Endovascular aneurysm exclusion is a validated technique to prevent aneurysm rupture. Long-term results highlight technique limitations and new aspects of Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathophysiology. There is no abdominal aortic aneurysm endograft exclusion model cheap and reproducible, which would allow deep investigations of AAA before and after treatment. We hereby describe how to induce, and then to exclude with a covered coronary stentgraft an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat. The well known elastase induced AAA model was first reported in 19901 in a rat, then described in mice2. Elastin degradation leads to dilation of the aorta with inflammatory infiltration of the abdominal wall and intra luminal thrombus, matching with human AAA. Endovascular exclusion with small covered stentgraft is then performed, excluding any interactions between circulating blood and the aneurysm thrombus. Appropriate exclusion and stentgraft patency is confirmed before euthanasia by an angiography thought the left carotid artery. Partial control of elastase diffusion makes aneurysm shape different for each animal. It is difficult to create an aneurysm, which will allow an appropriate length of aorta below the aneurysm for an easy stentgraft introduction, and with adequate proximal and distal neck to prevent endoleaks. Lots of failure can result to stentgraft introduction which sometimes lead to aorta tear with pain and troubles to stitch it, and endothelial damage with post op aorta thrombosis. Giving aspirin to rats before stentgraft implantation decreases failure rate without major hemorrhage. Clamping time activates neutrophils, endothelium and platelets, and may interfere with biological analysis.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Isolation and Excision of Murine Aorta; A Versatile Technique in the Study of Cardiovascular Disease
Institutions: University of Cincinnati College of Medicine.
Cardiovascular disease is a broad term describing disease of the heart and/or blood vessels. The main blood vessel supplying the body with oxygenated blood is the aorta. The aorta may become affected in diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm. Researchers investigating these diseases would benefit from direct observation of the aorta to characterize disease progression as well as to evaluate efficacy of potential therapeutics. The goal of this protocol is to describe proper isolation and excision of the aorta to aid investigators researching cardiovascular disease. Isolation and excision of the aorta allows investigators to look at gross morphometric changes as wells as allowing them to preserve and stain the tissue to look at histologic changes if desired. The aorta may be used for molecular studies to evaluate protein and gene expression to discover targets of interest and mechanisms of action. This technique is superior to imaging modalities as they have inherent limitations in technology and cost. Additionally, primary isolated cells from a freshly isolated and excised aorta can allowing researchers to perform further in situ
and in vitro
assays. The isolation and excision of the aorta has the limitation of having to sacrifice the animal however, in this case the benefits outweigh the harm as it is the most versatile technique in the study of aortic disease.
Medicine, Issue 93, Cardiovascular, aorta, murine, isolation, surgery, excision, anatomy
Design of a Cyclic Pressure Bioreactor for the Ex Vivo Study of Aortic Heart Valves
Institutions: Mississippi State University.
The aortic valve, located between the left ventricle and the aorta, allows for unidirectional blood flow, preventing backflow into the ventricle. Aortic valve leaflets are composed of interstitial cells suspended within an extracellular matrix (ECM) and are lined with an endothelial cell monolayer. The valve withstands a harsh, dynamic environment and is constantly exposed to shear, flexion, tension, and compression. Research has shown calcific lesions in diseased valves occur in areas of high mechanical stress as a result of endothelial disruption or interstitial matrix damage1-3
. Hence, it is not surprising that epidemiological studies have shown high blood pressure to be a leading risk factor in the onset of aortic valve disease4
The only treatment option currently available for valve disease is surgical replacement of the diseased valve with a bioprosthetic or mechanical valve5
. Improved understanding of valve biology in response to physical stresses would help elucidate the mechanisms of valve pathogenesis. In turn, this could help in the development of non-invasive therapies such as pharmaceutical intervention or prevention. Several bioreactors have been previously developed to study the mechanobiology of native or engineered heart valves6-9
. Pulsatile bioreactors have also been developed to study a range of tissues including cartilage10
. The aim of this work was to develop a cyclic pressure system that could be used to elucidate the biological response of aortic valve leaflets to increased pressure loads.
