Preserved clinical material is a unique source for proteomic investigation of human disorders. Here we describe an optimized protocol allowing large scale quantitative analysis of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. The procedure comprises four distinct steps. The first one is the preparation of sections from the FFPE material and microdissection of cells of interest. In the second step the isolated cells are lysed and processed using 'filter aided sample preparation' (FASP) technique. In this step, proteins are depleted from reagents used for the sample lysis and are digested in two-steps using endoproteinase LysC and trypsin.
After each digestion, the peptides are collected in separate fractions and their content is determined using a highly sensitive fluorescence measurement. Finally, the peptides are fractionated on 'pipette-tip' microcolumns. The LysC-peptides are separated into 4 fractions whereas the tryptic peptides are separated into 2 fractions. In this way prepared samples allow analysis of proteomes from minute amounts of material to a depth of 10,000 proteins. Thus, the described workflow is a powerful technique for studying diseases in a system-wide-fashion as well as for identification of potential biomarkers and drug targets.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
qPCR Is a Sensitive and Rapid Method for Detection of Cytomegaloviral DNA in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Biopsy Tissue
Institutions: Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University Health.
It is crucial to identify cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of immunosuppressed patients, given their greater risk for developing severe infection. Many laboratory methods for the detection of CMV infection have been developed, including serology, viral culture, and molecular methods. Often, these methods reflect systemic involvement with CMV and do not specifically identify local tissue involvement. Therefore, detection of CMV infection in the GI tract is frequently done by traditional histology of biopsy tissue. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining in conjunction with immunohistochemistry (IHC) have remained the mainstays of examining these biopsies. H&E and IHC sometimes result in atypical (equivocal) staining patterns, making interpretation difficult. It was shown that quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for CMV can successfully be performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy tissue for very high sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate how to perform qPCR testing for the detection of CMV in FFPE biopsy tissue in a clinical laboratory setting. This method is likely to be of great benefit for patients in cases of equivocal staining for CMV in GI biopsies.
Genetics, Issue 89, qPCR, cytomegalovirus, CMV, biopsy, real-time PCR, gastrointestinal, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue
Method for Novel Anti-Cancer Drug Development using Tumor Explants of Surgical Specimens
Institutions: The Ohio State University Medical Center, The Ohio State University Medical Center.
The current therapies for malignant glioma have only palliative effect. For therapeutic development, one hurdle is the discrepancy of efficacy determined by current drug efficacy tests and the efficacy on patients. Thus, novel and reliable methods for evaluating drug efficacy are warranted in pre-clinical phase. In vitro
culture of tumor tissues, including cell lines, has substantial phenotypic, genetic, and epigenetic alterations of cancer cells caused by artificial environment of cell culture, which may not reflect the biology of original tumors in situ. Xenograft models with the immunodeficient mice also have limitations, i.e., the lack of immune system and interspecies genetic and epigenetic discrepancies in microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate a novel method using the surgical specimens of malignant glioma as undissociated tumor blocks to evaluate treatment effects. To validate this method, data with the current first-line chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ), are described.
We used the freshly-removed surgical specimen of malignant glioma for our experiments. We performed intratumoral injection of TMZ or other drug candidates, followed by incubation and analysis on surgical specimens. Here, we sought to establish a tumor tissue explant method as a platform to determine the efficacy of novel anti-cancer therapies so that we may be able to overcome, at least, some of the current limitations and fill the existing gap between the current experimental data and the efficacy on an actual patient's tumor. This method may have the potential to accelerate identifying novel chemotherapeutic agents for solid cancer treatment.
Medicine, Issue 53, Glioblastoma multiforme, glioma, temozolomide, therapeutics, drug design
Collection Protocol for Human Pancreas
Institutions: University of Florida .
This dissection and sampling procedure was developed for the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) program to standardize preparation of pancreas recovered from cadaveric organ donors. The pancreas is divided into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by serial transverse sections throughout the medial to lateral axis. Alternating sections are used for fixed paraffin and fresh frozen blocks and remnant samples are minced for snap frozen sample preparations, either with or without RNAse inhibitors, for DNA, RNA, or protein isolation. The overall goal of the pancreas dissection procedure is to sample the entire pancreas while maintaining anatomical orientation.
