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Albumin-like protein is the major protein constituent of luminal fluid in the human endolymphatic sac.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
The endolymphatic sac (ES) is an inner ear organ that is connected to the cochleo-vestibular system through the endolymphatic duct. The luminal fluid of the ES contains a much higher concentration of proteins than any other compartment of the inner ear. This high protein concentration likely contributes to inner ear fluid volume regulation by creating an osmotic gradient between the ES lumen and the interstitial fluid. We characterized the protein profile of the ES luminal fluid of patients (n?=?11) with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA) by proteomics. In addition, we investigated differences in the protein profiles between patients with recent hearing deterioration and patients without hearing deterioration. The mean total protein concentration of the luminal fluid was 554.7±94.6 mg/dl. A total of 58 out of 517 spots detected by 2-DE were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profile of the luminal fluid was different from the profile of plasma. Proteins identified from 29 of the spots were also present in the MARC-filtered human plasma; however, the proteins identified from the other 25 spots were not detected in the MARC-filtered human plasma. The most abundant protein in the luminal fluid was albumin-like proteins, but most of them were not detected in MARC-filtered human plasma. The concentration of albumin-like proteins was higher in samples from patients without recent hearing deterioration than in patients with recent hearing deterioration. Consequently, the protein of ES luminal fluid is likely to be originated from both the plasma and the inner ear and considering that inner ear fluid volumes increase abnormally in patients with EVA following recent hearing deterioration, it is tempting to speculate that albumin-like proteins may be involved in the regulation of inner ear fluid volume through creation of an osmotic gradient during pathological conditions such as endolymphatic hydrops.
Authors: Lancia N.F. Darville, Bernd H.A. Sokolowski.
Published: 03-07-2014
Proteomics is a commonly used approach that can provide insights into complex biological systems. The cochlear sensory epithelium contains receptors that transduce the mechanical energy of sound into an electro-chemical energy processed by the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several proteomic techniques have been developed to study the cochlear inner ear, such as two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), antibody microarray, and mass spectrometry (MS). MS is the most comprehensive and versatile tool in proteomics and in conjunction with separation methods can provide an in-depth proteome of biological samples. Separation methods combined with MS has the ability to enrich protein samples, detect low molecular weight and hydrophobic proteins, and identify low abundant proteins by reducing the proteome dynamic range. Different digestion strategies can be applied to whole lysate or to fractionated protein lysate to enhance peptide and protein sequence coverage. Utilization of different separation techniques, including strong cation exchange (SCX), reversed-phase (RP), and gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis (GELFrEE) can be applied to reduce sample complexity prior to MS analysis for protein identification.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
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Reconstitution Of β-catenin Degradation In Xenopus Egg Extract
Authors: Tony W. Chen, Matthew R. Broadus, Stacey S. Huppert, Ethan Lee.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
Xenopus laevis egg extract is a well-characterized, robust system for studying the biochemistry of diverse cellular processes. Xenopus egg extract has been used to study protein turnover in many cellular contexts, including the cell cycle and signal transduction pathways1-3. Herein, a method is described for isolating Xenopus egg extract that has been optimized to promote the degradation of the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin. Two different methods are described to assess β-catenin protein degradation in Xenopus egg extract. One method is visually informative ([35S]-radiolabeled proteins), while the other is more readily scaled for high-throughput assays (firefly luciferase-tagged fusion proteins). The techniques described can be used to, but are not limited to, assess β-catenin protein turnover and identify molecular components contributing to its turnover. Additionally, the ability to purify large volumes of homogenous Xenopus egg extract combined with the quantitative and facile readout of luciferase-tagged proteins allows this system to be easily adapted for high-throughput screening for modulators of β-catenin degradation.
Molecular Biology, Issue 88, Xenopus laevis, Xenopus egg extracts, protein degradation, radiolabel, luciferase, autoradiography, high-throughput screening
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Measurement of Cytosolic Ca2+ in Isolated Contractile Lymphatics
Authors: Flavia M. Souza-Smith, Kristine M. Kurtz, Jerome W. Breslin.
