There is a large unfulfilled need for a clinically-suitable human neuronal cell source for repair or regeneration of the damaged central nervous system (CNS) structure and circuitry in today's healthcare industry. Cell-based therapies hold great promise to restore the lost nerve tissue and function for CNS disorders. However, cell therapies based on CNS-derived neural stem cells have encountered supply restriction and difficulty to use in the clinical setting due to their limited expansion ability in culture and failing plasticity after extensive passaging1-3. Despite some beneficial outcomes, the CNS-derived human neural stem cells (hNSCs) appear to exert their therapeutic effects primarily by their non-neuronal progenies through producing trophic and neuroprotective molecules to rescue the endogenous cells1-3. Alternatively, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) proffer cures for a wide range of neurological disorders by supplying the diversity of human neuronal cell types in the developing CNS for regeneration1,4-7. However, how to channel the wide differentiation potential of pluripotent hESCs efficiently and predictably to a desired phenotype has been a major challenge for both developmental study and clinical translation. Conventional approaches rely on multi-lineage inclination of pluripotent cells through spontaneous germ layer differentiation, resulting in inefficient and uncontrollable lineage-commitment that is often followed by phenotypic heterogeneity and instability, hence, a high risk of tumorigenicity7-10. In addition, undefined foreign/animal biological supplements and/or feeders that have typically been used for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of hESCs may make direct use of such cell-specialized grafts in patients problematic11-13. To overcome these obstacles, we have resolved the elements of a defined culture system necessary and sufficient for sustaining the epiblast pluripotence of hESCs, serving as a platform for de novo derivation of clinically-suitable hESCs and effectively directing such hESCs uniformly towards clinically-relevant lineages by small molecules14 (please see a schematic in Fig. 1). Retinoic acid (RA) does not induce neuronal differentiation of undifferentiated hESCs maintained on feeders1, 14. And unlike mouse ESCs, treating hESC-differentiated embryoid bodies (EBs) only slightly increases the low yield of neurons1, 14, 15. However, after screening a variety of small molecules and growth factors, we found that such defined conditions rendered retinoic acid (RA) sufficient to induce the specification of neuroectoderm direct from pluripotent hESCs that further progressed to neuroblasts that generated human neuronal progenitors and neurons in the developing CNS with high efficiency (Fig. 2). We defined conditions for induction of neuroblasts direct from pluripotent hESCs without an intervening multi-lineage embryoid body stage, enabling well-controlled efficient derivation of a large supply of human neuronal cells across the spectrum of developmental stages for cell-based therapeutics.
19 Related JoVE Articles!
Generation of Human Cardiomyocytes: A Differentiation Protocol from Feeder-free Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Institutions: Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Italy, National Research Council (CNR).
In order to investigate the events driving heart development and to determine the molecular mechanisms leading to myocardial diseases in humans, it is essential first to generate functional human cardiomyocytes (CMs). The use of these cells in drug discovery and toxicology studies would also be highly beneficial, allowing new pharmacological molecules for the treatment of cardiac disorders to be validated pre-clinically on cells of human origin. Of the possible sources of CMs, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are among the most promising, as they can be derived directly from readily accessible patient tissue and possess an intrinsic capacity to give rise to all cell types of the body 1
. Several methods have been proposed for differentiating iPS cells into CMs, ranging from the classical embryoid bodies (EBs) aggregation approach to chemically defined protocols 2,3
. In this article we propose an EBs-based protocol and show how this method can be employed to efficiently generate functional CM-like cells from feeder-free iPS cells.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 76, Developmental Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Cardiology, Stem Cell Research, Cardiovascular Diseases, Human cardiomyocytes, iPS cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, stem cells, cardiac differentiation, disease modeling, embryoid bodies, cell lines, cell culture
Preparation of 3D Fibrin Scaffolds for Stem Cell Culture Applications
Institutions: University of Victoria , University of Victoria .