Endocrine cell heterogeneity in terms of islet composition, size, and numbers is reported for human islets compared to rodent islets 1
. The majority of human islets from the pancreas head, body and tail regions are composed of insulin-containing β-cells followed by lower proportions of glucagon-containing α-cells and somatostatin-containing δ-cells. Pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells and ghrelin-containing epsilon cells are also present but in small numbers. In contrast, the uncinate region contains islets that are primarily composed of pancreatic polypeptide-containing PP cells 2
. These regional islet variations arise from developmental differences. The pancreas develops from the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds in the foregut and after rotation of the stomach and duodenum, the ventral lobe moves and fuses with the dorsal 3
. The ventral lobe forms the posterior portion of the head including the uncinate process while the dorsal lobe gives rise to the rest of the organ. Regional pancreatic variation is also reported with the tail region having higher islet density compared to other regions and the dorsal lobe-derived components undergoing selective atrophy in type 1 diabetes4,5
Additional organs and tissues are often recovered from the organ donors and include pancreatic lymph nodes, spleen and non-pancreatic lymph nodes. These samples are recovered with similar formats as for the pancreas with the addition of isolation of cryopreserved cells. When the proximal duodenum is included with the pancreas, duodenal mucosa may be collected for paraffin and frozen blocks and minced snap frozen preparations.
Medicine, Issue 63, Physiology, pancreas, organ donor, endocrine cells, insulin, beta-cells, islet, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes
Multi-step Preparation Technique to Recover Multiple Metabolite Compound Classes for In-depth and Informative Metabolomic Analysis
Institutions: National Jewish Health, University of Colorado Denver.
Metabolomics is an emerging field which enables profiling of samples from living organisms in order to obtain insight into biological processes. A vital aspect of metabolomics is sample preparation whereby inconsistent techniques generate unreliable results. This technique encompasses protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction as a means of fractionating metabolites into four distinct classes. Improved enrichment of low abundance molecules with a resulting increase in sensitivity is obtained, and ultimately results in more confident identification of molecules. This technique has been applied to plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid samples with volumes as low as 50 µl. Samples can be used for multiple downstream applications; for example, the pellet resulting from protein precipitation can be stored for later analysis. The supernatant from that step undergoes liquid-liquid extraction using water and strong organic solvent to separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Once fractionated, the hydrophilic layer can be processed for later analysis or discarded if not needed. The hydrophobic fraction is further treated with a series of solvents during three solid-phase extraction steps to separate it into fatty acids, neutral lipids, and phospholipids. This allows the technician the flexibility to choose which class of compounds is preferred for analysis. It also aids in more reliable metabolite identification since some knowledge of chemical class exists.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, plasma, chemistry techniques, analytical, solid phase extraction, mass spectrometry, metabolomics, fluids and secretions, profiling, small molecules, lipids, liquid chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei from Drosophila Tissues for Gene Expression Analysis
Institutions: Purdue University.
embryonic and larval tissues often contain a highly heterogeneous mixture of cell types, which can complicate the analysis of gene expression in these tissues. Thus, to analyze cell-specific gene expression profiles from Drosophila
tissues, it may be necessary to isolate specific cell types with high purity and at sufficient yields for downstream applications such as transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation. However, the irregular cellular morphology in tissues such as the central nervous system, coupled with the rare population of specific cell types in these tissues, can pose challenges for traditional methods of cell isolation such as laser microdissection and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Here, an alternative approach to characterizing cell-specific gene expression profiles using affinity-based isolation of tagged nuclei, rather than whole cells, is described. Nuclei in the specific cell type of interest are genetically labeled with a nuclear envelope-localized EGFP tag using the Gal4/UAS binary expression system. These EGFP-tagged nuclei can be isolated using antibodies against GFP that are coupled to magnetic beads. The approach described in this protocol enables consistent isolation of nuclei from specific cell types in the Drosophila
larval central nervous system at high purity and at sufficient levels for expression analysis, even when these cell types comprise less than 2% of the total cell population in the tissue. This approach can be used to isolate nuclei from a wide variety of Drosophila
embryonic and larval cell types using specific Gal4 drivers, and may be useful for isolating nuclei from cell types that are not suitable for FACS or laser microdissection.