Institutions: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.
Lymphatic vessels comprise a multifunctional transport system that maintains fluid homeostasis, delivers lipids to the central circulation, and acts as a surveillance system for potentially harmful antigens, optimizing mucosal immunity and adaptive immune responses1. Lymph is formed from interstitial fluid that enters blind-ended initial lymphatics, and then is transported against a pressure gradient in larger collecting lymphatics. Each collecting lymphatic is made up of a series of segments called lymphangions, separated by bicuspid valves that prevent backflow. Each lymphangion possesses a contractile cycle that propels lymph against a pressure gradient toward the central circulation2. This phasic contractile pattern is analogous to the cardiac cycle, with systolic and diastolic phases, and with a lower contraction frequency4. In addition, lymphatic smooth muscle generates tone and displays myogenic constriction and dilation in response to increases and decreases in luminal pressure, respectively5. A hybrid of molecular mechanisms that support both the phasic and tonic contractility of lymphatics are thus proposed. Contraction of smooth muscle is generally regulated by the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) plus sensitivity to Ca2+, of the contractile elements in response to changes in the environment surrounding the cell6. [Ca2+]i is determined by the combination of the movement of Ca2+ through plasma membrane ligand or voltage gated Ca2+ channels and the release and uptake of Ca2+ from internal stores. Cytosolic Ca2+ binds to calmodulin and activates enzymes such as myosin light chain (MLC) kinase (MLCK), which in turn phosphorylates MLC leading to actin-myosin-mediated contraction8. However, the sensitivity of this pathway to Ca2+ can be regulated by the MLC phosphatase (MLCP)9. MLCP activity is regulated by Rho kinase (ROCK) and the myosin phosphatase inhibitor protein CPI-17. Here, we present a method to evaluate changes in [Ca2+]i over time in isolated, perfused lymphatics in order to study Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-sensitizing mechanisms of lymphatic smooth muscle contraction. Using isolated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics we studied stretch-induced changes in [Ca2+]i and contractile activity. The isolated lymphatic model offers the advantage that pressure, flow, and the chemical composition of the bath solution can be tightly controlled. [Ca2+]i was determined by loading lymphatics with the ratiometric, Ca2+-binding dye Fura-2. These studies will provide a new approach to the broader problem of studying the different molecular mechanisms that regulate phasic contractions versus tonic constriction in lymphatic smooth muscle.
Immunology, Issue 58, Mesenteric lymphatic vessels, lymphatic smooth muscle, lymphangion, calcium transient, Fura-2
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Gene Transfer to the Developing Mouse Inner Ear by In Vivo Electroporation
Authors: Lingyan Wang, Han Jiang, John V. Brigande.
Institutions: Oregon Health & Science University.
The mammalian inner ear has 6 distinct sensory epithelia: 3 cristae in the ampullae of the semicircular canals; maculae in the utricle and saccule; and the organ of Corti in the coiled cochlea. The cristae and maculae contain vestibular hair cells that transduce mechanical stimuli to subserve the special sense of balance, while auditory hair cells in the organ of Corti are the primary transducers for hearing 1. Cell fate specification in these sensory epithelia and morphogenesis of the semicircular canals and cochlea take place during the second week of gestation in the mouse and are largely completed before birth 2,3. Developmental studies of the mouse inner ear are routinely conducted by harvesting transgenic embryos at different embryonic or postnatal stages to gain insight into the molecular basis of cellular and/or morphological phenotypes 4,5. We hypothesize that gene transfer to the developing mouse inner ear in utero in the context of gain- and loss-of-function studies represents a complimentary approach to traditional mouse transgenesis for the interrogation of the genetic mechanisms underlying mammalian inner ear development6. The experimental paradigm to conduct gene misexpression studies in the developing mouse inner ear demonstrated here resolves into three general steps: 1) ventral laparotomy; 2) transuterine microinjection; and 3) in vivo electroporation. Ventral laparotomy is a mouse survival surgical technique that permits externalization of the uterus to gain experimental access to the implanted embryos7. Transuterine microinjection is the use of beveled, glass capillary micropipettes to introduce expression plasmid into the lumen of the otic vesicle or otocyst. In vivo electroporation is the application of square wave, direct current pulses to drive expression plasmid into progenitor cells8-10. We previously described this electroporation-based gene transfer technique and included detailed notes on each step of the protocol11. Mouse experimental embryological techniques can be difficult to learn from prose and still images alone. In the present work, we demonstrate the 3 steps in the gene transfer procedure. Most critically, we deploy digital video microscopy to show precisely how to: 1) identify embryo orientation in utero; 2) reorient embryos for targeting injections to the otocyst; 3) microinject DNA mixed with tracer dye solution into the otocyst at embryonic days 11.5 and 12.5; 4) electroporate the injected otocyst; and 5) label electroporated embryos for postnatal selection at birth. We provide representative examples of successfully transfected inner ears; a pictorial guide to the most common causes of otocyst mistargeting; discuss how to avoid common methodological errors; and present guidelines for writing an in utero gene transfer animal care protocol.