Stem cells are found in naturally occurring 3D microenvironments in vivo
, which are often referred to as the stem cell niche 1
. Culturing stem cells inside of 3D biomaterial scaffolds provides a way to accurately mimic these microenvironments, providing an advantage over traditional 2D culture methods using polystyrene as well as a method for engineering replacement tissues 2
. While 2D tissue culture polystrene has been used for the majority of cell culture experiments, 3D biomaterial scaffolds can more closely replicate the microenvironments found in vivo
by enabling more accurate establishment of cell polarity in the environment and possessing biochemical and mechanical properties similar to soft tissue.3
A variety of naturally derived and synthetic biomaterial scaffolds have been investigated as 3D environments for supporting stem cell growth. While synthetic scaffolds can be synthesized to have a greater range of mechanical and chemical properties and often have greater reproducibility, natural biomaterials are often composed of proteins and polysaccharides found in the extracelluar matrix and as a result contain binding sites for cell adhesion and readily support cell culture. Fibrin scaffolds, produced by polymerizing the protein fibrinogen obtained from plasma, have been widely investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications both in vitro
and in vivo 4
. Such scaffolds can be modified using a variety of methods to incorporate controlled release systems for delivering therapeutic factors 5
. Previous work has shown that such scaffolds can be used to successfully culture embryonic stem cells and this scaffold-based culture system can be used to screen the effects of various growth factors on the differentiation of the stem cells seeded inside 6,7
This protocol details the process of polymerizing fibrin scaffolds from fibrinogen solutions using the enzymatic activity of thrombin. The process takes 2 days to complete, including an overnight dialysis step for the fibrinogen solution to remove citrates that inhibit polymerization. These detailed methods rely on fibrinogen concentrations determined to be optimal for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell culture. Other groups have further investigated fibrin scaffolds for a wide range of cell types and applications - demonstrating the versatility of this approach 8-12
Bioengineering, Issue 61, Extracellular matrix, stem cells, biomaterials, drug delivery, cell culture
Feeder-Free Adaptation, Culture and Passaging of Human IPS Cells using Complete KnockOut Serum Replacement Feeder-Free Medium
Institutions: Life Technologies.
The discovery in 2006 that human and mouse fibroblasts could be reprogrammed to generate iPS cells 1-3
with qualities remarkably similar to embryonic stem cells has created a valuable new source of pluripotent cells for drug discovery, cell therapy, and basic research.
GIBCO media and reagents have been at the forefront of pluripotent stem cell research for years. Knockout DMEM supplemented with Knockout Serum Replacement is the media of choice for embryonic stem cell growth and now iPS cell culture 3-9
. This gold standard media system can now be used for feeder-free culture with the addition of Knockout SR Growth Factor Cocktail.
Traditional human ES and iPS cell culture methods require the use of mouse or human fibroblast feeder layers, or feeder-conditioned medium. These culture methods are labor-intensive, hard to scale and it is difficult to maintain hiPS cells undifferentiated due to the undefined conditions. Invitrogen has developed Knockout SR Growth Factor Cocktail to allow you to easily transition your hiPS cell cultures to feeder-free while still maintaining your use of Knockout SR.
Cellular Biology, Issue 41, iPS, pluripotent, stem cells, cell culture, medium, media, feeder-free, Geltrex, human
Retroviral Infection of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Embryoid Body Cells for Analysis of Hematopoietic Differentiation
Institutions: Harper Cancer Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an outstanding model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of cellular differentiation. They are especially useful for investigating the development of early hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Gene expression in ESCs can be manipulated by several techniques that allow the role for individual molecules in development to be determined. One difficulty is that expression of specific genes often has different phenotypic effects dependent on their temporal expression. This problem can be circumvented by the generation of ESCs that inducibly express a gene of interest using technology such as the doxycycline-inducible transgene system. However, generation of these inducible cell lines is costly and time consuming. Described here is a method for disaggregating ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) into single cell suspensions, retrovirally infecting the cell suspensions, and then reforming the EBs by hanging drop. Downstream differentiation is then evaluated by flow cytometry. Using this protocol, it was demonstrated that exogenous expression of a microRNA gene at the beginning of ESC differentiation blocks HPC generation. However, when expressed in EB derived cells after nascent mesoderm is produced, the microRNA gene enhances hematopoietic differentiation. This method is useful for investigating the role of genes after specific germ layer tissue is derived.
Cellular Biology, Issue 92, Embryonic stem cell, Embryoid body, Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells, Retrovirus, Gene Expression, Temporal Gene Expression
Directed Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (also known as A9 DA neurons) are the specific cell type that is lost in Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is great interest in deriving A9 DA neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for regenerative cell replacement therapy for PD. During neural development, A9 DA neurons originate from the floor plate (FP) precursors located at the ventral midline of the central nervous system. Here, we optimized the culture conditions for the stepwise differentiation of hPSCs to A9 DA neurons, which mimics embryonic DA neuron development. In our protocol, we first describe the efficient generation of FP precursor cells from hPSCs using a small molecule method, and then convert the FP cells to A9 DA neurons, which could be maintained in vitro
for several months. This efficient, repeatable and controllable protocol works well in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from normal persons and PD patients, in which one could derive A9 DA neurons to perform in vitro
disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo
cell transplantation therapy for PD.
