Ultrasound is an attractive modality for imaging muscle and tendon motion during dynamic tasks and can provide a complementary methodological approach for biomechanical studies in a clinical or laboratory setting. Towards this goal, methods for quantification of muscle kinematics from ultrasound imagery are being developed based on image processing. The temporal resolution of these methods is typically not sufficient for highly dynamic tasks, such as drop-landing. We propose a new approach that utilizes a Doppler method for quantifying muscle kinematics. We have developed a novel vector tissue Doppler imaging (vTDI) technique that can be used to measure musculoskeletal contraction velocity, strain and strain rate with sub-millisecond temporal resolution during dynamic activities using ultrasound. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the repeatability and potential applicability of the vTDI technique in measuring musculoskeletal velocities during a drop-landing task, in healthy subjects. The vTDI measurements can be performed concurrently with other biomechanical techniques, such as 3D motion capture for joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography for timing of muscle activation and force plates for ground reaction force. Integration of these complementary techniques could lead to a better understanding of dynamic muscle function and dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Guide Wire Assisted Catheterization and Colored Dye Injection for Vascular Mapping of Monochorionic Twin Placentas
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, University of Alberta, University of California, San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco.
Monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies are associated with significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates than dichorionic twins. Approximately 50% of MC twin pregnancies develop complications arising from the shared placenta and associated vascular connections1
. Severe twin-to-twin syndrome (TTTS) is reported to account for approximately 20% of these complications2,3
. Inter-twin vascular connections occur in almost all MC placentas and are related to the prognosis and outcome of these high-risk twin pregnancies. The number, size and type of connections have been implicated in the development of TTTS and other MC twin conditions. Three types of inter-twin vascular connections occur: 1) artery to vein connections (AVs) in which a branch artery carrying deoxygenated blood from one twin courses along the fetal surface of the placenta and dives into a placental cotyledon. Blood flows via a deep intraparenchymal capillary network into a draining vein that emerges at the fetal surface of the placenta and brings oxygenated blood toward the other twin. There is unidirectional flow from the twin supplying the afferent artery toward the twin receiving the efferent vein; 2) artery to artery connections (AAs) in which a branch artery from each twin meets directly on the superficial placental surface resulting in a vessel with pulsatile bidirectional flow, and 3) vein to vein connections (VVs) in which a branch vein from each twin meets directly on the superficial placental surface allowing low pressure bidirectional flow. In utero
obstetric sonography with targeted Doppler interrogation has been used to identify the presence of AV and AA connections4
. Prenatally detected AAs that have been confirmed by postnatal placental injection studies have been shown to be associated with an improved prognosis for both twins5
. Furthermore, fetoscopic laser ablation of inter-twin vascular connections on the fetal surface of the shared placenta is now the preferred treatment for early, severe TTTS.
Postnatal placental injection studies provide a valuable method to confirm the accuracy of prenatal Doppler ultrasound findings and the efficacy of fetal laser therapy6
. Using colored dyes separately hand-injected into the arterial and venous circulations of each twin, the technique highlights and delineates AVs, AAs, and VVs. This definitive demonstration of MC placental vascular anatomy may then be correlated with Doppler ultrasound findings and neonatal outcome to enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of MC twinning and its sequelae. Here we demonstrate our placental injection technique.
Medicine, Issue 55, placenta, monochorionic twins, vascular mapping, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), obstetrics, fetal surgery
Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University.
Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was initially approved for use in rotator cuff arthropathy and well as chronic pseudoparalysis without arthritis in patients who were not appropriate for tendon transfer reconstructions. Traditional surgical options for these patients were limited and functional results were sub-optimal and at times catastrophic. The use of reverse shoulder arthroplasty has been found to effectively restore these patients function and relieve symptoms associated with their disease. The procedure can be done through two approaches, the deltopectoral or the superolateral. Complication rates associated with the use of the prosthesis have ranged from 8-60% with more recent reports trending lower as experienced is gained. Salvage options for a failed reverse shoulder prosthesis are limited and often have significant associated disability. Indications for the use of this prosthesis continue to be evaluated including its use for revision arthroplasty, proximal humeral fracture and tumor. Careful patient selection is essential because of the significant risks associated with the procedure.
Medicine, Issue 53, Reverse, Total, Shoulder, Arthroplasty, Rotator Cuff, Arthropathy, Arthritis, Glenoid, Humerus, Fracture
Microfluidic Mixers for Studying Protein Folding
Institutions: Michigan State University, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, University of California, Davis .