Neuroscience, Issue 64, Developmental Biology, Physiology, Genetics, Inner ear, otocyst, in vivo electroporation, ventral laparotomy, transuterine microinjection, video microscopy
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Mouse Embryonic Development in a Serum-free Whole Embryo Culture System
Authors: Vijay K. Kalaskar, James D. Lauderdale.
Institutions: University of Georgia, University of Georgia.
Mid-gestation stage mouse embryos were cultured utilizing a serum-free culture medium prepared from commercially available stem cell media supplements in an oxygenated rolling bottle culture system. Mouse embryos at E10.5 were carefully isolated from the uterus with intact yolk sac and in a process involving precise surgical maneuver the embryos were gently exteriorized from the yolk sac while maintaining the vascular continuity of the embryo with the yolk sac. Compared to embryos prepared with intact yolk sac or with the yolk sac removed, these embryos exhibited superior survival rate and developmental progression when cultured under similar conditions. We show that these mouse embryos, when cultured in a defined medium in an atmosphere of 95% O2 / 5% CO2 in a rolling bottle culture apparatus at 37 °​C for 16-40 hr, exhibit morphological growth and development comparable to the embryos developing in utero. We believe this method will be useful for investigators needing to utilize whole embryo culture to study signaling interactions important in embryonic organogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 85, mouse embryo, mid-gestation, serum-free, defined media, roller culture, organogenesis, development
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Selective Labelling of Cell-surface Proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor Minimal Dyes
Authors: Asa Hagner-McWhirter, Maria Winkvist, Stephanie Bourin, Rita Marouga.
Institutions: GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences AB.
Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.
Biochemistry, Issue 21, Cell surface protein labelling, Ettan DIGE, CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes, cell surface proteins, receptors, fluorescence, 2-D electrophoresis
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Investigating Outer Hair Cell Motility with a Combination of External Alternating Electrical Field Stimulation and High-speed Image Analysis
Authors: Rei Kitani, Federico Kalinec.
Institutions: House Ear Institute.