Neuroscience, Issue 91, dopaminergic neuron, substantia nigra pars compacta, midbrain, Parkinson’s disease, directed differentiation, human pluripotent stem cells, floor plate
Feeder-free Derivation of Neural Crest Progenitor Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Institutions: Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, The Rockefeller University.
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have great potential for studying human embryonic development, for modeling human diseases in the dish and as a source of transplantable cells for regenerative applications after disease or accidents. Neural crest (NC) cells are the precursors for a large variety of adult somatic cells, such as cells from the peripheral nervous system and glia, melanocytes and mesenchymal cells. They are a valuable source of cells to study aspects of human embryonic development, including cell fate specification and migration. Further differentiation of NC progenitor cells into terminally differentiated cell types offers the possibility to model human diseases in vitro
, investigate disease mechanisms and generate cells for regenerative medicine. This article presents the adaptation of a currently available in vitro
differentiation protocol for the derivation of NC cells from hPSCs. This new protocol requires 18 days of differentiation, is feeder-free, easily scalable and highly reproducible among human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines as well as human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. Both old and new protocols yield NC cells of equal identity.
Neuroscience, Issue 87, Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs), Pluripotent Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), Neural Crest, Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), pluripotent stem cells, neural crest cells, in vitro differentiation, disease modeling, differentiation protocol, human embryonic stem cells, human pluripotent stem cells
Development, Expansion, and In vivo Monitoring of Human NK Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)
Institutions: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
We present a method for deriving natural killer (NK) cells from undifferentiated hESCs and iPSCs using a feeder-free approach. This method gives rise to high levels of NK cells after 4 weeks culture and can undergo further 2-log expansion with artificial antigen presenting cells. hESC- and iPSC-derived NK cells developed in this system have a mature phenotype and function. The production of large numbers of genetically modifiable NK cells is applicable for both basic mechanistic as well as anti-tumor studies. Expression of firefly luciferase in hESC-derived NK cells allows a non-invasive approach to follow NK cell engraftment, distribution, and function. We also describe a dual-imaging scheme that allows separate monitoring of two different cell populations to more distinctly characterize their interactions in vivo
. This method of derivation, expansion, and dual in vivo
imaging provides a reliable approach for producing NK cells and their evaluation which is necessary to improve current NK cell adoptive therapies.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 74, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Physiology, Anatomy, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Hematology, Embryonic Stem Cells, ESCs, ES Cells, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, HSC, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, iPSCs, Luciferases, Firefly, Immunotherapy, Immunotherapy, Adoptive, stem cells, differentiation, NK cells, in vivo imaging, fluorescent imaging, turboFP650, FACS, cell culture
Derivation and Characterization of a Transgene-free Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line and Conversion into Defined Clinical-grade Conditions
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be generated with lentiviral-based reprogramming methodologies. However, traces of potentially oncogenic genes remaining in actively transcribed regions of the genome, limit their potential for use in human therapeutic applications1
. Additionally, non-human antigens derived from stem cell reprogramming or differentiation into therapeutically relevant derivatives preclude these hiPSCs from being used in a human clinical context2
. In this video, we present a procedure for reprogramming and analyzing factor-free hiPSCs free of exogenous transgenes. These hiPSCs then can be analyzed for gene expression abnormalities in the specific intron containing the lentivirus. This analysis may be conducted using sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which has an advantage over less sensitive techniques previously used to detect gene expression differences3
. Full conversion into clinical-grade good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, allows human clinical relevance. Our protocol offers another methodology—provided that current safe-harbor criteria will expand and include factor-free characterized hiPSC-based derivatives for human therapeutic applications—for deriving GMP-grade hiPSCs, which should eliminate any immunogenicity risk due to non-human antigens. This protocol is broadly applicable to lentiviral reprogrammed cells of any type and provides a reproducible method for converting reprogrammed cells into GMP-grade conditions.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 93, Human induced pluripotent stem cells, STEMCCA, factor-free, GMP, xeno-free, quantitative PCR
A cGMP-applicable Expansion Method for Aggregates of Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells or Fetal Brain Tissue
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as “chopping” that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.