The process by which a protein folds into its native conformation is highly relevant to biology and human health yet still poorly understood. One reason for this is that folding takes place over a wide range of timescales, from nanoseconds to seconds or longer, depending on the protein1
. Conventional stopped-flow mixers have allowed measurement of folding kinetics starting at about 1 ms. We have recently developed a microfluidic mixer that dilutes denaturant ~100-fold in ~8 μs2
. Unlike a stopped-flow mixer, this mixer operates in the laminar flow regime in which turbulence does not occur. The absence of turbulence allows precise numeric simulation of all flows within the mixer with excellent agreement to experiment3-4
Laminar flow is achieved for Reynolds numbers Re
≤100. For aqueous solutions, this requires micron scale geometries. We use a hard substrate, such as silicon or fused silica, to make channels 5-10 μm wide and 10 μm deep (See Figure 1
). The smallest dimensions, at the entrance to the mixing region, are on the order of 1 μm in size. The chip is sealed with a thin glass or fused silica coverslip for optical access. Typical total linear flow rates are ~1 m/s, yielding Re
~10, but the protein consumption is only ~0.5 nL/s or 1.8 μL/hr. Protein concentration depends on the detection method: For tryptophan fluorescence the typical concentration is 100 μM (for 1 Trp/protein) and for FRET the typical concentration is ~100 nM.
The folding process is initiated by rapid dilution of denaturant from 6 M to 0.06 M guanidine hydrochloride. The protein in high denaturant flows down a central channel and is met on either side at the mixing region by buffer without denaturant moving ~100 times faster (see Figure 2
). This geometry causes rapid constriction of the protein flow into a narrow jet ~100 nm wide. Diffusion of the light denaturant molecules is very rapid, while diffusion of the heavy protein molecules is much slower, diffusing less than 1 μm in 1 ms. The difference in diffusion constant of the denaturant and the protein results in rapid dilution of the denaturant from the protein stream, reducing the effective concentration of the denaturant around the protein. The protein jet flows at a constant rate down the observation channel and fluorescence of the protein during folding can be observed using a scanning confocal microscope5
Bioengineering, Issue 62, microfluidic mixing, laminar flow, protein folding, fluorescence, FRET
A Quantitative Assay to Study Protein:DNA Interactions, Discover Transcriptional Regulators of Gene Expression, and Identify Novel Anti-tumor Agents
Institutions: University of Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Many DNA-binding assays such as electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), chemiluminescent assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based assays, and multiwell-based assays are used to measure transcription factor activity. However, these assays are nonquantitative, lack specificity, may involve the use of radiolabeled oligonucleotides, and may not be adaptable for the screening of inhibitors of DNA binding. On the other hand, using a quantitative DNA-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (D-ELISA) assay, we demonstrate nuclear protein interactions with DNA using the RUNX2 transcription factor that depend on specific association with consensus DNA-binding sequences present on biotin-labeled oligonucleotides. Preparation of cells, extraction of nuclear protein, and design of double stranded oligonucleotides are described. Avidin-coated 96-well plates are fixed with alkaline buffer and incubated with nuclear proteins in nucleotide blocking buffer. Following extensive washing of the plates, specific primary antibody and secondary antibody incubations are followed by the addition of horseradish peroxidase substrate and development of the colorimetric reaction. Stop reaction mode or continuous kinetic monitoring were used to quantitatively measure protein interaction with DNA. We discuss appropriate specificity controls, including treatment with non-specific IgG or without protein or primary antibody. Applications of the assay are described including its utility in drug screening and representative positive and negative results are discussed.
Cellular Biology, Issue 78, Transcription Factors, Vitamin D, Drug Discovery, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), DNA-binding, transcription factor, drug screening, antibody
Treatment of Osteochondral Defects in the Rabbit's Knee Joint by Implantation of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fibrin Clots
Institutions: Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Uniklinik Köln.
The treatment of osteochondral articular defects has been challenging physicians for many years. The better understanding of interactions of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in recent years led to increased attention to restoration of the entire osteochondral unit. In comparison to chondral lesions the regeneration of osteochondral defects is much more complex and a far greater surgical and therapeutic challenge. The damaged tissue does not only include the superficial cartilage layer but also the subchondral bone. For deep, osteochondral damage, as it occurs for example with osteochondrosis dissecans, the full thickness of the defect needs to be replaced to restore the joint surface 1
. Eligible therapeutic procedures have to consider these two different tissues with their different intrinsic healing potential 2
. In the last decades, several surgical treatment options have emerged and have already been clinically established 3-6
Autologous or allogeneic osteochondral transplants consist of articular cartilage and subchondral bone and allow the replacement of the entire osteochondral unit. The defects are filled with cylindrical osteochondral grafts that aim to provide a congruent hyaline cartilage covered surface 3,7,8
. Disadvantages are the limited amount of available grafts, donor site morbidity (for autologous transplants) and the incongruence of the surface; thereby the application of this method is especially limited for large defects.