OHCs are cylindrical sensorimotor cells located in the Organ of Corti, the auditory organ inside the mammalian inner ear. The name "hair cells" derives from their characteristic apical bundle of stereocilia, a critical element for detection and transduction of sound energy 1. OHCs are able to change shape —elongate, shorten and bend— in response to electrical, mechanical and chemical stimulation, a motor response considered crucial for cochlear amplification of acoustic signals 2. OHC stimulation induces two different motile responses: i) electromotility, a.k.a fast motility, changes in length in the microsecond range derived from electrically-driven conformational changes in motor proteins densely packed in OHC plasma membrane, and ii) slow motility, shape changes in the millisecond to seconds range involving cytoskeletal reorganization 2, 3. OHC bending is associated with electromotility, and result either from an asymmetric distribution of motor proteins in the lateral plasma membrane, or asymmetric electrical stimulation of those motor proteins (e.g., with an electrical field perpendicular to the long axis of the cells) 4. Mechanical and chemical stimuli induce essentially slow motile responses, even though changes in the ionic conditions of the cells and/or their environment can also stimulate the plasma membrane-embedded motor proteins 5, 6. Since OHC motile responses are an essential component of the cochlear amplifier, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these motile responses at acoustic frequencies (roughly from 20 Hz to 20 kHz in humans) is a very important matter in the field of hearing research 7. The development of new imaging technology combining high-speed videocameras, LED-based illumination systems, and sophisticated image analysis software now provides the ability to perform reliable qualitative and quantitative studies of the motile response of isolated OHCs to an external alternating electrical field (EAEF) 8. This is a simple and non-invasive technique that circumvents most of the limitations of previous approaches 9-11. Moreover, the LED-based illumination system provides extreme brightness with insignificant thermal effects on the samples and, because of the use of video microscopy, optical resolution is at least 10-fold higher than with conventional light microscopy techniques 12. For instance, with the experimental setup described here, changes in cell length of about 20 nm can be routinely and reliably detected at frequencies of 10 kHz, and this resolution can be further improved at lower frequencies. We are confident that this experimental approach will help to extend our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying OHC motility.
Neuroscience, Issue 53, Outer Hair Cell, Electromotility, Slow Motility, External Alternating Electrical Field, High-speed Imaging Analysis, Cochlea
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Manual Drainage of the Zebrafish Embryonic Brain Ventricles
Authors: Jessica T. Chang, Hazel Sive.
Institutions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a protein rich fluid contained within the brain ventricles. It is present during early vertebrate embryonic development and persists throughout life. Adult CSF is thought to cushion the brain, remove waste, and carry secreted molecules1,2. In the adult and older embryo, the majority of CSF is made by the choroid plexus, a series of highly vascularized secretory regions located adjacent to the brain ventricles3-5. In zebrafish, the choroid plexus is fully formed at 144 hours post fertilization (hpf)6. Prior to this, in both zebrafish and other vertebrate embryos including mouse, a significant amount of embryonic CSF (eCSF) is present . These data and studies in chick suggest that the neuroepithelium is secretory early in development and may be the major source of eCSF prior to choroid plexus development7. eCSF contains about three times more protein than adult CSF, suggesting that it may have an important role during development8,9. Studies in chick and mouse demonstrate that secreted factors in the eCSF, fluid pressure, or a combination of these, are important for neurogenesis, gene expression, cell proliferation, and cell survival in the neuroepithelium10-20. Proteomic analyses of human, rat, mouse, and chick eCSF have identified many proteins that may be necessary for CSF function. These include extracellular matrix components, apolipoproteins, osmotic pressure regulating proteins, and proteins involved in cell death and proliferation21-24. However, the complex functions of the eCSF are largely unknown. We have developed a method for removing eCSF from zebrafish brain ventricles, thus allowing for identification of eCSF components and for analysis of the eCSF requirement during development. Although more eCSF can be collected from other vertebrate systems with larger embryos, eCSF can be collected from the earliest stages of zebrafish development, and under genetic or environmental conditions that lead to abnormal brain ventricle volume or morphology. Removal and collection of eCSF allows for mass spectrometric analysis, investigation of eCSF function, and reintroduction of select factors into the ventricles to assay their function. Thus the accessibility of the early zebrafish embryo allows for detailed analysis of eCSF function during development.
Neuroscience, Issue 70, Developmental Biology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Zebrafish, Danio rerio, eCSF, neuroepithelium, brain ventricular system, brain, microsurgery, animal model
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Dithranol as a Matrix for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging on a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer
Authors: Cuong H. Le, Jun Han, Christoph H. Borchers.
Institutions: University of Victoria, University of Victoria.
