in human renal transplantation. Although mouse models of allogeneic rejection in organs other than the kidney exist, and are more technically feasible, there is evidence that different organs elicit disparate rejection modes and dynamics, for instance the time course of rejection in cardiac and renal allograft differs significantly in certain strain combinations. This model is an attractive tool for many reasons despite its technical challenges. As inbred mouse strain haplotypes are well characterized it is possible to choose donor and recipient combinations to model acute allograft rejection by transplanting across MHC class I and II loci. Conversely by transplanting between strains with similar haplotypes a chronic process can be elicited were the allograft kidney develops interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. We have modified the surgical technique to reduce operating time and improve ease of surgery, however a learning curve still needs to be overcome in order to faithfully replicate the model. This study will provide key points in the surgical procedure and aid the process of establishing this technique.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
Trans-vivo Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Assay for Antigen Specific Regulation
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health.
Delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) is a rapid in vivo
manifestation of T cell-dependent immune response to a foreign antigen (Ag) that the host immune system has experienced in the recent past. DTH reactions are often divided into a sensitization phase, referring to the initial antigen experience, and a challenge phase, which usually follows several days after sensitization. The lack of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to a recall Ag demonstrated by skin testing is often regarded as an evidence of anergy. The traditional DTH assay has been effectively used in diagnosing many microbial infections.
Despite sharing similar immune features such as lymphocyte infiltration, edema, and tissue necrosis, the direct DTH is not a feasible diagnostic technique in transplant patients because of the possibility of direct injection resulting in sensitization to donor antigens and graft loss. To avoid this problem, the human-to-mouse "trans-vivo" DTH assay was developed 1,2
. This test is essentially a transfer DTH assay, in which human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and specific antigens were injected subcutaneously into the pinnae or footpad of a naïve mouse and DTH-like swelling is measured after 18-24 hr 3
. The antigen presentation by human antigen presenting cells such as macrophages or DCs to T cells in highly vascular mouse tissue triggers the inflammatory cascade and attracts mouse immune cells resulting in swelling responses. The response is antigen-specific and requires prior antigen sensitization. A positive donor-reactive DTH response in the Tv-DTH assay reflects that the transplant patient has developed a pro-inflammatory immune disposition toward graft alloantigens.
The most important feature of this assay is that it can also be used to detect regulatory T cells, which cause bystander suppression. Bystander suppression of a DTH recall response in the presence of donor antigen is characteristic of transplant recipients with accepted allografts 2,4-14
. The monitoring of transplant recipients for alloreactivity and regulation by Tv-DTH may identify a subset of patients who could benefit from reduction of immunosuppression without elevated risk of rejection or deteriorating renal function.
A promising area is the application of the Tv-DTH assay in monitoring of autoimmunity15,16
and also in tumor immunology 17
Immunology, Issue 75, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, Surgery, Trans-vivo delayed type hypersensitivity, Tv-DTH, Donor antigen, Antigen-specific regulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC, T regulatory cells, severe combined immunodeficient mice, SCID, T cells, lymphocytes, inflammation, injection, mouse, animal model
Murine Renal Transplantation Procedure
Institutions: The Ohio State University, The Ohio State University.
Renal orthotopic transplantation in mice is a technically challenging procedure. Although the first kidney transplants in mice were performed by Russell et al over 30 years ago (1) and refined by Zhang et al years later (2), few people in the world have mastered this procedure. In our laboratory we have successfully performed 1200 orthotopic kidney transplantations with > 90% survival rate. The key points for success include stringent control of reperfusion injury, bleeding and thrombosis, both during the procedure and post-transplantation, and use of 10-0 instead of 11-0 suture for anastomoses.