New approaches in the field of tissue engineering opened up promising possibilities for regenerative osteochondral therapy. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes marked the first cell based biological approach for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage lesions and is now worldwide established with good clinical results even 10 to 20 years after implantation 9,10
. However, to date, this technique is not suitable for the treatment of all types of lesions such as deep defects involving the subchondral bone 11
combines bone grafting with current approaches in Tissue Engineering 5,6
. This combination seems to be able to overcome the limitations seen in osteochondral grafts alone. After autologous bone grafting to the subchondral defect area, a membrane seeded with autologous chondrocytes is sutured above and facilitates to match the topology of the graft with the injured site. Of course, the previous bone reconstruction needs additional surgical time and often even an additional surgery. Moreover, to date, long-term data is missing 12
Tissue Engineering without additional bone grafting aims to restore the complex structure and properties of native articular cartilage by chondrogenic and osteogenic potential of the transplanted cells. However, again, it is usually only the cartilage tissue that is more or less regenerated. Additional osteochondral damage needs a specific further treatment. In order to achieve a regeneration of the multilayered structure of osteochondral defects, three-dimensional tissue engineered products seeded with autologous/allogeneic cells might provide a good regeneration capacity 11
Beside autologous chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seem to be an attractive alternative for the development of a full-thickness cartilage tissue. In numerous preclinical in vitro
and in vivo
studies, mesenchymal stem cells have displayed excellent tissue regeneration potential 13,14
. The important advantage of mesenchymal stem cells especially for the treatment of osteochondral defects is that they have the capacity to differentiate in osteocytes as well as chondrocytes. Therefore, they potentially allow a multilayered regeneration of the defect.
In recent years, several scaffolds with osteochondral regenerative potential have therefore been developed and evaluated with promising preliminary results 1,15-18
. Furthermore, fibrin glue as a cell carrier became one of the preferred techniques in experimental cartilage repair and has already successfully been used in several animal studies 19-21
and even first human trials 22
The following protocol will demonstrate an experimental technique for isolating mesenchymal stem cells from a rabbit's bone marrow, for subsequent proliferation in cell culture and for preparing a standardized in vitro
-model for fibrin-cell-clots. Finally, a technique for the implantation of pre-established fibrin-cell-clots into artificial osteochondral defects of the rabbit's knee joint will be described.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 75, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Stem Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, Surgery, Mesenchymal stem cells, fibrin clot, cartilage, osteochondral defect, rabbit, experimental, subchondral bone, knee injury, bone grafting, regenerative therapy, chondrocytes, cell culture, isolation, transplantation, animal model
Measuring Attentional Biases for Threat in Children and Adults
Institutions: Rutgers University.
Investigators have long been interested in the human propensity for the rapid detection of threatening stimuli. However, until recently, research in this domain has focused almost exclusively on adult participants, completely ignoring the topic of threat detection over the course of development. One of the biggest reasons for the lack of developmental work in this area is likely the absence of a reliable paradigm that can measure perceptual biases for threat in children. To address this issue, we recently designed a modified visual search paradigm similar to the standard adult paradigm that is appropriate for studying threat detection in preschool-aged participants. Here we describe this new procedure. In the general paradigm, we present participants with matrices of color photographs, and ask them to find and touch a target on the screen. Latency to touch the target is recorded. Using a touch-screen monitor makes the procedure simple and easy, allowing us to collect data in participants ranging from 3 years of age to adults. Thus far, the paradigm has consistently shown that both adults and children detect threatening stimuli (e.g.,
snakes, spiders, angry/fearful faces) more quickly than neutral stimuli (e.g.,
flowers, mushrooms, happy/neutral faces). Altogether, this procedure provides an important new tool for researchers interested in studying the development of attentional biases for threat.
Behavior, Issue 92, Detection, threat, attention, attentional bias, anxiety, visual search
Using Continuous Data Tracking Technology to Study Exercise Adherence in Pulmonary Rehabilitation
Institutions: Concordia University, Concordia University, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal.
Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an important component in the management of respiratory diseases. The effectiveness of PR is dependent upon adherence to exercise training recommendations. The study of exercise adherence is thus a key step towards the optimization of PR programs. To date, mostly indirect measures, such as rates of participation, completion, and attendance, have been used to determine adherence to PR. The purpose of the present protocol is to describe how continuous data tracking technology can be used to measure adherence to a prescribed aerobic training intensity on a second-by-second basis.
In our investigations, adherence has been defined as the percent time spent within a specified target heart rate range. As such, using a combination of hardware and software, heart rate is measured, tracked, and recorded during cycling second-by-second for each participant, for each exercise session. Using statistical software, the data is subsequently extracted and analyzed. The same protocol can be applied to determine adherence to other measures of exercise intensity, such as time spent at a specified wattage, level, or speed on the cycle ergometer. Furthermore, the hardware and software is also available to measure adherence to other modes of training, such as the treadmill, elliptical, stepper, and arm ergometer. The present protocol, therefore, has a vast applicability to directly measure adherence to aerobic exercise.
Medicine, Issue 81, Data tracking, exercise, rehabilitation, adherence, patient compliance, health behavior, user-computer interface.
A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research
Institutions: Arizona State University.
Insects modify their responses to stimuli through experience of associating those stimuli with events important for survival (e.g.