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) determines the spatial localization and distribution patterns of compounds on the surface of a tissue section, mainly using MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization)-based analytical techniques. New matrices for small-molecule MSI, which can improve the analysis of low-molecular weight (MW) compounds, are needed. These matrices should provide increased analyte signals while decreasing MALDI background signals. In addition, the use of ultrahigh-resolution instruments, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometers, has the ability to resolve analyte signals from matrix signals, and this can partially overcome many problems associated with the background originating from the MALDI matrix. The reduction in the intensities of the metastable matrix clusters by FTICR MS can also help to overcome some of the interferences associated with matrix peaks on other instruments. High-resolution instruments such as the FTICR mass spectrometers are advantageous as they can produce distribution patterns of many compounds simultaneously while still providing confidence in chemical identifications. Dithranol (DT; 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracen-9-one) has previously been reported as a MALDI matrix for tissue imaging. In this work, a protocol for the use of DT for MALDI imaging of endogenous lipids from the surfaces of mammalian tissue sections, by positive-ion MALDI-MS, on an ultrahigh-resolution hybrid quadrupole FTICR instrument has been provided.
Basic Protocol, Issue 81, eye, molecular imaging, chemistry technique, analytical, mass spectrometry, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), tandem mass spectrometry, lipid, tissue imaging, bovine lens, dithranol, matrix, FTICR (Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance)
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From a 2DE-Gel Spot to Protein Function: Lesson Learned From HS1 in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Authors: Benedetta Apollonio, Maria Teresa Sabrina Bertilaccio, Umberto Restuccia, Pamela Ranghetti, Federica Barbaglio, Paolo Ghia, Federico Caligaris-Cappio, Cristina Scielzo.
Institutions: IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, King's College London, IFOM, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele.
The identification of molecules involved in tumor initiation and progression is fundamental for understanding disease’s biology and, as a consequence, for the clinical management of patients. In the present work we will describe an optimized proteomic approach for the identification of molecules involved in the progression of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). In detail, leukemic cell lysates are resolved by 2-dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE) and visualized as “spots” on the 2DE gels. Comparative analysis of proteomic maps allows the identification of differentially expressed proteins (in terms of abundance and post-translational modifications) that are picked, isolated and identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS). The biological function of the identified candidates can be tested by different assays (i.e. migration, adhesion and F-actin polymerization), that we have optimized for primary leukemic cells.
Medicine, Issue 92, Lymphocytes, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, 2D Electrophoresis, Mass Spectrometry, Cytoskeleton, Migration
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Authors: Laura E. Brown, Celine Fuchs, Martin W. Nicholson, F. Anne Stephenson, Alex M. Thomson, Jasmina N. Jovanovic.
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA receptors (GABAARs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials. During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAARs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAAR subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAAR subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAARs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
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Improved Method for the Preparation of a Human Cell-based, Contact Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier
Authors: Be'eri Niego, Robert L. Medcalf.
Institutions: Monash University.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) comprises impermeable but adaptable brain capillaries which tightly control the brain environment. Failure of the BBB has been implied in the etiology of many brain pathologies, creating a need for development of human in vitro BBB models to assist in clinically-relevant research. Among the numerous BBB models thus far described, a static (without flow), contact BBB model, where astrocytes and brain endothelial cells (BECs) are cocultured on the opposite sides of a porous membrane, emerged as a simplified yet authentic system to simulate the BBB with high throughput screening capacity. Nevertheless the generation of such model presents few technical challenges. Here, we describe a protocol for preparation of a contact human BBB model utilizing a novel combination of primary human BECs and immortalized human astrocytes. Specifically, we detail an innovative method for cell-seeding on inverted inserts as well as specify insert staining techniques and exemplify how we use our model for BBB-related research.
Bioengineering, Issue 81, Blood-brain barrier, model, cell culture, astrocytes, brain endothelial cells, insert, membranes
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Hydrogel Nanoparticle Harvesting of Plasma or Urine for Detecting Low Abundance Proteins
Authors: Ruben Magni, Benjamin H. Espina, Lance A. Liotta, Alessandra Luchini, Virginia Espina.