Post-operative care and treatment of the recipient is extremely important to transplant success and evaluation. All renal graft recipients receive antibiotics in the form of an injection of penicillin immediately post-transplant and sulfatrim in the drinking water continually. Overall animal health is evaluated daily and whole blood creatinine analyses are performed routinely with a portable I-STAT machine to assess graft function.
immunology, Issue 29, mouse, kidney, renal, transplantation, procedure
A Modified Heterotopic Swine Hind Limb Transplant Model for Translational Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Research
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) such as hand and face transplants represent a viable treatment option for complex musculoskeletal trauma and devastating tissue loss. Despite favorable and highly encouraging early and intermediate functional outcomes, rejection of the highly immunogenic skin component of a VCA and potential adverse effects of chronic multi-drug immunosuppression continue to hamper widespread clinical application of VCA. Therefore, research in this novel field needs to focus on translational studies related to unique immunologic features of VCA and to develop novel immunomodulatory strategies for immunomodulation and tolerance induction following VCA without the need for long term immunosuppression.
This article describes a reliable and reproducible translational large animal model of VCA that is comprised of an osteomyocutaneous flap in a MHC-defined swine heterotopic hind limb allotransplantation. Briefly, a well-vascularized skin paddle is identified in the anteromedial thigh region using near infrared laser angiography. The underlying muscles, knee joint, distal femur, and proximal tibia are harvested on a femoral vascular pedicle. This allograft can be considered both a VCA and a vascularized bone marrow transplant with its unique immune privileged features. The graft is transplanted to a subcutaneous abdominal pocket in the recipient animal with a skin component exteriorized to the dorsolateral region for immune monitoring.
Three surgical teams work simultaneously in a well-coordinated manner to reduce anesthesia and ischemia times, thereby improving efficiency of this model and reducing potential confounders in experimental protocols. This model serves as the groundwork for future therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing and potentially eliminating the need for chronic multi-drug immunosuppression in VCA.
Medicine, Issue 80, Upper Extremity, Swine, Microsurgery, Tissue Transplantation, Transplantation Immunology, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Vascularized Composite Allografts, reconstructive transplantation, translational research, swine, hind limb allotransplantation, bone marrow, osteomyocutaneous, microvascular anastomosis, immunomodulation
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g.
by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5
. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6
, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1
. Originally published by Naal et al.1
, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11
, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2
. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280
= 4,200 L/M/cm)12
. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
Heterotopic Auxiliary Rat Liver Transplantation With Flow-regulated Portal Vein Arterialization in Acute Hepatic Failure
Institutions: University Hospital RWTH Aachen.
In acute hepatic failure auxiliary liver transplantation is an interesting alternative approach. The aim is to provide a temporary support until the failing native liver has regenerated.1-3
The APOLT-method, the orthotopic implantation of auxiliary segments- averts most of the technical problems. However this method necessitates extensive resections of both the native liver and the graft.4
In 1998, Erhard developed the heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation (HALT) utilizing portal vein arterialization (PVA) (Figure 1). This technique showed promising initial clinical results.5-6
We developed a HALT-technique with flow-regulated PVA in the rat to examine the influence of flow-regulated PVA on graft morphology and function (Figure 2).
A liver graft reduced to 30 % of its original size, was heterotopically implanted in the right renal region of the recipient after explantation of the right kidney. The infra-hepatic caval vein of the graft was anastomosed with the infrahepatic caval vein of the recipient. The arterialization of the donor’s portal vein was carried out via the recipient’s right renal artery with the stent technique. The blood-flow regulation of the arterialized portal vein was achieved with the use of a stent with an internal diameter of 0.3 mm. The celiac trunk of the graft was end-to-side anastomosed with the recipient’s aorta and the bile duct was implanted into the duodenum. A subtotal resection of the native liver was performed to induce acute hepatic failure. 7
In this manner 112 transplantations were performed. The perioperative survival rate was 90% and the 6-week survival rate was 80%. Six weeks after operation, the native liver regenerated, showing an increase in weight from 2.3±0.8 g to 9.8±1 g. At this time, the graft’s weight decreased from 3.3±0.8 g to 2.3±0.8 g.
We were able to obtain promising long-term results in terms of graft morphology and function. HALT with flow-regulated PVA reliably bridges acute hepatic failure until the native liver regenerates.
Medicine, Issue 91, auxiliary liver transplantation, rat, portal vein arterialization, flow-regulation, acute hepatic failure
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Technique of Subnormothermic Ex Vivo Liver Perfusion for the Storage, Assessment, and Repair of Marginal Liver Grafts
Institutions: Toronto General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital.