, food, mates, threats). There are several behavioral mechanisms through which an insect learns salient associations and relates them to these events. It is important to understand this behavioral plasticity for programs aimed toward assisting insects that are beneficial for agriculture. This understanding can also be used for discovering solutions to biomedical and agricultural problems created by insects that act as disease vectors and pests. The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol was developed for honey bees (Apis mellifera
) over 50 years ago to study how they perceive and learn about floral odors, which signal the nectar and pollen resources a colony needs for survival. The PER procedure provides a robust and easy-to-employ framework for studying several different ecologically relevant mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. It is easily adaptable for use with several other insect species and other behavioral reflexes. These protocols can be readily employed in conjunction with various means for monitoring neural activity in the CNS via electrophysiology or bioimaging, or for manipulating targeted neuromodulatory pathways. It is a robust assay for rapidly detecting sub-lethal effects on behavior caused by environmental stressors, toxins or pesticides.
We show how the PER protocol is straightforward to implement using two procedures. One is suitable as a laboratory exercise for students or for quick assays of the effect of an experimental treatment. The other provides more thorough control of variables, which is important for studies of behavioral conditioning. We show how several measures for the behavioral response ranging from binary yes/no to more continuous variable like latency and duration of proboscis extension can be used to test hypotheses. And, we discuss some pitfalls that researchers commonly encounter when they use the procedure for the first time.
Neuroscience, Issue 91, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
High Sensitivity 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Detection in Balb/C Brain Tissue
Institutions: New England Biolabs.
DNA hydroxymethylation is a long known modification of DNA, but has recently become a focus in epigenetic research. Mammalian DNA is enzymatically modified at the 5th
carbon position of cytosine (C) residues to 5-mC, predominately in the context of CpG dinucleotides. 5-mC is amenable to enzymatic oxidation to 5-hmC by the Tet family of enzymes, which are believed to be involved in development and disease. Currently, the biological role of 5-hmC is not fully understood, but is generating a lot of interest due to its potential as a biomarker. This is due to several groundbreaking studies identifying 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mouse embryonic stem (ES) and neuronal cells. Research techniques, including bisulfite sequencing methods, are unable to easily distinguish between 5-mC and 5-hmC . A few protocols exist that can measure global amounts of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the genome, including liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis or thin layer chromatography of single nucleosides digested from genomic DNA. Antibodies that target 5-hydroxymethylcytosine also exist, which can be used for dot blot analysis, immunofluorescence, or precipitation of hydroxymethylated DNA, but these antibodies do not have single base resolution.In addition, resolution depends on the size of the immunoprecipitated DNA and for microarray experiments, depends on probe design. Since it is unknown exactly where 5-hydroxymethylcytosine exists in the genome or its role in epigenetic regulation, new techniques are required that can identify locus specific hydroxymethylation. The EpiMark 5-hmC and 5-mC Analysis Kit provides a solution for distinguishing between these two modifications at specific loci. The EpiMark 5-hmC and 5-mC Analysis Kit is a simple and robust method for the identification and quantitation of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine within a specific DNA locus. This enzymatic approach utilizes the differential methylation sensitivity of the isoschizomers MspI and HpaII in a simple 3-step protocol. Genomic DNA of interest is treated with T4-BGT, adding a glucose moeity to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. This reaction is sequence-independent, therefore all 5-hmC will be glucosylated; unmodified or 5-mC containing DNA will not be affected. This glucosylation is then followed by restriction endonuclease digestion. MspI and HpaII recognize the same sequence (CCGG) but are sensitive to different methylation states. HpaII cleaves only a completely unmodified site: any modification (5-mC, 5-hmC or 5-ghmC) at either cytosine blocks cleavage. MspI recognizes and cleaves 5-mC and 5-hmC, but not 5-ghmC. The third part of the protocol is interrogation of the locus by PCR. As little as 20 ng of input DNA can be used. Amplification of the experimental (glucosylated and digested) and control (mock glucosylated and digested) target DNA with primers flanking a CCGG site of interest (100-200 bp) is performed. If the CpG site contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a band is detected after glucosylation and digestion, but not in the non-glucosylated control reaction. Real time PCR will give an approximation of how much hydroxymethylcytosine is in this particular site. In this experiment, we will analyze the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine amount in a mouse Babl/C brain sample by end point PCR.
Neuroscience, Issue 48, EpiMark, Epigenetics, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-methylcytosine, methylation, hydroxymethylation
Adjustable Stiffness, External Fixator for the Rat Femur Osteotomy and Segmental Bone Defect Models
Institutions: Queensland University of Technology, RISystem AG.
The mechanical environment around the healing of broken bone is very important as it determines the way the fracture will heal. Over the past decade there has been great clinical interest in improving bone healing by altering the mechanical environment through the fixation stability around the lesion. One constraint of preclinical animal research in this area is the lack of experimental control over the local mechanical environment within a large segmental defect as well as osteotomies as they heal. In this paper we report on the design and use of an external fixator to study the healing of large segmental bone defects or osteotomies. This device not only allows for controlled axial stiffness on the bone lesion as it heals, but it also enables the change of stiffness during the healing process in vivo.