Biochemistry, Issue 85, Gene Expression, nuclei isolation, Drosophila, KASH, GFP, cell-type specific
Optimization of High Grade Glioma Cell Culture from Surgical Specimens for Use in Clinically Relevant Animal Models and 3D Immunochemistry
Institutions: Henry Ford Hospital.
Glioblastomas, the most common and aggressive form of astrocytoma, are refractory to therapy, and molecularly heterogeneous. The ability to establish cell cultures that preserve the genomic profile of the parental tumors, for use in patient specific in vitro
and in vivo
models, has the potential to revolutionize the preclinical development of new treatments for glioblastoma tailored to the molecular characteristics of each tumor.
Starting with fresh high grade astrocytoma tumors dissociated into single cells, we use the neurosphere assay as an enrichment method for cells presenting cancer stem cell phenotype, including expression of neural stem cell markers, long term self-renewal in vitro
, and the ability to form orthotopic xenograft tumors. This method has been previously proposed, and is now in use by several investigators. Based on our experience of dissociating and culturing 125 glioblastoma specimens, we arrived at the detailed protocol we present here, suitable for routine neurosphere culturing of high grade astrocytomas and large scale expansion of tumorigenic cells for preclinical studies. We report on the efficiency of successful long term cultures using this protocol and suggest affordable alternatives for culturing dissociated glioblastoma cells that fail to grow as neurospheres. We also describe in detail a protocol for preserving the neurospheres 3D architecture for immunohistochemistry. Cell cultures enriched in CSCs, capable of generating orthotopic xenograft models that preserve the molecular signatures and heterogeneity of GBMs, are becoming increasingly popular for the study of the biology of GBMs and for the improved design of preclinical testing of potential therapies.
Medicine, Issue 83, Primary Cell Culture, animal models, Nervous System Diseases, Neoplasms, glioblastoma, neurosphere, surgical specimens, long-term self-renewal
Two Methods for Establishing Primary Human Endometrial Stromal Cells from Hysterectomy Specimens
Institutions: University of Virginia, University of Virginia.
Many efforts have been devoted to establish in vitro
cell culture systems. These systems are designed to model a vast number of in vivo
processes. Cell culture systems arising from human endometrial samples are no exception. Applications range from normal cyclic physiological processes to endometrial pathologies such as gynecological cancers, infectious diseases, and reproductive deficiencies. Here, we provide two methods for establishing primary endometrial stromal cells from surgically resected endometrial hysterectomy specimens. The first method is referred to as “the scraping method” and incorporates mechanical scraping using surgical or razor blades whereas the second method is termed “the trypsin method.” This latter method uses the enzymatic activity of trypsin to promote the separation of cells and primary cell outgrowth. We illustrate step-by-step methodology through digital images and microscopy. We also provide examples for validating endometrial stromal cell lines via quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) and immunofluorescence (IF).
Medicine, Issue 87, uterus, endometrium, endometrial stroma, (primary) cell culture, surgical blade, trypsin, tissue procurement, spontaneous decidualization
Manual Isolation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells from Human Lipoaspirates
Institutions: Cytori Therapeutics Inc, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
In 2001, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, described the isolation of a new population of adult stem cells from liposuctioned adipose tissue that they initially termed Processed Lipoaspirate Cells or PLA cells. Since then, these stem cells have been renamed as Adipose-derived Stem Cells or ASCs and have gone on to become one of the most popular adult stem cells populations in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Thousands of articles now describe the use of ASCs in a variety of regenerative animal models, including bone regeneration, peripheral nerve repair and cardiovascular engineering. Recent articles have begun to describe the myriad of uses for ASCs in the clinic. The protocol shown in this article outlines the basic procedure for manually and enzymatically isolating ASCs from large amounts of lipoaspirates obtained from cosmetic procedures. This protocol can easily be scaled up or down to accommodate the volume of lipoaspirate and can be adapted to isolate ASCs from fat tissue obtained through abdominoplasties and other similar procedures.