Neuroscience, Issue 88, neural progenitor cell, neural precursor cell, neural stem cell, passaging, neurosphere, chopping, stem cell, neuroscience, suspension culture, good manufacturing practice, GMP
Enrichment and Purging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Detection of Cell Surface Antigens Using the Monoclonal Antibodies TG30 and GCTM-2
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can self-renew indefinitely in vitro
, and with the appropriate cues can be induced to differentiate into potentially all somatic cell lineages. Differentiated hESC derivatives can potentially be used in transplantation therapies to treat a variety of cell-degenerative diseases. However, hESC differentiation protocols usually yield a mixture of differentiated target and off-target cell types as well as residual undifferentiated cells. For the translation of differentiated hESC-derivatives from the laboratory to the clinic, it is important to be able to discriminate between undifferentiated (pluripotent) and differentiated cells, and generate methods to separate these populations. Safe application of hESC-derived somatic cell types can only be accomplished with pluripotent stem cell-free populations, as residual hESCs could induce tumors known as teratomas following transplantation. Towards this end, here we describe a methodology to detect pluripotency associated cell surface antigens with the monoclonal antibodies TG30 (CD9) and GCTM-2 via fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) for the identification of pluripotent TG30Hi
hESCs using positive selection. Using negative selection with our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS methodology, we were able to detect and purge undifferentiated hESCs in populations undergoing very early-stage differentiation (TG30Neg
). In a further study, pluripotent stem cell-free samples of differentiated TG30Neg
cells selected using our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS protocol did not form teratomas once transplanted into immune-compromised mice, supporting the robustness of our protocol. On the other hand, TG30/GCTM-2 FACS-mediated consecutive passaging of enriched pluripotent TG30Hi
hESCs did not affect their ability to self-renew in vitro
or their intrinsic pluripotency. Therefore, the characteristics of our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS methodology provide a sensitive assay to obtain highly enriched populations of hPSC as inputs for differentiation assays and to rid potentially tumorigenic (or residual) hESC from derivative cell populations.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 82, Stem cells, cell surface antigens, antibodies, FACS, purging stem cells, differentiation, pluripotency, teratoma, human embryonic stem cells (hESC)
Rapid and Efficient Generation of Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Multititre Plate Format
Institutions: Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, University of Münster.
Existing protocols for the generation of neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are often tedious in that they are multistep procedures involving the isolation and expansion of neural precursor cells, prior to terminal differentiation. In comparison to these time-consuming approaches, we have recently found that combined inhibition of three signaling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, promotes rapid induction of neuroectoderm from hPSCs, followed by immediate differentiation into functional neurons. Here, we have adapted our procedure to a novel multititre plate format, to further enhance its reproducibility and to make it compatible with mid-throughput applications. It comprises four days of neuroectoderm formation in floating spheres (embryoid bodies), followed by a further four days of differentiation into neurons under adherent conditions. Most cells obtained with this protocol appear to be bipolar sensory neurons. Moreover, the procedure is highly efficient, does not require particular expert skills, and is based on a simple chemically defined medium with cost-efficient small molecules. Due to these features, the procedure may serve as a useful platform for further functional investigation as well as for cell-based screening approaches requiring human sensory neurons or neurons of any type.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 73, Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Bioengineering, Physiology, Genetics, Molecular Biomedicine, human pluripotent stem cells, hPSC, neuronal differentiation, neuroectoderm, embryoid bodies, chemically defined conditions, stem cells, neurons, signalling pathways, mid-throughput, PCR, multititre, cell culture
High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
Alternative Cultures for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Production, Maintenance, and Genetic Analysis
Institutions: National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Health.
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine and biopharmaceutical applications. Currently, optimal culture and efficient expansion of large amounts of clinical-grade hPSCs are critical issues in hPSC-based therapies. Conventionally, hPSCs are propagated as colonies on both feeder and feeder-free culture systems. However, these methods have several major limitations, including low cell yields and generation of heterogeneously differentiated cells. To improve current hPSC culture methods, we have recently developed a new method, which is based on non-colony type monolayer (NCM) culture of dissociated single cells. Here, we present detailed NCM protocols based on the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632. We also provide new information regarding NCM culture with different small molecules such as Y-39983 (ROCK I inhibitor), phenylbenzodioxane (ROCK II inhibitor), and thiazovivin (a novel ROCK inhibitor). We further extend our basic protocol to cultivate hPSCs on defined extracellular proteins such as the laminin isoform 521 (LN-521) without the use of ROCK inhibitors. Moreover, based on NCM, we have demonstrated efficient transfection or transduction of plasmid DNAs, lentiviral particles, and oligonucleotide-based microRNAs into hPSCs in order to genetically modify these cells for molecular analyses and drug discovery. The NCM-based methods overcome the major shortcomings of colony-type culture, and thus may be suitable for producing large amounts of homogeneous hPSCs for future clinical therapies, stem cell research, and drug discovery.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 89, Pluripotent stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, cell culture, non-colony type monolayer, single cell, plating efficiency, Rho-associated kinase, Y-27632, transfection, transduction
From MEFs to Matrigel I: Passaging hESCs in the Presence of MEFs
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles.