The conducted experiments have shown that the fixators were able to maintain a 5 mm femoral defect gap in rats in vivo
during unrestricted cage activity for at least 8 weeks. Likewise, we observed no distortion or infections, including pin infections during the entire healing period. These results demonstrate that our newly developed external fixator was able to achieve reproducible and standardized stabilization, and the alteration of the mechanical environment of in vivo
rat large bone defects and various size osteotomies. This confirms that the external fixation device is well suited for preclinical research investigations using a rat model in the field of bone regeneration and repair.
Medicine, Issue 92, external fixator, bone healing, small animal model, large bone defect and osteotomy model, rat model, mechanical environment, mechanobiology.
In situ Compressive Loading and Correlative Noninvasive Imaging of the Bone-periodontal Ligament-tooth Fibrous Joint
Institutions: University of California San Francisco, University of California San Francisco, Xradia Inc..
This study demonstrates a novel biomechanics testing protocol. The advantage of this protocol includes the use of an in situ
loading device coupled to a high resolution X-ray microscope, thus enabling visualization of internal structural elements under simulated physiological loads and wet conditions. Experimental specimens will include intact bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joints. Results will illustrate three important features of the protocol as they can be applied to organ level biomechanics: 1) reactionary force vs. displacement: tooth displacement within the alveolar socket and its reactionary response to loading, 2) three-dimensional (3D) spatial configuration and morphometrics: geometric relationship of the tooth with the alveolar socket, and 3) changes in readouts 1 and 2 due to a change in loading axis, i.e.
from concentric to eccentric loads. Efficacy of the proposed protocol will be evaluated by coupling mechanical testing readouts to 3D morphometrics and overall biomechanics of the joint. In addition, this technique will emphasize on the need to equilibrate experimental conditions, specifically reactionary loads prior to acquiring tomograms of fibrous joints. It should be noted that the proposed protocol is limited to testing specimens under ex vivo
conditions, and that use of contrast agents to visualize soft tissue mechanical response could lead to erroneous conclusions about tissue and organ-level biomechanics.
Bioengineering, Issue 85, biomechanics, bone-periodontal ligament-tooth complex, concentric loads, eccentric loads, contrast agent
Simultaneous Electroencephalography, Real-time Measurement of Lactate Concentration and Optogenetic Manipulation of Neuronal Activity in the Rodent Cerebral Cortex
Institutions: Washington State University.
Although the brain represents less than 5% of the body by mass, it utilizes approximately one quarter of the glucose used by the body at rest1
. The function of non rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), the largest portion of sleep by time, is uncertain. However, one salient feature of NREMS is a significant reduction in the rate of cerebral glucose utilization relative to wakefulness2-4
. This and other findings have led to the widely held belief that sleep serves a function related to cerebral metabolism. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the reduction in cerebral glucose metabolism during NREMS remain to be elucidated.
One phenomenon associated with NREMS that might impact cerebral metabolic rate is the occurrence of slow waves, oscillations at frequencies less than 4 Hz, in the electroencephalogram5,6
. These slow waves detected at the level of the skull or cerebral cortical surface reflect the oscillations of underlying neurons between a depolarized/up state and a hyperpolarized/down state7
. During the down state, cells do not undergo action potentials for intervals of up to several hundred milliseconds. Restoration of ionic concentration gradients subsequent to action potentials represents a significant metabolic load on the cell8
; absence of action potentials during down states associated with NREMS may contribute to reduced metabolism relative to wake.
Two technical challenges had to be addressed in order for this hypothetical relationship to be tested. First, it was necessary to measure cerebral glycolytic metabolism with a temporal resolution reflective of the dynamics of the cerebral EEG (that is, over seconds rather than minutes). To do so, we measured the concentration of lactate, the product of aerobic glycolysis, and therefore a readout of the rate of glucose metabolism in the brains of mice. Lactate was measured using a lactate oxidase based real time sensor embedded in the frontal cortex. The sensing mechanism consists of a platinum-iridium electrode surrounded by a layer of lactate oxidase molecules. Metabolism of lactate by lactate oxidase produces hydrogen peroxide, which produces a current in the platinum-iridium electrode. So a ramping up of cerebral glycolysis provides an increase in the concentration of substrate for lactate oxidase, which then is reflected in increased current at the sensing electrode. It was additionally necessary to measure these variables while manipulating the excitability of the cerebral cortex, in order to isolate this variable from other facets of NREMS.
We devised an experimental system for simultaneous measurement of neuronal activity via the elecetroencephalogram, measurement of glycolytic flux via a lactate biosensor, and manipulation of cerebral cortical neuronal activity via optogenetic activation of pyramidal neurons. We have utilized this system to document the relationship between sleep-related electroencephalographic waveforms and the moment-to-moment dynamics of lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex. The protocol may be useful for any individual interested in studying, in freely behaving rodents, the relationship between neuronal activity measured at the electroencephalographic level and cellular energetics within the brain.