Cellular Biology, Issue 79, Adipose Tissue, Stem Cells, Humans, Cell Biology, biology (general), enzymatic digestion, collagenase, cell isolation, Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF), Adipose-derived Stem Cells, ASCs, lipoaspirate, liposuction
Cerebrospinal Fluid MicroRNA Profiling Using Quantitative Real Time PCR
Institutions: LSU Health Sciences Center, University of Milan.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a potent layer of gene regulation by guiding RISC to target sites located on mRNAs and, consequently, by modulating their translational repression. Changes in miRNA expression have been shown to be involved in the development of all major complex diseases. Furthermore, recent findings showed that miRNAs can be secreted to the extracellular environment and enter the bloodstream and other body fluids where they can circulate with high stability. The function of such circulating miRNAs remains largely elusive, but systematic high throughput approaches, such as miRNA profiling arrays, have lead to the identification of miRNA signatures in several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders and several types of cancers. In this context, the identification of miRNA expression profile in the cerebrospinal fluid, as reported in our recent study, makes miRNAs attractive candidates for biomarker analysis.
There are several tools available for profiling microRNAs, such as microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and deep sequencing. Here, we describe a sensitive method to profile microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluids by quantitative real-time PCR. We used the Exiqon microRNA ready-to-use PCR human panels I and II V2.R, which allows detection of 742 unique human microRNAs. We performed the arrays in triplicate runs and we processed and analyzed data using the GenEx Professional 5 software.
Using this protocol, we have successfully profiled microRNAs in various types of cell lines and primary cells, CSF, plasma, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.
Medicine, Issue 83, microRNAs, biomarkers, miRNA profiling, qPCR, cerebrospinal fluid, RNA, DNA
Characterization of Complex Systems Using the Design of Experiments Approach: Transient Protein Expression in Tobacco as a Case Study
Institutions: RWTH Aachen University, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft.
Plants provide multiple benefits for the production of biopharmaceuticals including low costs, scalability, and safety. Transient expression offers the additional advantage of short development and production times, but expression levels can vary significantly between batches thus giving rise to regulatory concerns in the context of good manufacturing practice. We used a design of experiments (DoE) approach to determine the impact of major factors such as regulatory elements in the expression construct, plant growth and development parameters, and the incubation conditions during expression, on the variability of expression between batches. We tested plants expressing a model anti-HIV monoclonal antibody (2G12) and a fluorescent marker protein (DsRed). We discuss the rationale for selecting certain properties of the model and identify its potential limitations. The general approach can easily be transferred to other problems because the principles of the model are broadly applicable: knowledge-based parameter selection, complexity reduction by splitting the initial problem into smaller modules, software-guided setup of optimal experiment combinations and step-wise design augmentation. Therefore, the methodology is not only useful for characterizing protein expression in plants but also for the investigation of other complex systems lacking a mechanistic description. The predictive equations describing the interconnectivity between parameters can be used to establish mechanistic models for other complex systems.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, design of experiments (DoE), transient protein expression, plant-derived biopharmaceuticals, promoter, 5'UTR, fluorescent reporter protein, model building, incubation conditions, monoclonal antibody
Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining
Institutions: CNRS UMR 5534, Université de Lyon 1, LabEX DEVweCAN, CNRS UPR 3296, CNRS UMR 5286.
Single cell codetection of a gene, its RNA product and cellular regulatory proteins is critical to study gene expression regulation. This is a challenge in the field of virology; in particular for nuclear-replicating persistent DNA viruses that involve animal models for their study. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. Latent virus serves as reservoir, from which it reactivates and induces a new herpetic episode. The cell biology of HSV-1 latency remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of methods to detect HSV-1 genomes in situ
in animal models. We describe a DNA-fluorescent in situ
hybridization (FISH) approach efficiently detecting low-copy viral genomes within sections of neuronal tissues from infected animal models. The method relies on heat-based antigen unmasking, and directly labeled home-made DNA probes, or commercially available probes. We developed a triple staining approach, combining DNA-FISH with RNA-FISH and immunofluorescence, using peroxidase based signal amplification to accommodate each staining requirement. A major improvement is the ability to obtain, within 10 µm tissue sections, low-background signals that can be imaged at high resolution by confocal microscopy and wide-field conventional epifluorescence. Additionally, the triple staining worked with a wide range of antibodies directed against cellular and viral proteins. The complete protocol takes 2.5 days to accommodate antibody and probe penetration within the tissue.