This video demonstrates how to grow human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 16, human embryonic stem cell (hESC), mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF), matrigel, conditioned-media, feeder cell, pluripotency
Propagation of Human Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells
Institutions: MGH - Massachusetts General Hospital.
Cellular Biology, Issue 1, ES, embryonic stem cells, tissue culture
Passaging HuES Human Embryonic Stem Cell-lines with Trypsin
In this video we demonstrate how our lab routinely passages HuES human embryonic stem cell lines with trypsin. Human embryonic stem cells are artifacts of cell culture, and tend to acquire karyotypic abnormalities with high population doublings. Proper passaging is essential for maintaining a healthy, undifferentiated, karyotypically normal HuES human embryonic stem cell culture. First, an expanding culture is washed in PBS to remove residual media and cell debris, then cells are overlaid with a minimal volume of warm 0.05% Trypsin-EDTA. Trypsin is left on the cells for up to five minutes, then cells are gently dislodged with a 2mL serological pipette. The cell suspension is collected and mixed with a large volume of HuES media, then cells are collected by gentle centrifugation. The inactivated trypsin media mixture is removed, and cells resuspended in pre-warmed HuES media. An appropriate split ratio is calculated (generally 1:10 to 1:20), and cells re-plated onto a 1-2 day old plate containing a monolayer of irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells. The newly seeded HuES culture plate is left undisturbed for 48 hrs, then media is changed every day thereafter. It is important not to trpsinize down to a single cell suspension, as this increases the risk of introducing karyotypic abnormalities.
Cellular Biology, Issue 1, embryonic stem cells, ES, tissue culture
Analysis of Pluripotent Stem Cells by using Cryosections of Embryoid Bodies
Institutions: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil.
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage early mammalian embryos 1
. A crucial stage in the differentiation of ES cells is the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) aggregates 2, 3
. EB formation is based on spontaneous aggregation when ES cells are cultured in non adherent plates. Three-dimensional EB recapitulates many aspects of early mammalian embryogenesis and differentiate into the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm 4
Immunofluorescence and in situ
hybridization are widely used techniques for the detection of target proteins and mRNA present in cells of a tissue section 5, 6, 7
. Here we present a simple technique to generate high quality cryosections of embryoid bodies. This approach relies on the spatial orientation of EB embedding in OCT followed by the cryosection technique. The resulting sections can be subjected to a wide variety of analytical procedures in order to characterize populations of cells containing certain proteins, RNA or DNA. In this sense, the preparation of EB cryosections (10μm) are essential tools for histology staining analysis (e.g. Hematoxilin and Eosin, DAPI), immunofluorescence (e.g. Oct4, nestin) or in situ
hybridization. This technique can also help to understand aspects of embryogenesis with regards to the maintenance of the tri-dimensional spherical structure of EBs.
Developmental Biology, Issue 46, Embryonic stem cells, embryoid body, cryosections, immunochytochemistry, H9
Trypsinizing and Subculturing Mammalian Cells
Institutions: Molecular Pathology Laboratory Network, Inc.
As cells reach confluency, they must be subcultured or passaged. Failure to subculture confluent cells results in reduced mitotic index and eventually in cell death. The first step in subculturing is to detach cells from the surface of the primary culture vessel by trypsinization or mechanical means. The resultant cell suspension is then subdivided, or reseeded, into fresh cultures. Secondary cultures are checked for growth and fed periodically, and may be subsequently subcultured to produce tertiary cultures. The time between passaging of cells varies with the cell line and depends on the growth rate.
Basic Protocols, Issue 16, Current Protocols Wiley, Cell Culture, Cell Passaging, Trypsinizing Cells, Adherent Cells, Suspension Cells
In vitro Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem (mES) Cells Using the Hanging Drop Method
Institutions: Stanford University .
Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, This promising of science is leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease.
When culture in suspension without antidifferentiation factors, embryonic stem cells spontaneously differentiate and form three-dimensional multicellular aggregates. These cell aggregates are called embryoid bodies(EB). Hanging drop culture is a widely used EB formation induction method. The rounded bottom of hanging drop allows the aggregation of ES cells which can provide mES cells a good environment for forming EBs. The number of ES cells aggregatied in a hanging drop can be controlled by varying the number of cells in the initial cell suspension to be hung as a drop from the lid of Petri dish. Using this method we can reproducibly form homogeneous EBs from a predetermined number of ES cells.
Cell Biology, Issue 17, Embryonic stem cell, hanging drop, embryoid body, cardiomyocyte