The success of liver transplantation has resulted in a dramatic organ shortage. In most transplant regions 20-30% of patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation die without receiving an organ transplant or are delisted for disease progression. One strategy to increase the donor pool is the utilization of marginal grafts, such as fatty livers, grafts from older donors, or donation after cardiac death (DCD). The current preservation technique of cold static storage is only poorly tolerated by marginal livers resulting in significant organ damage. In addition, cold static organ storage does not allow graft assessment or repair prior to transplantation.
These shortcomings of cold static preservation have triggered an interest in warm perfused organ preservation to reduce cold ischemic injury, assess liver grafts during preservation, and explore the opportunity to repair marginal livers prior to transplantation. The optimal pressure and flow conditions, perfusion temperature, composition of the perfusion solution and the need for an oxygen carrier has been controversial in the past.
In spite of promising results in several animal studies, the complexity and the costs have prevented a broader clinical application so far. Recently, with enhanced technology and a better understanding of liver physiology during ex vivo
perfusion the outcome of warm liver perfusion has improved and consistently good results can be achieved.
This paper will provide information about liver retrieval, storage techniques, and isolated liver perfusion in pigs. We will illustrate a) the requirements to ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the organ, b) technical considerations about the perfusion machine and the perfusion solution, and c) biochemical aspects of isolated organs.
Medicine, Issue 90, ex vivo liver perfusion, marginal grafts, DCD
Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90,
zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
Renal Ischaemia Reperfusion Injury: A Mouse Model of Injury and Regeneration
Institutions: University of Edinburgh.
Renal ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients and occlusion of renal blood flow is unavoidable during renal transplantation. Experimental models that accurately and reproducibly recapitulate renal IRI are crucial in dissecting the pathophysiology of AKI and the development of novel therapeutic agents. Presented here is a mouse model of renal IRI that results in reproducible AKI. This is achieved by a midline laparotomy approach for the surgery with one incision allowing both a right nephrectomy that provides control tissue and clamping of the left renal pedicle to induce ischaemia of the left kidney. By careful monitoring of the clamp position and body temperature during the period of ischaemia this model achieves reproducible functional and structural injury. Mice sacrificed 24 hr following surgery demonstrate loss of renal function with elevation of the serum or plasma creatinine level as well as structural kidney damage with acute tubular necrosis evident. Renal function improves and the acute tissue injury resolves during the course of 7 days following renal IRI such that this model may be used to study renal regeneration. This model of renal IRI has been utilized to study the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of AKI as well as analysis of the subsequent renal regeneration.
Medicine, Issue 88, Murine, Acute Kidney Injury, Ischaemia, Reperfusion, Nephrectomy, Regeneration, Laparotomy
Carotid Artery Infusions for Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Taxanes in Mice
Institutions: Fox Chase Cancer Center.
When proposing the use of a drug, drug combination, or drug delivery into a novel system, one must assess the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the study model. As the use of mouse models are often a vital step in preclinical drug discovery and drug development1-8
, it is necessary to design a system to introduce drugs into mice in a uniform, reproducible manner. Ideally, the system should permit the collection of blood samples at regular intervals over a set time course. The ability to measure drug concentrations by mass-spectrometry, has allowed investigators to follow the changes in plasma drug levels over time in individual mice1, 9, 10
. In this study, paclitaxel was introduced into transgenic mice as a continuous arterial infusion over three hours, while blood samples were simultaneously taken by retro-orbital bleeds at set time points. Carotid artery infusions are a potential alternative to jugular vein infusions, when factors such as mammary tumors or other obstructions make jugular infusions impractical. Using this technique, paclitaxel concentrations in plasma and tissue achieved similar levels as compared to jugular infusion. In this tutorial, we will demonstrate how to successfully catheterize the carotid artery by preparing an optimized catheter for the individual mouse model, then show how to insert and secure the catheter into the mouse carotid artery, thread the end of the catheter out through the back of the mouse’s neck, and hook the mouse to a pump to deliver a controlled rate of drug influx. Multiple low volume retro-orbital bleeds allow for analysis of plasma drug concentrations over time.