Neuroscience, Issue 83, Life Sciences (General), Virology, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Latency, In situ hybridization, Nuclear organization, Gene expression, Microscopy
RNAscope for In situ Detection of Transcriptionally Active Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Institutions: Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Inc..
The 'gold standard' for oncogenic HPV detection is the demonstration of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in tumor tissue. However, detection of E6/E7 mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) requires RNA extraction which destroys the tumor tissue context critical for morphological correlation and has been difficult to be adopted in routine clinical practice. Our recently developed RNA in situ
hybridization technology, RNAscope, permits direct visualization of RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue with single molecule sensitivity and single cell resolution, which enables highly sensitive and specific in situ
analysis of any RNA biomarker in routine clinical specimens. The RNAscope HPV assay was designed to detect the E6/E7 mRNA of seven high-risk HPV genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) using a pool of genotype-specific probes. It has demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity against the current 'gold standard' method of detecting E6/E7 mRNA by qRT-PCR. HPV status determined by RNAscope is strongly prognostic of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer patients.
Medicine, Issue 85, RNAscope, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC), Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), E6/ E7 mRNA, in situ hybridization, tumor
A Novel Microdissection Approach to Recovering Mycobacterium tuberculosis Specific Transcripts from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Lung Granulomas
Institutions: Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane National Primate Research Center.
Microdissection has been used for the examination of tissues at DNA, RNA, and protein levels for over a decade. Laser capture microscopy (LCM) is the most common microdissection technique used today. In this technique, a laser is used to focally melt a thermoplastic membrane that overlies a dehydrated tissue section1
. The tissue section composite is then lifted and separated from the membrane. Although this technique can be used successfully for tissue examination, it is time consuming and expensive. Furthermore, the successful completion of procedures using this technique requires the use of a laser, thus limiting its use. A new more affordable and practical microdissection approach called mesodissection is a possible solution to the pitfalls of LCM. This technique employs the MESO-1/MeSectr system to mill the desired tissue from a slide mounted tissue sample while concurrently dispensing and aspirating fluid to recover the desired tissue sample into a consumable mill bit. Before the dissection process begins, the user aligns the formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) slide with a hematoxylin and eosin stained (H&E) reference slide. Thereafter, the operator annotates the desired dissection area and proceeds to dissect the appropriate segment. The program generates an archived image of the dissection. The main advantage of mesodissection is the short duration needed to dissect a slide, taking an average of ten minutes from set up to sample generation in this experiment. Additionally, the system is significantly more cost effective and user friendly. A slight disadvantage is that it is not as precise as laser capture microscopy. In this article we demonstrate how mesodissection can be used to extract RNA from slides from FFPE granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)
Immunology, Issue 88, Microdissection, mesodissection, formalin fixed paraffin embedded, Mtb, LCM, TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Non-radioactive in situ Hybridization Protocol Applicable for Norway Spruce and a Range of Plant Species
Institutions: Uppsala University, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
The high-throughput expression analysis technologies available today give scientists an overflow of expression profiles but their resolution in terms of tissue specific expression is limited because of problems in dissecting individual tissues. Expression data needs to be confirmed and complemented with expression patterns using e.g. in situ
hybridization, a technique used to localize cell specific mRNA expression. The in situ
hybridization method is laborious, time-consuming and often requires extensive optimization depending on species and tissue. In situ
experiments are relatively more difficult to perform in woody species such as the conifer Norway spruce (Picea abies
). Here we present a modified DIG in situ
hybridization protocol, which is fast and applicable on a wide range of plant species including P. abies
. With just a few adjustments, including altered RNase treatment and proteinase K concentration, we could use the protocol to study tissue specific expression of homologous genes in male reproductive organs of one gymnosperm and two angiosperm species; P. abies, Arabidopsis thaliana
and Brassica napus
. The protocol worked equally well for the species and genes studied. AtAP3
were observed in second and third whorl floral organs in A. thaliana
and B. napus
and DAL13 in microsporophylls of male cones from P. abies
. For P. abies
the proteinase K concentration, used to permeablize the tissues, had to be increased to 3 g/ml instead of 1 g/ml, possibly due to more compact tissues and higher levels of phenolics and polysaccharides. For all species the RNase treatment was removed due to reduced signal strength without a corresponding increase in specificity. By comparing tissue specific expression patterns of homologous genes from both flowering plants and a coniferous tree we demonstrate that the DIG in situ
protocol presented here, with only minute adjustments, can be applied to a wide range of plant species. Hence, the protocol avoids both extensive species specific optimization and the laborious use of radioactively labeled probes in favor of DIG labeled probes. We have chosen to illustrate the technically demanding steps of the protocol in our film.