The system consisted of an acrylic chamber in which to place samples and produce cyclic pressure, viton diaphragm solenoid valves to control the timing of the pressure cycle, and a computer to control electrical devices. The pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer, and the signal was conditioned using a load cell conditioner. A LabVIEW program regulated the pressure using an analog device to pump compressed air into the system at the appropriate rate. The system mimicked the dynamic transvalvular pressure levels associated with the aortic valve; a saw tooth wave produced a gradual increase in pressure, typical of the transvalvular pressure gradient that is present across the valve during diastole, followed by a sharp pressure drop depicting valve opening in systole. The LabVIEW program allowed users to control the magnitude and frequency of cyclic pressure. The system was able to subject tissue samples to physiological and pathological pressure conditions. This device can be used to increase our understanding of how heart valves respond to changes in the local mechanical environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 54, Mechanobiology, Bioreactor, Aortic Heart Valve, Organ Culture
Orthotopic Aortic Transplantation: A Rat Model to Study the Development of Chronic Vasculopathy
Institutions: University Hospital Hamburg, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Research models of chronic rejection are essential to investigate pathobiological and pathophysiological processes during the development of transplant vasculopathy (TVP).
The commonly used animal model for cardiovascular chronic rejection studies is the heterotopic heart transplant model performed in laboratory rodents. This model is used widely in experiments since Ono and Lindsey (3) published their technique. To analyze the findings in the blood vessels, the heart has to be sectioned and all vessels have to be measured.
Another method to investigate chronic rejection in cardiovascular questionings is the aortic transplant model (1, 2). In the orthotopic aortic transplant model, the aorta can easily be histologically evaluated (2). The PVG-to-ACI model is especially useful for CAV studies, since acute vascular rejection is not a major confounding factor and Cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment does not prevent the development of CAV, similar to what we find in the clinical setting (4). A7-day period of CsA is required in this model to prevent acute rejection and to achieve long-term survival with the development of TVP.
This model can also be used to investigate acute cellular rejection and media necrosis in xenogeneic models (5).
Medicine, Issue 46, chronic rejection, transplantation, rat, transplant vasculopathy
Quantification of Atherosclerotic Plaque Activity and Vascular Inflammation using [18-F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT)
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine.
Conventional non-invasive imaging modalities of atherosclerosis such as coronary artery calcium (CAC)1
and carotid intimal medial thickness (C-IMT)2
provide information about the burden of disease. However, despite multiple validation studies of CAC3-5
, and C-IMT2,6
, these modalities do not accurately assess plaque characteristics7,8
, and the composition and inflammatory state of the plaque determine its stability and, therefore, the risk of clinical events9-13
F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) imaging using positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been extensively studied in oncologic metabolism14,15
. Studies using animal models and immunohistochemistry in humans show that FDG-PET/CT is exquisitely sensitive for detecting macrophage activity16
, an important source of cellular inflammation in vessel walls. More recently, we17,18
and others have shown that FDG-PET/CT enables highly precise, novel measurements of inflammatory activity of activity of atherosclerotic plaques in large and medium-sized arteries9,16,19,20
. FDG-PET/CT studies have many advantages over other imaging modalities: 1) high contrast resolution; 2) quantification of plaque volume and metabolic activity allowing for multi-modal atherosclerotic plaque quantification; 3) dynamic, real-time, in vivo
imaging; 4) minimal operator dependence. Finally, vascular inflammation detected by FDG-PET/CT has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors21,22
and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis23
. Plaque activity by FDG-PET/CT is modulated by known beneficial CV interventions such as short term (12 week) statin therapy24
as well as longer term therapeutic lifestyle changes (16 months)25
The current methodology for quantification of FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaque involves measurement of the standardized uptake value (SUV) of an artery of interest and of the venous blood pool in order to calculate a target to background ratio (TBR), which is calculated by dividing the arterial SUV by the venous blood pool SUV. This method has shown to represent a stable, reproducible phenotype over time, has a high sensitivity for detection of vascular inflammation, and also has high inter-and intra-reader reliability26