Medicine, Issue 92, pharmacokinetics, paclitaxel, catheter, carotid artery, infusion, tissue distribution
5/6th Nephrectomy in Combination with High Salt Diet and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition to Induce Chronic Kidney Disease in the Lewis Rat
Institutions: University Medical Center Utrecht.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global problem. Slowing CKD progression is a major health priority. Since CKD is characterized by complex derangements of homeostasis, integrative animal models are necessary to study development and progression of CKD. To study development of CKD and novel therapeutic interventions in CKD, we use the 5/6th nephrectomy ablation model, a well known experimental model of progressive renal disease, resembling several aspects of human CKD. The gross reduction in renal mass causes progressive glomerular and tubulo-interstitial injury, loss of remnant nephrons and development of systemic and glomerular hypertension. It is also associated with progressive intrarenal capillary loss, inflammation and glomerulosclerosis. Risk factors for CKD invariably impact on endothelial function. To mimic this, we combine removal of 5/6th of renal mass with nitric oxide (NO) depletion and a high salt diet. After arrival and acclimatization, animals receive a NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-Arginine) (L-NNA) supplemented to drinking water (20 mg/L) for a period of 4 weeks, followed by right sided uninephrectomy. One week later, a subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) is performed on the left side. After SNX, animals are allowed to recover for two days followed by LNNA in drinking water (20 mg/L) for a further period of 4 weeks. A high salt diet (6%), supplemented in ground chow (see time line Figure 1
), is continued throughout the experiment. Progression of renal failure is followed over time by measuring plasma urea, systolic blood pressure and proteinuria. By six weeks after SNX, renal failure has developed. Renal function is measured using 'gold standard' inulin and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearance technology. This model of CKD is characterized by a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), hypertension (systolic blood pressure>150 mmHg), proteinuria (> 50 mg/24 hr) and mild uremia (>10 mM). Histological features include tubulo-interstitial damage reflected by inflammation, tubular atrophy and fibrosis and focal glomerulosclerosis leading to massive reduction of healthy glomeruli within the remnant population (<10%). Follow-up until 12 weeks after SNX shows further progression of CKD.
Medicine, Issue 77, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Nephrology Kidney Diseases, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Hemodynamics, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Chronic kidney disease, remnant kidney, chronic renal diseases, kidney, Nitric Oxide depletion, NO depletion, high salt diet, proteinuria, uremia, glomerulosclerosis, transgenic rat, animal model
Transplantation of Cells Directly into the Kidney of Adult Zebrafish
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital.
Regenerative medicine based on the transplantation of stem or progenitor cells into damaged tissues has the potential to treat a wide range of chronic diseases1
. However, most organs are not easily accessible, necessitating the need to develop surgical methods to gain access to these structures. In this video article, we describe a method for transplanting cells directly into the kidney of adult zebrafish, a popular model to study regeneration and disease2
. Recipient fish are pre-conditioned by irradiation to suppress the immune rejection of the injected cells3
. We demonstrate how the head kidney can be exposed by a lateral incision in the flank of the fish, followed by the injection of cells directly in to the organ. Using fluorescently labeled whole kidney marrow cells comprising a mixed population of renal and hematopoietic precursors, we show that nephron progenitors can engraft and differentiate into new renal tissue - the gold standard of any cell-based regenerative therapy. This technique can be adapted to deliver purified stem or progenitor cells and/or small molecules to the kidney as well as other internal organs and further enhances the zebrafish as a versatile model to study regenerative medicine.
Cellular Biology, Issue 51, zebrafish, kidney, regeneration, transplantation
Orthotopic Aortic Transplantation in Mice for the Study of Vascular Disease
Institutions: The University of Alabama at Birmingham , The University of Alabama at Birmingham .