Anna Karlgren and Jenny Carlsson contributed equally to this study.
Corresponding authors: Anna Karlgren at Anna.Karlgren@ebc.uu.se and Jens F. Sundström at Jens.Sundstrom@vbsg.slu.se
Plant Biology, Issue 26, RNA, expression analysis, Norway spruce, Arabidopsis, rapeseed, conifers
DNA Extraction from Paraffin Embedded Material for Genetic and Epigenetic Analyses
Institutions: BC Cancer Research Centre, University of British Columbia - UBC, BC Cancer Agency, University of British Columbia - UBC.
Disease development and progression are characterized by frequent genetic and epigenetic aberrations including chromosomal rearrangements, copy number gains and losses and DNA methylation. Advances in high-throughput, genome-wide profiling technologies, such as microarrays, have significantly improved our ability to identify and detect these specific alterations. However as technology continues to improve, a limiting factor remains sample quality and availability. Furthermore, follow-up clinical information and disease outcome are often collected years after the initial specimen collection. Specimens, typically formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE), are stored in hospital archives for years to decades. DNA can be efficiently and effectively recovered from paraffin-embedded specimens if the appropriate method of extraction is applied. High quality DNA extracted from properly preserved and stored specimens can support quantitative assays for comparisons of normal and diseased tissues and generation of genetic and epigenetic signatures 1
. To extract DNA from paraffin-embedded samples, tissue cores or microdissected tissue are subjected to xylene treatment, which dissolves the paraffin from the tissue, and then rehydrated using a series of ethanol washes. Proteins and harmful enzymes such as nucleases are subsequently digested by proteinase K. The addition of lysis buffer, which contains denaturing agents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), facilitates digestion 2
. Nucleic acids are purified from the tissue lysate using buffer-saturated phenol and high speed centrifugation which generates a biphasic solution. DNA and RNA remain in the upper aqueous phase, while proteins, lipids and polysaccharides are sequestered in the inter- and organic-phases respectively. Retention of the aqueous phase and repeated phenol extractions generates a clean sample. Following phenol extractions, RNase A is added to eliminate contaminating RNA. Additional phenol extractions following incubation with RNase A are used to remove any remaining enzyme. The addition of sodium acetate and isopropanol precipitates DNA, and high speed centrifugation is used to pellet the DNA and facilitate isopropanol removal. Excess salts carried over from precipitation can interfere with subsequent enzymatic assays, but can be removed from the DNA by washing with 70% ethanol, followed by centrifugation to re-pellet the DNA 3
. DNA is re-suspended in distilled water or the buffer of choice, quantified and stored at -20°C. Purified DNA can subsequently be used in downstream applications which include, but are not limited to, PCR, array comparative genomic hybridization 4
(array CGH), methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and sequencing, allowing for an integrative analysis of tissue/tumor samples.
Genetics, Issue 49, DNA extraction, paraffin embedded tissue, phenol:chloroform extraction, genetic analysis, epigenetic analysis
Detecting Somatic Genetic Alterations in Tumor Specimens by Exon Capture and Massively Parallel Sequencing
Institutions: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Efforts to detect and investigate key oncogenic mutations have proven valuable to facilitate the appropriate treatment for cancer patients. The establishment of high-throughput, massively parallel "next-generation" sequencing has aided the discovery of many such mutations. To enhance the clinical and translational utility of this technology, platforms must be high-throughput, cost-effective, and compatible with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples that may yield small amounts of degraded or damaged DNA. Here, we describe the preparation of barcoded and multiplexed DNA libraries followed by hybridization-based capture of targeted exons for the detection of cancer-associated mutations in fresh frozen and FFPE tumors by massively parallel sequencing. This method enables the identification of sequence mutations, copy number alterations, and select structural rearrangements involving all targeted genes. Targeted exon sequencing offers the benefits of high throughput, low cost, and deep sequence coverage, thus conferring high sensitivity for detecting low frequency mutations.