Neuroscience, Issue 70, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, Pharmacology, Surgery, Sleep, rapid eye movement, glucose, glycolysis, pyramidal neurons, channelrhodopsin, optogenetics, optogenetic stimulation, electroencephalogram, EEG, EMG, brain, animal model
A Novel Method for Assessing Proximal and Distal Forelimb Function in the Rat: the Irvine, Beatties and Bresnahan (IBB) Forelimb Scale
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco.
Several experimental models of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) have been developed recently to assess the consequences of damage to this level of the spinal cord (Pearse et al.
, 2005, Gensel et al.
, 2006, Anderson et al.
, 2009), as the majority of human SCI occur here (Young, 2010; www.sci-info-pages.com). Behavioral deficits include loss of forelimb function due to damage to the white matter affecting both descending motor and ascending sensory systems, and to the gray matter containing the segmental circuitry for processing sensory input and motor output for the forelimb. Additionally, a key priority for human patients with cervical SCI is restoration of hand/arm function (Anderson, 2004). Thus, outcome measures that assess both proximal and distal forelimb function are needed. Although there are several behavioral assays that are sensitive to different aspects of forelimb recovery in experimental models of cervical SCI (Girgis et al.
, 2007, Gensel et al.
, 2006, Ballerman et al.
, 2001, Metz and Whishaw, 2000, Bertelli and Mira, 1993, Montoya et al.
, 1991, Whishaw and Pellis, 1990), few techniques provide detailed information on the recovery of fine motor control and digit movement.
The current measurement technique, the Irvine, Beatties and Bresnahan forelimb scale (IBB), can detect recovery of both proximal and distal forelimb function including digit movements during a naturally occurring behavior that does not require extensive training or deprivation to enhance motivation. The IBB was generated by observing recovery after a unilateral C6 SCI, and involves video recording of animals eating two differently shaped cereals (spherical and doughnut) of a consistent size. These videos were then used to assess features of forelimb use, such as joint position, object support, digit movement and grasping technique.
The IBB, like other forelimb behavioral tasks, shows a consistent pattern of recovery that is sensitive to injury severity. Furthermore, the IBB scale could be used to assess recovery following other types of injury that impact normal forelimb function.
Neuroscience, Issue 46, spinal cord injury, recovery of function, forelimb function, neurological test, cervical injuries
A Novel in vivo Gene Transfer Technique and in vitro Cell Based Assays for the Study of Bone Loss in Musculoskeletal Disorders
Institutions: University of California, Davis, Shriners Hospitals for Children - Northern California, University of California, Davis.
Differentiation and activation of osteoclasts play a key role in the development of musculoskeletal diseases as these cells are primarily involved in bone resorption. Osteoclasts can be generated in vitro
from monocyte/macrophage precursor cells in the presence of certain cytokines, which promote survival and differentiation. Here, both in vivo
and in vitro
techniques are demonstrated, which allow scientists to study different cytokine contributions towards osteoclast differentiation, signaling, and activation. The minicircle DNA delivery gene transfer system provides an alternative method to establish an osteoporosis-related model is particularly useful to study the efficacy of various pharmacological inhibitors in vivo
. Similarly, in vitro
culturing protocols for producing osteoclasts from human precursor cells in the presence of specific cytokines enables scientists to study osteoclastogenesis in human cells for translational applications. Combined, these techniques have the potential to accelerate drug discovery efforts for osteoclast-specific targeted therapeutics, which may benefit millions of osteoporosis and arthritis patients worldwide.
Medicine, Issue 88, osteoclast, arthritis, minicircle DNA, macrophages, cell culture, hydrodynamic delivery
Surgical Retrieval, Isolation and In vitro Expansion of Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament-derived Cells for Tissue Engineering Applications
Institutions: Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, University of Illinois at Springfield.
Injury to the ACL is a commonly encountered problem in active individuals. Even partial tears of this intra-articular knee ligament lead to biomechanical deficiencies that impair function and stability. Current options for the treatment of partial ACL tears range from nonoperative, conservative management to multiple surgical options, such as: thermal modification, single-bundle repair, complete reconstruction, and reconstruction of the damaged portion of the native ligament. Few studies, if any, have demonstrated any single method for management to be consistently superior, and in many cases patients continue to demonstrate persistent instability and other comorbidities.
The goal of this study is to identify a potential cell source for utilization in the development of a tissue engineered patch that could be implemented in the repair of a partially torn ACL. A novel protocol was developed for the expansion of cells derived from patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. To isolate the cells, minced hACL tissue obtained during ACL reconstruction was digested in a Collagenase solution. Expansion was performed using DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (P/S). The cells were then stored at -80 ºC or in liquid nitrogen in a freezing medium consisting of DMSO, FBS and the expansion medium. After thawing, the hACL derived cells were then seeded onto a tissue engineered scaffold, PLAGA (Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) and control Tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). After 7 days, SEM was performed to compare cellular adhesion to the PLAGA versus the control TCPS. Cellular morphology was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) micrographs demonstrated that cells grew and adhered on both PLAGA and TCPS surfaces and were confluent over the entire surfaces by day 7. Immunofluorescence staining showed normal, non-stressed morphological patterns on both surfaces. This technique is promising for applications in ACL regeneration and reconstruction.