Institutions: George Mason University, Ceres Nanosciences.
Novel biomarker discovery plays a crucial role in providing more sensitive and specific disease detection. Unfortunately many low-abundance biomarkers that exist in biological fluids cannot be easily detected with mass spectrometry or immunoassays because they are present in very low concentration, are labile, and are often masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin or immunoglobulin. Bait containing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAm) based nanoparticles are able to overcome these physiological barriers. In one step they are able to capture, concentrate and preserve biomarkers from body fluids. Low-molecular weight analytes enter the core of the nanoparticle and are captured by different organic chemical dyes, which act as high affinity protein baits. The nanoparticles are able to concentrate the proteins of interest by several orders of magnitude. This concentration factor is sufficient to increase the protein level such that the proteins are within the detection limit of current mass spectrometers, western blotting, and immunoassays. Nanoparticles can be incubated with a plethora of biological fluids and they are able to greatly enrich the concentration of low-molecular weight proteins and peptides while excluding albumin and other high-molecular weight proteins. Our data show that a 10,000 fold amplification in the concentration of a particular analyte can be achieved, enabling mass spectrometry and immunoassays to detect previously undetectable biomarkers.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, biomarker, hydrogel, low abundance, mass spectrometry, nanoparticle, plasma, protein, urine
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Multi-step Preparation Technique to Recover Multiple Metabolite Compound Classes for In-depth and Informative Metabolomic Analysis
Authors: Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Kevin D. Quinn, Roger Powell, Yanhui Yang, Michael Armstrong, Spencer Mahaffey, Richard Reisdorph, Nichole Reisdorph.
Institutions: National Jewish Health, University of Colorado Denver.
Metabolomics is an emerging field which enables profiling of samples from living organisms in order to obtain insight into biological processes. A vital aspect of metabolomics is sample preparation whereby inconsistent techniques generate unreliable results. This technique encompasses protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction as a means of fractionating metabolites into four distinct classes. Improved enrichment of low abundance molecules with a resulting increase in sensitivity is obtained, and ultimately results in more confident identification of molecules. This technique has been applied to plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid samples with volumes as low as 50 µl.  Samples can be used for multiple downstream applications; for example, the pellet resulting from protein precipitation can be stored for later analysis. The supernatant from that step undergoes liquid-liquid extraction using water and strong organic solvent to separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Once fractionated, the hydrophilic layer can be processed for later analysis or discarded if not needed. The hydrophobic fraction is further treated with a series of solvents during three solid-phase extraction steps to separate it into fatty acids, neutral lipids, and phospholipids. This allows the technician the flexibility to choose which class of compounds is preferred for analysis. It also aids in more reliable metabolite identification since some knowledge of chemical class exists.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, plasma, chemistry techniques, analytical, solid phase extraction, mass spectrometry, metabolomics, fluids and secretions, profiling, small molecules, lipids, liquid chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
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Rescue of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus from cDNA
Authors: Juan Ayllon, Adolfo García-Sastre, Luis Martínez-Sobrido.
Institutions: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, University of Rochester.
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the prototype member of the Avulavirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae1, is a non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus (Figure 1) with potential applications as a vector for vaccination and treatment of human diseases. In-depth exploration of these applications has only become possible after the establishment of reverse genetics techniques to rescue recombinant viruses from plasmids encoding their complete genomes as cDNA2-5. Viral cDNA can be conveniently modified in vitro by using standard cloning procedures to alter the genotype of the virus and/or to include new transcriptional units. Rescue of such genetically modified viruses provides a valuable tool to understand factors affecting multiple stages of infection, as well as allows for the development and improvement of vectors for the expression and delivery of antigens for vaccination and therapy. Here we describe a protocol for the rescue of recombinant NDVs.