. Here we present our methodology for patient preparation, image acquisition, and quantification of atherosclerotic plaque activity and vascular inflammation using SUV, TBR, and a global parameter called the metabolic volumetric product (MVP). These approaches may be applied to assess vascular inflammation in various study samples of interest in a consistent fashion as we have shown in several prior publications.9,20,27,28
Medicine, Issue 63, FDG-PET/CT, atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation, quantitative radiology, imaging
Flow Cytometry Analysis of Immune Cells Within Murine Aortas
Institutions: Eastern Virginia Medical School, LaJolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process of medium and large size vessels that is characterized by the formation of plaques consisting of foam cells, immune cells, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, platelets, extracellular matrix, and a lipid-rich core with extensive necrosis and fibrosis of surrounding tissues.1
The innate and adaptive arms of the immune response are involved in the initiation, development and persistence of atherosclerosis.2, 3
There is a significant body of evidence that different subsets of the immune cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes, are present within the aortas of healthy and atherosclerosis-prone mice4
. Additionally, immune cells are found in the surrounding aortic adventitia which suggests an important role of this tissue in atherogenesis.2
For some time, the quantitative detection of different types of immune cells, their activation status, and the cellular composition within the aortic wall was limited by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for the study of atherosclerosis. Few attempts were made to perform flow cytometry using human aortas, and a number of problems, such as a high autofluorescence, have been reported5,6
. Human atherosclerotic plaques were digested with collagenase 1, and free cells were collected and stained for CD14+/CD11c+ to highlight macrophage-derived foam cells. In this study, a "mock" channel was used to avoid false-positive staining.6
Necrotic materials accumulating during the digestion process give rise in a large amount of debris that generates a high autofluorescence in aortic samples. To resolve this problem, a panel of negative and positive controls has been proposed, but only double staining could be applied in these samples. We have developed a new flow cytometry-based method7
to analyze the immune cell composition and characterize the activation, proliferation, differentiation of immune cells in healthy and atherosclerosis-prone aorta. This method allows the investigation of the immune cell composition of the aortic wall and opens possibilities to use a broad spectrum of immunological methods for investigations of immune aspects of this disease.
Immunology, Issue 53, atherosclerosis, immune response, leukocytes, adventitia, flow cytometry
Reproducable Paraplegia by Thoracic Aortic Occlusion in a Murine Model of Spinal Cord Ischemia-reperfusion
Institutions: University of Colorado, University of Colorado.
Lower extremity paralysis continues to complicate aortic interventions. The lack of understanding of the underlying pathology has hindered advancements to decrease the occurrence this injury. The current model demonstrates reproducible lower extremity paralysis following thoracic aortic occlusion.
Adult male C57BL6 mice were anesthetized with isoflurane. Through a cervicosternal incision the aorta was exposed. The descending thoracic aorta and left subclavian arteries were identified without entrance into pleural space. Skeletonization of these arteries was followed by immediate closure (Sham) or occlusion for 4 min (moderate ischemia) or 8 min (prolonged ischemia). The sternotomy and skin were closed and the mouse was transferred to warming bed for recovery. Following recovery, functional analysis was obtained at 12 hr intervals until 48 hr.
Mice that underwent sham surgery showed no observable hind limb deficit. Mice subjected to moderate ischemia for 4 min had minimal functional deficit at 12 hr followed by progression to complete paralysis at 48 hr. Mice subjected to prolonged ischemia had an immediate paralysis with no observable hind-limb movement at any point in the postoperative period. There was no observed intraoperative or post operative mortality.
Reproducible lower extremity paralysis whether immediate or delayed can be achieved in a murine model. Additionally, by using a median sternotomy and careful dissection, high survival rates, and reproducibility can be achieved.
Medicine, Issue 85, Spinal cord injury, thoracic aorta, paraplegia, Ischemia, reperfusion, murine model
Mechanical Testing of Mouse Carotid Arteries: from Newborn to Adult
Institutions: Saint Louis University.