Bioengineering, Issue 86, Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Tissue Engineering, hACL derived cells, PLAGA, in vitro expansion, ACL partial tears
Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles .
Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories
(BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection
(ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to:
● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media.
● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method.
● Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria.
● Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage.
● Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure.
● Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method.
Basic Protocols, Issue 63, Streak plates, pour plates, soft agar overlays, spread plates, replica plates, bacteria, colonies, phage, plaques, dilutions
Matrix-assisted Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation for Remodeling and Repair of Chondral Defects in a Rabbit Model
Institutions: Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Uniklinik Köln.
Articular cartilage defects are considered a major health problem because articular cartilage has a limited capacity for self-regeneration 1
. Untreated cartilage lesions lead to ongoing pain, negatively affect the quality of life and predispose for osteoarthritis. During the last decades, several surgical techniques have been developed to treat such lesions. However, until now it was not possible to achieve a full repair in terms of covering the defect with hyaline articular cartilage or of providing satisfactory long-term recovery 2-4
. Therefore, articular cartilage injuries remain a prime target for regenerative techniques such as Tissue Engineering. In contrast to other surgical techniques, which often lead to the formation of fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue, Tissue Engineering aims at fully restoring the complex structure and properties of the original articular cartilage by using the chondrogenic potential of transplanted cells. Recent developments opened up promising possibilities for regenerative cartilage therapies.
The first cell based approach for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage or osteochondral lesions was performed in 1994 by Lars Peterson and Mats Brittberg who pioneered clinical autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) 5
. Today, the technique is clinically well-established for the treatment of large hyaline cartilage defects of the knee, maintaining good clinical results even 10 to 20 years after implantation 6
. In recent years, the implantation of autologous chondrocytes underwent a rapid progression. The use of an artificial three-dimensional collagen-matrix on which cells are subsequently replanted became more and more popular 7-9
MACT comprises of two surgical procedures: First, in order to collect chondrocytes, a cartilage biopsy needs to be performed from a non weight-bearing cartilage area of the knee joint. Then, chondrocytes are being extracted, purified and expanded to a sufficient cell number in vitro
. Chondrocytes are then seeded onto a three-dimensional matrix and can subsequently be re-implanted. When preparing a tissue-engineered implant, proliferation rate and differentiation capacity are crucial for a successful tissue regeneration 10
. The use of a three-dimensional matrix as a cell carrier is thought to support these cellular characteristics 11
The following protocol will summarize and demonstrate a technique for the isolation of chondrocytes from cartilage biopsies, their proliferation in vitro
and their seeding onto a 3D-matrix (Chondro-Gide
, Geistlich Biomaterials, Wollhusen, Switzerland). Finally, the implantation of the cell-matrix-constructs into artificially created chondral defects of a rabbit's knee joint will be described. This technique can be used as an experimental setting for further experiments of cartilage repair.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 75, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Tissue Engineering, Surgery, Autologous chondrocyte implantation, matrix-assisted, matrix, collagen scaffold, chondral lesion, cartilage, rabbit, experimental, cartilage defects, cartilage repair, regenerative therapy, chondrocytes, cell culture, isolation, transplantation, animal model
Oscillation and Reaction Board Techniques for Estimating Inertial Properties of a Below-knee Prosthesis
Institutions: University of Northern Colorado, Arizona State University, Iowa State University.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) demonstrate a technique that can be used to directly estimate the inertial properties of a below-knee prosthesis, and 2) contrast the effects of the proposed technique and that of using intact limb inertial properties on joint kinetic estimates during walking in unilateral, transtibial amputees. An oscillation and reaction board system was validated and shown to be reliable when measuring inertial properties of known geometrical solids. When direct measurements of inertial properties of the prosthesis were used in inverse dynamics modeling of the lower extremity compared with inertial estimates based on an intact shank and foot, joint kinetics at the hip and knee were significantly lower during the swing phase of walking. Differences in joint kinetics during stance, however, were smaller than those observed during swing. Therefore, researchers focusing on the swing phase of walking should consider the impact of prosthesis inertia property estimates on study outcomes. For stance, either one of the two inertial models investigated in our study would likely lead to similar outcomes with an inverse dynamics assessment.
Bioengineering, Issue 87, prosthesis inertia, amputee locomotion, below-knee prosthesis, transtibial amputee
Proprioception and Tension Receptors in Crab Limbs: Student Laboratory Exercises
Institutions: University of Kentucky, University of Kentucky, University of Oregon.