Immunology, Issue 80, Paramyxoviridae, Vaccines, Oncolytic Virotherapy, Immunity, Innate, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), MVA-T7, reverse genetics techniques, plasmid transfection, recombinant virus, HA assay
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Consensus Brain-derived Protein, Extraction Protocol for the Study of Human and Murine Brain Proteome Using Both 2D-DIGE and Mini 2DE Immunoblotting
Authors: Francisco-Jose Fernandez-Gomez, Fanny Jumeau, Maxime Derisbourg, Sylvie Burnouf, Hélène Tran, Sabiha Eddarkaoui, Hélène Obriot, Virginie Dutoit-Lefevre, Vincent Deramecourt, Valérie Mitchell, Didier Lefranc, Malika Hamdane, David Blum, Luc Buée, Valérie Buée-Scherrer, Nicolas Sergeant.
Institutions: Inserm UMR 837, CHRU-Lille, Faculté de Médecine - Pôle Recherche, CHRU-Lille.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is a powerful tool to uncover proteome modifications potentially related to different physiological or pathological conditions. Basically, this technique is based on the separation of proteins according to their isoelectric point in a first step, and secondly according to their molecular weights by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In this report an optimized sample preparation protocol for little amount of human post-mortem and mouse brain tissue is described. This method enables to perform both two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mini 2DE immunoblotting. The combination of these approaches allows one to not only find new proteins and/or protein modifications in their expression thanks to its compatibility with mass spectrometry detection, but also a new insight into markers validation. Thus, mini-2DE coupled to western blotting permits to identify and validate post-translational modifications, proteins catabolism and provides a qualitative comparison among different conditions and/or treatments. Herein, we provide a method to study components of protein aggregates found in AD and Lewy body dementia such as the amyloid-beta peptide and the alpha-synuclein. Our method can thus be adapted for the analysis of the proteome and insoluble proteins extract from human brain tissue and mice models too. In parallel, it may provide useful information for the study of molecular and cellular pathways involved in neurodegenerative diseases as well as potential novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Neuroscience, Issue 86, proteomics, neurodegeneration, 2DE, human and mice brain tissue, fluorescence, immunoblotting. Abbreviations: 2DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis), 2D-DIGE (two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis), mini-2DE (mini 2DE immunoblotting),IPG (Immobilized pH Gradients), IEF (isoelectrofocusing), AD (Alzheimer´s disease)
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Metabolic Labeling and Membrane Fractionation for Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures
Authors: Witold G. Szymanski, Sylwia Kierszniowska, Waltraud X. Schulze.
Institutions: Max Plank Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, University of Hohenheim.
Plasma membrane microdomains are features based on the physical properties of the lipid and sterol environment and have particular roles in signaling processes. Extracting sterol-enriched membrane microdomains from plant cells for proteomic analysis is a difficult task mainly due to multiple preparation steps and sources for contaminations from other cellular compartments. The plasma membrane constitutes only about 5-20% of all the membranes in a plant cell, and therefore isolation of highly purified plasma membrane fraction is challenging. A frequently used method involves aqueous two-phase partitioning in polyethylene glycol and dextran, which yields plasma membrane vesicles with a purity of 95% 1. Sterol-rich membrane microdomains within the plasma membrane are insoluble upon treatment with cold nonionic detergents at alkaline pH. This detergent-resistant membrane fraction can be separated from the bulk plasma membrane by ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient 2. Subsequently, proteins can be extracted from the low density band of the sucrose gradient by methanol/chloroform precipitation. Extracted protein will then be trypsin digested, desalted and finally analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Our extraction protocol for sterol-rich microdomains is optimized for the preparation of clean detergent-resistant membrane fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures. We use full metabolic labeling of Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cell cultures with K15NO3 as the only nitrogen source for quantitative comparative proteomic studies following biological treatment of interest 3. By mixing equal ratios of labeled and unlabeled cell cultures for joint protein extraction the influence of preparation steps on final quantitative result is kept at a minimum. Also loss of material during extraction will affect both control and treatment samples in the same way, and therefore the ratio of light and heave peptide will remain constant. In the proposed method either labeled or unlabeled cell culture undergoes a biological treatment, while the other serves as control 4.