Vascular procedures involving anastomoses in the mouse are generally thought to be difficult and highly dependent on the skill of the individual surgeon. This is largely true, but there are a number of important principles that can reduce the difficulty of these procedures and enhance reproducibility. Orthotopic aortic transplantation is an excellent procedure in which to learn these principles because it involves only two end-to-end anastomoses, but requires good suturing technique and handling of the vessels for consistent success. This procedure begins with the procurement of a length of abdominal aorta from a donor animal, followed by division of the native aorta in the recipient. The procured aorta is then placed between the divided ends of the recipient aorta and sutured into place using end-to-end anastomoses. To accomplish this objective successfully requires a high degree of concentration, good tools, a steady hand, and an appreciation of how easily the vasculature of a mouse can be damaged, resulting in thrombosis. Learning these important principles is what occupies most of the beginner's time when learning microsurgery in small rodents. Throughout this protocol, we refer to these important points. This model can be used to study vascular disease in a variety of different experimental systems1-8
. In the context shown here, it is most often used for the study of post-transplant vascular disease, a common long-term complication of solid organ transplantation in which intimal hyperplasia occurs within the allograft. The primary advantage of the model is that it facilitates quantitative morphometric analyses and the transplanted vessel lies contiguous to the endogenous vessel, which can serve as an additional control9
. The technique shown here is most often used for mice weighing 18-25 grams. We have accumulated most of our experience using the C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and C3H/HeJ strains.
Medicine, Issue 69, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Vascular surgery, mice, artery, aorta, transplantation, vascular disease, aortic transplantation, orthotopic, mouse vascular disease models
Non-invasive Imaging of Acute Allograft Rejection after Rat Renal Transplantation Using 18F-FDG PET
Institutions: University of Münster, University of Münster, University of Münster.
The number of patients with end-stage renal disease, and the number of kidney allograft recipients continuously increases. Episodes of acute cellular allograft rejection (AR) are a negative prognostic factor for long-term allograft survival, and its timely diagnosis is crucial for allograft function 1
. At present, AR can only be definitely diagnosed by core-needle biopsy, which, as an invasive method, bares significant risk of graft injury or even loss. Moreover, biopsies are not feasible in patients taking anticoagulant drugs and the limited sampling site of this technique may result in false negative results if the AR is focal or patchy. As a consequence, this gave rise to an ongoing search for new AR detection methods, which often has to be done in animals including the use of various transplantation models.
Since the early 60s rat renal transplantation is a well-established experimental method for the examination and analysis of AR 2
. We herein present in addition small animal positron emission tomography (PET) using 18
F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to assess AR in an allogeneic uninephrectomized rat renal transplantation model and propose graft FDG-PET imaging as a new option for a non-invasive, specific and early diagnosis of AR also for the human situation 3
. Further, this method can be applied for follow-up to improve monitoring of transplant rejection 4
Medicine, Issue 74, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Immunology, Surgery, Tissue Engineering, Nephrology, transplantation, rat, kidney, renal, acute rejection, allograft, imaging, histology, positron emisson tomography, PET, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, FDG, rat, animal model
Induction of Graft-versus-host Disease and In Vivo T Cell Monitoring Using an MHC-matched Murine Model
Institutions: The Ohio State University Medical Center.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the limiting barrier to the broad use of bone marrow transplant as a curative therapy for a variety of hematological deficiencies. GVHD is caused by mature alloreactive T cells present in the bone marrow graft that are infused into the recipient and cause damage to host organs. However, in mice, T cells must be added to the bone marrow inoculum to cause GVHD. Although extensive work has been done to characterize T cell responses post transplant, bioluminescent imaging technology is a non-invasive method to monitor T cell trafficking patterns in vivo
Following lethal irradiation, recipient mice are transplanted with bone marrow cells and splenocytes from donor mice. T cell subsets from L2G85.B6 (transgenic mice that constitutively express luciferase) are included in the transplant. By only transplanting certain T cell subsets, one is able to track specific T cell subsets in vivo
, and based on their location, develop hypotheses regarding the role of specific T cell subsets in promoting GVHD at various time points. At predetermined intervals post transplant, recipient mice are imaged using a Xenogen IVIS CCD camera. Light intensity can be quantified using Living Image software to generate a pseudo-color image based on photon intensity (red = high intensity, violet = low intensity).