The large conducting arteries in vertebrates are composed of a specialized extracellular matrix designed to provide pulse dampening and reduce the work performed by the heart. The mix of matrix proteins determines the passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall1
. When the matrix proteins are altered in development, aging, disease or injury, the arterial wall remodels, changing the mechanical properties and leading to subsequent cardiac adaptation2
. In normal development, the remodeling leads to a functional cardiac and cardiovascular system optimized for the needs of the adult organism. In disease, the remodeling often leads to a negative feedback cycle that can cause cardiac failure and death. By quantifying passive arterial mechanical properties in development and disease, we can begin to understand the normal remodeling process to recreate it in tissue engineering and the pathological remodeling process to test disease treatments.
Mice are useful models for studying passive arterial mechanics in development and disease. They have a relatively short lifespan (mature adults by 3 months and aged adults by 2 years), so developmental3
and aging studies4
can be carried out over a limited time course. The advances in mouse genetics provide numerous genotypes and phenotypes to study changes in arterial mechanics with disease progression5
and disease treatment6
. Mice can also be manipulated experimentally to study the effects of changes in hemodynamic parameters on the arterial remodeling process7
. One drawback of the mouse model, especially for examining young ages, is the size of the arteries.
We describe a method for passive mechanical testing of carotid arteries from mice aged 3 days to adult (approximately 90 days). We adapt a commercial myograph system to mount the arteries and perform multiple pressure or axial stretch protocols on each specimen. We discuss suitable protocols for each age, the necessary measurements and provide example data. We also include data analysis strategies for rigorous mechanical characterization of the arteries.
Bioengineering, Issue 60, blood vessel, artery, mechanics, pressure, diameter, postnatal development
Non-chromatographic Purification of Recombinant Elastin-like Polypeptides and their Fusions with Peptides and Proteins from Escherichia coli
Institutions: Duke University, Duke University.
Elastin-like polypeptides are repetitive biopolymers that exhibit a lower critical solution temperature phase transition behavior, existing as soluble unimers below a characteristic transition temperature and aggregating into micron-scale coacervates above their transition temperature. The design of elastin-like polypeptides at the genetic level permits precise control of their sequence and length, which dictates their thermal properties. Elastin-like polypeptides are used in a variety of applications including biosensing, tissue engineering, and drug delivery, where the transition temperature and biopolymer architecture of the ELP can be tuned for the specific application of interest. Furthermore, the lower critical solution temperature phase transition behavior of elastin-like polypeptides allows their purification by their thermal response, such that their selective coacervation and resolubilization allows the removal of both soluble and insoluble contaminants following expression in Escherichia coli
. This approach can be used for the purification of elastin-like polypeptides alone or as a purification tool for peptide or protein fusions where recombinant peptides or proteins genetically appended to elastin-like polypeptide tags can be purified without chromatography. This protocol describes the purification of elastin-like polypeptides and their peptide or protein fusions and discusses basic characterization techniques to assess the thermal behavior of pure elastin-like polypeptide products.
Molecular Biology, Issue 88, elastin-like polypeptides, lower critical solution temperature, phase separation, inverse transition cycling, protein purification, batch purification
Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo
protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo
protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity.
To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (http://www.proteinwisdom.org), a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
Creation of Murine Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with Elastase
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Transient intraluminal infusion of porcine pancreatic elastase into the infrarenal segment of the abdominal aorta is the most widely used animal model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ever since it was first described in rats by Anidjar and colleagues.1
The rationale for its development was based on the disrupted nature of elastin observed in AAAs. This rat model has been modified to produce AAAs in the infrarenal aortic region of mice.2
The model has the ability to add broad insight into the pathobiology of AAA due to the emergence of numerous transgenic and gene knockout mice. Moreover, it is a viable platform to test potential therapeutic agents for AAA. In this video, we demonstrate the elastase infusion AAA procedure used in our laboratory.