Molecular Biology, Issue 80, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Genetics, Neoplasms, Diagnosis, Massively parallel sequencing, targeted exon sequencing, hybridization capture, cancer, FFPE, DNA mutations
Tissue Triage and Freezing for Models of Skeletal Muscle Disease
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, The Ohio State University, Virginia Tech, University of Kentucky, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cure Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, Joshua Frase Foundation, University of Washington, University of Arizona.
Skeletal muscle is a unique tissue because of its structure and function, which requires specific protocols for tissue collection to obtain optimal results from functional, cellular, molecular, and pathological evaluations. Due to the subtlety of some pathological abnormalities seen in congenital muscle disorders and the potential for fixation to interfere with the recognition of these features, pathological evaluation of frozen muscle is preferable to fixed muscle when evaluating skeletal muscle for congenital muscle disease. Additionally, the potential to produce severe freezing artifacts in muscle requires specific precautions when freezing skeletal muscle for histological examination that are not commonly used when freezing other tissues. This manuscript describes a protocol for rapid freezing of skeletal muscle using isopentane (2-methylbutane) cooled with liquid nitrogen to preserve optimal skeletal muscle morphology. This procedure is also effective for freezing tissue intended for genetic or protein expression studies. Furthermore, we have integrated our freezing protocol into a broader procedure that also describes preferred methods for the short term triage of tissue for (1) single fiber functional studies and (2) myoblast cell culture, with a focus on the minimum effort necessary to collect tissue and transport it to specialized research or reference labs to complete these studies. Overall, this manuscript provides an outline of how fresh tissue can be effectively distributed for a variety of phenotypic studies and thereby provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for pathological studies related to congenital muscle disease.
Basic Protocol, Issue 89,
Tissue, Freezing, Muscle, Isopentane, Pathology, Functional Testing, Cell Culture
In Situ Hybridization for the Precise Localization of Transcripts in Plants
Institutions: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
With the advances in genomics research of the past decade, plant biology has seen numerous studies presenting large-scale quantitative analyses of gene expression. Microarray and next generation sequencing approaches are being used to investigate developmental, physiological and stress response processes, dissect epigenetic and small RNA pathways, and build large gene regulatory networks1-3
. While these techniques facilitate the simultaneous analysis of large gene sets, they typically provide a very limited spatiotemporal resolution of gene expression changes. This limitation can be partially overcome by using either profiling method in conjunction with lasermicrodissection or fluorescence-activated cell sorting4-7
. However, to fully understand the biological role of a gene, knowledge of its spatiotemporal pattern of expression at a cellular resolution is essential. Particularly, when studying development or the effects of environmental stimuli and mutants can the detailed analysis of a gene's expression pattern become essential. For instance, subtle quantitative differences in the expression levels of key regulatory genes can lead to dramatic phenotypes when associated with the loss or gain of expression in specific cell types.
Several methods are routinely used for the detailed examination of gene expression patterns. One is through analysis of transgenic reporter lines. Such analysis can, however, become time-consuming when analyzing multiple genes or working in plants recalcitrant to transformation. Moreover, an independent validation to ensure that the transgene expression pattern mimics that of the endogenous gene is typically required. Immunohistochemical protein localization or mRNA in situ
hybridization present relatively fast alternatives for the direct visualization of gene expression within cells and tissues. The latter has the distinct advantage that it can be readily used on any gene of interest. In situ
hybridization allows detection of target mRNAs in cells by hybridization with a labeled anti-sense RNA probe obtained by in vitro
transcription of the gene of interest.