The primary purpose of these procedures is to demonstrate for teaching and research purposes how to record the activity of living primary sensory neurons responsible for proprioception as they are detecting joint position and movement, and muscle tension. Electrical activity from crustacean proprioceptors and tension receptors is recorded by basic neurophysiological instrumentation, and a transducer is used to simultaneously measure force that is generated by stimulating a motor nerve. In addition, we demonstrate how to stain the neurons for a quick assessment of their anatomical arrangement or for permanent fixation. Staining reveals anatomical organization that is representative of chordotonal organs in most crustaceans. Comparing the tension nerve responses to the proprioceptive responses is an effective teaching tool in determining how these sensory neurons are defined functionally and how the anatomy is correlated to the function. Three staining techniques are presented allowing researchers and instructors to choose a method that is ideal for their laboratory.
Neuroscience, Issue 80, Crustacean, joint, Muscle, sensory, teaching, educational, neuroscience
Monitoring of Systemic and Hepatic Hemodynamic Parameters in Mice
Institutions: Jena University Hospital, Jena University Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University.
The use of mouse models in experimental research is of enormous importance for the study of hepatic physiology and pathophysiological disturbances. However, due to the small size of the mouse, technical details of the intraoperative monitoring procedure suitable for the mouse were rarely described. Previously we have reported a monitoring procedure to obtain hemodynamic parameters for rats. Now, we adapted the procedure to acquire systemic and hepatic hemodynamic parameters in mice, a species ten-fold smaller than rats. This film demonstrates the instrumentation of the animals as well as the data acquisition process needed to assess systemic and hepatic hemodynamics in mice. Vital parameters, including body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate were recorded throughout the whole procedure. Systemic hemodynamic parameters consist of carotid artery pressure (CAP) and central venous pressure (CVP). Hepatic perfusion parameters include portal vein pressure (PVP), portal flow rate as well as the flow rate of the common hepatic artery (table 1). Instrumentation and data acquisition to record the normal values was completed within 1.5 h. Systemic and hepatic hemodynamic parameters remained within normal ranges during this procedure.
This procedure is challenging but feasible. We have already applied this procedure to assess hepatic hemodynamics in normal mice as well as during 70% partial hepatectomy and in liver lobe clamping experiments. Mean PVP after resection (n= 20), was 11.41±2.94 cmH2
O which was significantly higher (P<0.05) than before resection (6.87±2.39 cmH2
O). The results of liver lobe clamping experiment indicated that this monitoring procedure is sensitive and suitable for detecting small changes in portal pressure and portal flow rate. In conclusion, this procedure is reliable in the hands of an experienced micro-surgeon but should be limited to experiments where mice are absolutely needed.
Medicine, Issue 92, mice, hemodynamics, hepatic perfusion, CAP, CVP, surgery, intraoperative monitoring, portal vein pressure, blood flow
Monitoring Tumor Metastases and Osteolytic Lesions with Bioluminescence and Micro CT Imaging
Institutions: Caliper Life Sciences.
Following intracardiac delivery of MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN cells to Nu/Nu mice, systemic metastases developed in the injected animals. Bioluminescence imaging using IVIS Spectrum was employed to monitor the distribution and development of the tumor cells following the delivery procedure including DLIT reconstruction to measure the tumor signal and its location.
Development of metastatic lesions to the bone tissues triggers osteolytic activity and lesions to tibia and femur were evaluated longitudinally using micro CT. Imaging was performed using a Quantum FX micro CT system with fast imaging and low X-ray dose. The low radiation dose allows multiple imaging sessions to be performed with a cumulative X-ray dosage far below LD50. A mouse imaging shuttle device was used to sequentially image the mice with both IVIS Spectrum and Quantum FX achieving accurate animal positioning in both the bioluminescence and CT images. The optical and CT data sets were co-registered in 3-dimentions using the Living Image 4.1 software. This multi-mode approach allows close monitoring of tumor growth and development simultaneously with osteolytic activity.
Medicine, Issue 50, osteolytic lesions, micro CT, tumor, bioluminescence, in vivo, imaging, IVIS, luciferase, low dose, co-registration, 3D reconstruction
Culture of myeloid dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University, University of Waterloo.
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are frequently used to study the interactions between innate and adaptive immune mechanisms and the early response to infection. Because these are the most potent antigen presenting cells, DCs are being increasingly used as a vaccine vector to study the induction of antigen-specific immune responses. In this video, we demonstrate the procedure for harvesting tibias and femurs from a donor mouse, processing the bone marrow and differentiating DCs in vitro. The properties of DCs change following stimulation: immature dendritic cells are potent phagocytes, whereas mature DCs are capable of antigen presentation and interaction with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This change in functional activity corresponds with the upregulation of cell surface markers and cytokine production. Many agents can be used to mature DCs, including cytokines and toll-like receptor ligands. In this video, we demonstrate flow cytometric comparisons of expression of two co-stimulatory molecules, CD86 and CD40, and the cytokine, IL-12, following overnight stimulation with CpG or mock treatment. After differentiation, DCs can be further manipulated for use as a vaccine vector or to generate antigen-specific immune responses by in vitro pulsing using peptides or proteins, or transduced using recombinant viral vectors.
Immunology, Issue 17, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, culture, bone marrow