Between 4-7 days post transplant, recipient mice begin to show clinical signs of GVHD. Cooke et al.1
developed a scoring system to quantitate disease progression based on the recipient mice fur texture, skin integrity, activity, weight loss, and posture. Mice are scored daily, and euthanized when they become moribund. Recipient mice generally become moribund 20-30 days post transplant.
Murine models are valuable tools for studying the immunology of GVHD. Selectively transplanting particular T cell subsets allows for careful identification of the roles each subset plays. Non-invasively tracking T cell responses in vivo
adds another layer of value to murine GVHD models.
Immunology, Issue 66, Infection, Anatomy, T cells, bone marrow transplant, immunology, cell purification, x-ray irradiation, tail vein injection, bioluminescent imaging
Biochemical Measurement of Neonatal Hypoxia
Institutions: Loma Linda University, Loma Linda University.
Neonatal hypoxia ischemia is characterized by inadequate blood perfusion of a tissue or a systemic lack of oxygen. This condition is thought to cause/exacerbate well documented neonatal disorders including neurological impairment 1-3
. Decreased adenosine triphosphate production occurs due to a lack of oxidative phosphorylation. To compensate for this energy deprived state molecules containing high energy phosphate bonds are degraded 2
. This leads to increased levels of adenosine which is subsequently degraded to inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and finally to uric acid. The final two steps in this degradation process are performed by xanthine oxidoreductase. This enzyme exists in the form of xanthine dehydrogenase under normoxic conditions but is converted to xanthine oxidase (XO) under hypoxia-reperfusion circumstances 4, 5
. Unlike xanthine dehydrogenase, XO generates hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct of purine degradation 4, 6
. This hydrogen peroxide in combination with other reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during hypoxia, oxidizes uric acid to form allantoin and reacts with lipid membranes to generate malondialdehyde (MDA) 7-9
. Most mammals, humans exempted, possess the enzyme uricase, which converts uric acid to allantoin. In humans, however, allantoin can only be formed by ROS-mediated oxidation of uric acid. Because of this, allantoin is considered to be a marker of oxidative stress in humans, but not in the mammals that have uricase.
We describe methods employing high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) to measure biochemical markers of neonatal hypoxia ischemia. Human blood is used for most tests. Animal blood may also be used while recognizing the potential for uricase-generated allantoin
. Purine metabolites were linked to hypoxia as early as 1963 and the reliability of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid as biochemical indicators of neonatal hypoxia was validated by several investigators 10-13
. The HPLC method used for the quantification of purine compounds is fast, reliable, and reproducible. The GC/MS method used for the quantification of allantoin, a relatively new marker of oxidative stress, was adapted from Gruber et al 7
. This method avoids certain artifacts and requires low volumes of sample. Methods used for synthesis of MMDA were described elsewhere 14, 15
. GC/MS based quantification of MDA was adapted from Paroni et al
. and Cighetti et al
. 16, 17
. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by HPLC by quantifying the conversion of pterin to isoxanthopterin 18
. This approach proved to be sufficiently sensitive and reproducible.
Medicine, Issue 54, hypoxia, Ischemia, Neonate, Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Uric Acid, Allantoin, Xanthine Oxidase, Malondialdehyde
Orthotopic Aortic Transplantation: A Rat Model to Study the Development of Chronic Vasculopathy
Institutions: University Hospital Hamburg, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Research models of chronic rejection are essential to investigate pathobiological and pathophysiological processes during the development of transplant vasculopathy (TVP).
The commonly used animal model for cardiovascular chronic rejection studies is the heterotopic heart transplant model performed in laboratory rodents. This model is used widely in experiments since Ono and Lindsey (3) published their technique. To analyze the findings in the blood vessels, the heart has to be sectioned and all vessels have to be measured.
Another method to investigate chronic rejection in cardiovascular questionings is the aortic transplant model (1, 2). In the orthotopic aortic transplant model, the aorta can easily be histologically evaluated (2). The PVG-to-ACI model is especially useful for CAV studies, since acute vascular rejection is not a major confounding factor and Cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment does not prevent the development of CAV, similar to what we find in the clinical setting (4). A7-day period of CsA is required in this model to prevent acute rejection and to achieve long-term survival with the development of TVP.