Mice are anesthetized using 2.5% isoflurane, and a laparotomy is performed under sterile conditions. The abdominal aortais isolated with the assistance of an operating stereomicroscope (Leica). After placing temporary ligatures around the proximal and distal aorta, an aortotomy is created at the bifurcation with the tip of a 30-gauge needle. A heat-tapered segment of PE-10 polyethylene tubing is introduced through the aortotomy and secured. The aortic lumen is subsequently perfused for 5-15 minutes at 100 mm Hg with saline containing type I porcine pancreatic elastase (4.5 U/mL; Sigma Chemical Co.). After removing the perfusion catheter, the aortotomy is repaired without constriction of the lumen.
Medicine, Issue 29, abdominal aortic aneurysm, AAA, mouse, elastase
Non-contact, Label-free Monitoring of Cells and Extracellular Matrix using Raman Spectroscopy
Institutions: Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Fraunhofer Institute of Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology (IGB) Stuttgart, Germany, University of Stuttgart, Germany, Julius-Maximillians University, Würzburg, Germany.
Non-destructive, non-contact and label-free technologies to monitor cell and tissue cultures are needed in the field of biomedical research.1-5
However, currently available routine methods require processing steps and alter sample integrity. Raman spectroscopy is a fast method that enables the measurement of biological samples without the need for further processing steps. This laser-based technology detects the inelastic scattering of monochromatic light.6
As every chemical vibration is assigned to a specific Raman band (wavenumber in cm-1
), each biological sample features a typical spectral pattern due to their inherent biochemical composition.7-9
Within Raman spectra, the peak intensities correlate with the amount of the present molecular bonds.1
Similarities and differences of the spectral data sets can be detected by employing a multivariate analysis (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA)).10
Here, we perform Raman spectroscopy of living cells and native tissues. Cells are either seeded on glass bottom dishes or kept in suspension under normal cell culture conditions (37 °C, 5% CO2
) before measurement. Native tissues are dissected and stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 4 °C prior measurements. Depending on our experimental set up, we then either focused on the cell nucleus or extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as elastin and collagen. For all studies, a minimum of 30 cells or 30 random points of interest within the ECM are measured. Data processing steps included background subtraction and normalization.
Bioengineering, Issue 63, Raman spectroscopy, label-free analysis, living cells, extracellular matrix, tissue engineering
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Measuring Ascending Aortic Stiffness In Vivo in Mice Using Ultrasound
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University, Macquarie University.
We present a protocol for measuring in vivo
aortic stiffness in mice using high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Aortic diameter is measured by ultrasound and aortic blood pressure is measured invasively with a solid-state pressure catheter. Blood pressure is raised then lowered incrementally by intravenous infusion of vasoactive drugs phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Aortic diameter is measured for each pressure step to characterize the pressure-diameter relationship of the ascending aorta. Stiffness indices derived from the pressure-diameter relationship can be calculated from the data collected. Calculation of arterial compliance is described in this protocol.
This technique can be used to investigate mechanisms underlying increased aortic stiffness associated with cardiovascular disease and aging. The technique produces a physiologically relevant measure of stiffness compared to ex vivo
approaches because physiological influences on aortic stiffness are incorporated in the measurement. The primary limitation of this technique is the measurement error introduced from the movement of the aorta during the cardiac cycle. This motion can be compensated by adjusting the location of the probe with the aortic movement as well as making multiple measurements of the aortic pressure-diameter relationship and expanding the experimental group size.
Medicine, Issue 94, Aortic stiffness, ultrasound, in vivo, aortic compliance, elastic modulus, mouse model, cardiovascular disease
Quantitative Analysis and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Murine Aortic Sinus
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University.
Atherosclerosis is a disease of the large arteries and a major underlying cause of myocardial infarction and stroke. Several different mouse models have been developed to facilitate the study of the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of this disease. In this manuscript we describe specific techniques for the quantification and characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in the murine aortic sinus and ascending aorta. The advantage of this procedure is that it provides an accurate measurement of the cross-sectional area and total volume of the lesion, which can be used to compare atherosclerotic progression across different treatment groups. This is possible through the use of the valve leaflets as an anatomical landmark, together with careful adjustment of the sectioning angle. We also describe basic staining methods that can be used to begin to characterize atherosclerotic progression. These can be further modified to investigate antigens of specific interest to the researcher. The described techniques are generally applicable to a wide variety of existing and newly created dietary and genetically-induced models of atherogenesis.