Here we outline a protocol for the in situ
localization of gene expression in plants that is highly sensitivity and specific. It is optimized for use with paraformaldehyde fixed, paraffin-embedded sections, which give excellent preservation of histology, and DIG-labeled probes that are visualized by immuno-detection and alkaline-phosphatase colorimetric reaction. This protocol has been successfully applied to a number of tissues from a wide range of plant species, and can be used to analyze expression of mRNAs as well as small RNAs8-14
Plant Biology, Issue 57, In Situ hybridization, RNA localization, expression analysis, plant, DIG-labeled probe
Rapid Genotyping of Mouse Tissue Using Sigma's Extract-N-Amp Tissue PCR Kit
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Genomic detection of DNA via PCR amplification and detection on an electrophoretic gel is a standard way that the genotype of a tissue sample is determined. Conventional preparation of tissues for PCR-ready DNA often take several hours to days, depending on the tissue sample. The genotype of the sample may thus be delayed for several days, which is not an option for many different types of experiments. Here we demonstrate the complete genotyping of a mouse tail sample, including tissue digestion and PCR readout, in one and a half hours using Sigma's SYBR Green Extract-N-Amp Tissue PCR Kit. First, we demonstrate the fifteen-minute extraction of DNA from the tissue sample. Then, we demonstrate the real time read-out of the PCR amplification of the sample, which allows for the identification of a positive sample as it is being amplified. Together, the rapid extraction and real-time readout allow for a prompt identification of genotype of a variety different types of tissues through the reliable method of PCR.
Basic Protocols, Issue 11, genotyping, PCR, DNA extraction, Mice
Laser Capture Microdissection of Mammalian Tissue
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Laser capture microscopy, also known as laser microdissection (LMD), enables the user to isolate small numbers of cells or tissues from frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. LMD techniques rely on a thermo labile membrane placed either on top of, or underneath, the tissue section. In one method, focused laser energy is used to melt the membrane onto the underlying cells, which can then be lifted out of the tissue section. In the other, the laser energy vaporizes the foil along a path "drawn" on the tissue, allowing the selected cells to fall into a collection device. Each technique allows the selection of cells with a minimum resolution of several microns. DNA, RNA, protein, and lipid samples may be isolated and analyzed from micro-dissected samples. In this video, we demonstrate the use of the Leica AS-LMD laser microdissection instrument in seven segments, including an introduction to the principles of LMD, initializing the instrument for use, general considerations for sample preparation, mounting the specimen and setting up capture tubes, aligning the microscope, adjusting the capture controls, and capturing tissue specimens. Laser-capture micro-dissection enables the investigator to isolate samples of pure cell populations as small as a few cell-equivalents. This allows the analysis of cells of interest that are free of neighboring contaminants, which may confound experimental results.
Issue 8, Basic Protocols, Laser Capture Microdissection, Microdissection Techniques, Leica
Cell Block Preparation from Cytology Specimen with Predominance of Individually Scattered Cells
Institutions: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
This video demonstrates Shidham's method for preparation of cell blocks from liquid based cervicovaginal cytology specimens containing individually scattered cells and small cell groups. This technique uses HistoGel (Thermo Scientific) with conventional laboratory equipment.
The use of cell block sections is a valuable ancillary tool for evaluation of non-gynecologic cytology. They enable the cytopathologist to study additional morphologic specimen detail including the architecture of the lesion. Most importantly, they allow for the evaluation of ancillary studies such as immunocytochemistry, in-situ hybridization tests (FISH/CISH) and in-situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traditional cell block preparation techniques have mostly been applied to non-gynecologic cytology specimens, typically for body fluid effusions and fine needle aspiration biopsies.
Liquid based cervicovaginal specimens are relatively less cellular than their non-gynecologic counterparts with many individual scattered cells. Because of this, adequate cellularity within the cell block sections is difficult to achieve. In addition, the histotechnologist sectioning the block cannot visualize the level at which the cells are at the highest concentration. Therefore, it is difficult to monitor the appropriate level at which sections can be selected to be transferred to the glass slides for testing. As a result, the area of the cell block with the cells of interest may be missed, either by cutting past or not cutting deep enough. Current protocol for Shidham's method addresses these issues. Although this protocol is standardized and reported for gynecologic liquid based cytology specimens, it can also be applied to non-gynecologic specimens such as effusion fluids, FNA, brushings, cyst contents etc for improved quality of diagnostic material in cell block sections.
Cellular Biology, Issue 29, surgical pathology, cytopathology, FNA, cellblocks, SCIP. immunohistochemistry