This model can also be used to investigate acute cellular rejection and media necrosis in xenogeneic models (5).
Medicine, Issue 46, chronic rejection, transplantation, rat, transplant vasculopathy
A Method for Murine Islet Isolation and Subcapsular Kidney Transplantation
Institutions: The Ohio State University, The Ohio State University, The Ohio State University.
Since the early pioneering work of Ballinger and Reckard demonstrating that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into diabetic rodents could normalize their blood glucose levels, islet transplantation has been proposed to be a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes 1,2
. More recently, advances in human islet transplantation have further strengthened this view 1,3
. However, two major limitations prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread clinical reality: (a) the requirement for large numbers of islets per patient, which severely reduces the number of potential recipients, and (b) the need for heavy immunosuppression, which significantly affects the pediatric population of patients due to their vulnerability to long-term immunosuppression. Strategies that can overcome these limitations have the potential to enhance the therapeutic utility of islet transplantation.
Islet transplantation under the mouse kidney capsule is a widely accepted model to investigate various strategies to improve islet transplantation. This experiment requires the isolation of high quality islets and implantation of islets to the diabetic recipients. Both procedures require surgical steps that can be better demonstrated by video than by text. Here, we document the detailed steps for these procedures by both video and written protocol. We also briefly discuss different transplantation models: syngeneic, allogeneic, syngeneic autoimmune, and allogeneic autoimmune.
Medicine, Issue 50, islet isolation, islet transplantation, diabetes, murine, pancreas
Single Port Donor Nephrectomy
Institutions: Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University.
In 2007, Rane presented the first single port nephrectomy for a small non-functioning kidney at the World Congress of Endourology. Since that time, the use of single port surgery for nephrectomy has expanded to include donor nephrectomy. Over the next two years the technique was adopted for many others types of nephrectomies to include donor nephrectomy. We present our technique for single port donor nephrectomy using the Gelpoint device. We have successfully performed this surgery in over 100 patients and add this experience to our experience of over 1000 laparoscopic nephrectomies. With the proper equipment and technique, single port donor nephrectomy can be performed safely and effectively in the majority of live donors. We have found that our operative times and most importantly our transplant outcomes have not changed significantly with the adoption of the single port donor nephrectomy. We believe that single port donor nephrectomy represents a step forward in the care of living donors.
Medicine, Issue 49, Single Port, Laparoscopic, Donor Nephrectomy, Transplant
Investigating the Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Organ Transplant Rejection
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco - UCSF.
Issue 7, Immunology, Heterotopic Heart Transplant, Small Bowel Transplant, Transplant Rejection, T regs, Diabetes, Autoimmune Disease, Translational Research
Transplantation of Whole Kidney Marrow in Adult Zebrafish
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are a rare population of pluripotent cells that maintain all the differentiated blood lineages throughout the life of an organism. The functional definition of a HSC is a transplanted cell that has the ability to reconstitute all the blood lineages of an irradiated recipient long term. This designation was established by decades of seminal work in mammalian systems. Using hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and reverse genetic manipulations in the mouse, the underlying regulatory factors of HSC biology are beginning to be unveiled, but are still largely under-explored. Recently, the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful genetic model to study vertebrate hematopoiesis. Establishing HCT in zebrafish will allow scientists to utilize the large-scale genetic and chemical screening methodologies available in zebrafish to reveal novel mechanisms underlying HSC regulation. In this article, we demonstrate a method to perform HCT in adult zebrafish. We show the dissection and preparation of zebrafish whole kidney marrow, the site of adult hematopoiesis in the zebrafish, and the introduction of these donor cells into the circulation of irradiated recipient fish via intracardiac injection. Additionally, we describe the post-transplant care of fish in an "ICU" to increase their long-term health. In general, gentle care of the fish before, during, and after the transplant is critical to increase the number of fish that will survive more than one month following the procedure, which is essential for assessment of long term (<3 month) engraftment. The experimental data used to establish this protocol will be published elsewhere. The establishment of this protocol will allow for the merger of large-scale zebrafish genetics and transplant biology.
Developmental Biology, Issue 2, zebrafish, HSC, stem cells, transplant