Medicine, Issue 82, atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic lesion, Mouse Model, aortic sinus, tissue preparation and sectioning, Immunohistochemistry
A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites
Institutions: Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine.
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation.
Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis
, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis
accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccination and pharmacological intervention.
Immunology, Issue 90,
Pathogen-Induced Chronic Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Oral Bone Loss; Periodontal Disease; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Host-Pathogen Interaction; microCT; MRI
A Novel Stretching Platform for Applications in Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology
Institutions: University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa, University of Calgary, University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa.
Tools that allow the application of mechanical forces to cells and tissues or that can quantify the mechanical properties of biological tissues have contributed dramatically to the understanding of basic mechanobiology. These techniques have been extensively used to demonstrate how the onset and progression of various diseases are heavily influenced by mechanical cues. This article presents a multi-functional biaxial stretching (BAXS) platform that can either mechanically stimulate single cells or quantify the mechanical stiffness of tissues. The BAXS platform consists of four voice coil motors that can be controlled independently. Single cells can be cultured on a flexible substrate that can be attached to the motors allowing one to expose the cells to complex, dynamic, and spatially varying strain fields. Conversely, by incorporating a force load cell, one can also quantify the mechanical properties of primary tissues as they are exposed to deformation cycles. In both cases, a proper set of clamps must be designed and mounted to the BAXS platform motors in order to firmly hold the flexible substrate or the tissue of interest. The BAXS platform can be mounted on an inverted microscope to perform simultaneous transmitted light and/or fluorescence imaging to examine the structural or biochemical response of the sample during stretching experiments. This article provides experimental details of the design and usage of the BAXS platform and presents results for single cell and whole tissue studies. The BAXS platform was used to measure the deformation of nuclei in single mouse myoblast cells in response to substrate strain and to measure the stiffness of isolated mouse aortas. The BAXS platform is a versatile tool that can be combined with various optical microscopies in order to provide novel mechanobiological insights at the sub-cellular, cellular and whole tissue levels.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, cell stretching, tissue mechanics, nuclear mechanics, uniaxial, biaxial, anisotropic, mechanobiology
Measuring Left Ventricular Pressure in Late Embryonic and Neonatal Mice
Institutions: Saint Louis University, Washington University School of Medicine.
Blood pressure increases significantly during embryonic and postnatal development in vertebrate animals. In the mouse, blood flow is first detectable around embryonic day (E) 8.51
. Systolic left ventricular (LV) pressure is 2 mmHg at E9.5 and 11 mmHg at E14.52
. At these mid-embryonic stages, the LV is clearly visible through the chest wall for invasive pressure measurements because the ribs and skin are not fully developed. Between E14.5 and birth (approximately E21) imaging methods must be used to view the LV. After birth, mean arterial pressure increases from 30 - 70 mmHg from postnatal day (P) 2 - 353
. Beyond P20, arterial pressure can be measured with solid-state catheters (i.e. Millar or Scisense). Before P20, these catheters are too big for developing mouse arteries and arterial pressure must be measured with custom pulled plastic catheters attached to fluid-filled pressure transducers3
or glass micropipettes attached to servo null pressure transducers4
Our recent work has shown that the greatest increase in blood pressure occurs during the late embryonic to early postnatal period in mice5-7
. This large increase in blood pressure may influence smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype in developing arteries and trigger important mechanotransduction events. In human disease, where the mechanical properties of developing arteries are compromised by defects in extracellular matrix proteins (i.e. Marfan's Syndrome8
and Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis9
) the rapid changes in blood pressure during this period may contribute to disease phenotype and severity through alterations in mechanotransduction signals. Therefore, it is important to be able to measure blood pressure changes during late embryonic and neonatal periods in mouse models of human disease.
We describe a method for measuring LV pressure in late embryonic (E18) and early postnatal (P1 - 20) mice. A needle attached to a fluid-filled pressure transducer is inserted into the LV under ultrasound guidance. Care is taken to maintain normal cardiac function during the experimental protocol, especially for the embryonic mice. Representative data are presented and limitations of the protocol are discussed.
Bioengineering, Issue 60, systolic, diastolic, pulse, heart, artery, postnatal development
Isolation and Functional Characterization of Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes from Fresh Surgical Samples
Institutions: University of Florence, University of Florence.
Cardiomyocytes from diseased hearts are subjected to complex remodeling processes involving changes in cell structure, excitation contraction coupling and membrane ion currents. Those changes are likely to be responsible for the increased arrhythmogenic risk and the contractile alterations leading to systolic and diastolic dysfunction in cardiac patients. However, most information on the alterations of myocyte function in cardiac diseases has come from animal models.
Here we describe and validate a protocol to isolate viable myocytes from small surgical samples of ventricular myocardium from patients undergoing cardiac surgery operations. The protocol is described in detail. Electrophysiological and intracellular calcium measurements are reported to demonstrate the feasibility of a number of single cell measurements in human ventricular cardiomyocytes obtained with this method.
The protocol reported here can be useful for future investigations of the cellular and molecular basis of functional alterations of the human heart in the presence of different cardiac diseases. Further, this method can be used to identify novel therapeutic targets at cellular level and to test the effectiveness of new compounds on human cardiomyocytes, with direct translational value.
Medicine, Issue 86, cardiology, cardiac cells, electrophysiology, excitation-contraction coupling, action potential, calcium, myocardium, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac patients, cardiac disease
Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+
release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90,
zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
Assessment of Vascular Function in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
Institutions: University of Colorado, Denver, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to the general population, and this is only partially explained by traditional CVD risk factors. Vascular dysfunction is an important non-traditional risk factor, characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction (most commonly assessed as impaired endothelium-dependent dilation [EDD]) and stiffening of the large elastic arteries. While various techniques exist to assess EDD and large elastic artery stiffness, the most commonly used are brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMDBA
) and aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV), respectively. Both of these noninvasive measures of vascular dysfunction are independent predictors of future cardiovascular events in patients with and without kidney disease. Patients with CKD demonstrate both impaired FMDBA
, and increased aPWV. While the exact mechanisms by which vascular dysfunction develops in CKD are incompletely understood, increased oxidative stress and a subsequent reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are important contributors. Cellular changes in oxidative stress can be assessed by collecting vascular endothelial cells from the antecubital vein and measuring protein expression of markers of oxidative stress using immunofluorescence. We provide here a discussion of these methods to measure FMDBA
, aPWV, and vascular endothelial cell protein expression.
Medicine, Issue 88, chronic kidney disease, endothelial cells, flow-mediated dilation, immunofluorescence, oxidative stress, pulse-wave velocity
Aortic Ring Assay
Institutions: Ben-Gurion University.
Angiogenesis, the sprouting of blood vessels from preexisting vasculature is associated with both natural and pathological processes. Various angiogenesis assays involve the study of individual endothelial cells in culture conditions (1). The aortic ring assay is an angiogenesis model that is based on organ culture. In this assay, angiogenic vessels grow from a segment of the aorta (modified from (2)). Briefly, mouse thoracic aorta is excised, the fat layer and adventitia are removed, and rings approximately 1 mm in length are prepared. Individual rings are then embedded in a small solid dome of basement matrix extract (BME), cast inside individual wells of a 48-well plate. Angiogenic factors and inhibitors of angiogenesis can be directly added to the rings, and a mixed co-culture of aortic rings and other cell types can be employed for the study of paracrine angiogenic effects. Sprouting is observed by inspection under a stereomicroscope over a period of 6-12 days. Due to the large variation caused by the irregularities in the aortic segments, experimentation in 6-plicates is strongly advised. Neovessel outgrowth is monitored throughout the experiment and imaged using phase microscopy, and supernatants are collected for measurement of relevant angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, cell death markers and nitrite.
Medicine, Issue 33, aortic rings, angiogenesis, blood vessels, aorta, mouse, vessel outgrowth