Empty Value, Issue 79, Cellular Structures, Plants, Genetically Modified, Arabidopsis, Membrane Lipids, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Isotope Labeling, Proteomics, plants, Arabidopsis thaliana, metabolic labeling, stable isotope labeling, suspension cell cultures, plasma membrane fractionation, two phase system, detergent resistant membranes (DRM), mass spectrometry, membrane microdomains, quantitative proteomics
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Propagation of Human Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells
Authors: Laurence Daheron.
Institutions: MGH - Massachusetts General Hospital.
Cellular Biology, Issue 1, ES, embryonic stem cells, tissue culture
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Human In-Vivo Bioassay for the Tissue-Specific Measurement of Nociceptive and Inflammatory Mediators
Authors: Martin S Angst, Martha Tingle, Martin Schmelz, Brendan Carvalho, David C Yeomans.
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, University of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg.
This in-vivo human bioassay can be used to study human volunteers and patients. Samples are collected from pertinent tissue sites such as the skin via aseptically inserted microdialysis catheters (Dermal Dialysis, Erlangen, Germany). Illustrated in this example is the collection of interstitial fluid from experimentally inflamed skin in human volunteers. Sample collection can be combined with other experimental tests. For example, the simultaneous assessment of locally released biochemicals and subjective sensitivity to painful stimuli in experimentally inflamed skin provides the critical biochemical-behavioral link to identify biomarkers of pain and inflammation. Presented assay in the living human organism allows for mechanistic insight into tissue-specific processes underlying pain and/or inflammation. The method is also well suited to examine the effectiveness of existing or novel interventions - such as new drug candidates - targeting the treatment of painful and/or inflammatory conditions. This article will provide a detailed description on the use of microdialysis techniques for collecting interstitial fluid from experimentally inflamed skin lesion of human study subjects. Interstitial fluid samples are typically processed with aid of multiplex bead array immunoassays allowing assaying up to 100 analytes in samples as small in volume as 50 microliters.
Medicine, Issue 22, Microdialysis, experimental pain, cytokines, skin, interstitial fluid, experimental inflammation, human, inflammatory mediators, nociceptive mediators, biomarkers
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A Technique for Serial Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Cisterna Magna in Mouse
Authors: Li Liu, Karen Duff.
Institutions: Columbia University.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is pathologically characterized by extracellular deposition of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and intraneuronal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Because cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is in direct contact with the extracellular space of the brain, it provides a reflection of the biochemical changes in the brain in response to pathological processes. CSF from AD patients shows a decrease in the 42 amino-acid form of Aβ (Aβ42), and increases in total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau, though the mechanisms responsible for these changes are still not fully understood. Transgenic (Tg) mouse models of AD provide an excellent opportunity to investigate how and why Aβ or tau levels in CSF change as the disease progresses. Here, we demonstrate a refined cisterna magna puncture technique for CSF sampling from the mouse. This extremely gentle sampling technique allows serial CSF samples to be obtained from the same mouse at 2-3 month intervals which greatly minimizes the confounding effect of between-mouse variability in Aβ or tau levels, making it possible to detect subtle alterations over time. In combination with Aβ and tau ELISA, this technique will be useful for studies designed to investigate the relationship between the levels of CSF Aβ42 and tau, and their metabolism in the brain in AD mouse models. Studies in Tg mice could provide important validation as to the potential of CSF Aβ or tau levels to be used as biological markers for monitoring disease progression, and to monitor the effect of therapeutic interventions. As the mice can be sacrificed and the brains can be examined for biochemical or histological changes, the mechanisms underlying the CSF changes can be better assessed. These data are likely to be informative for interpretation of human AD CSF changes.
Neuroscience, Issue 21, Cerebrospinal fluid, Alzheimer's disease, Transgenic mouse, β-amyloid, tau
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Gross and Fine Dissection of Inner Ear Sensory Epithelia in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Authors: Jin Liang, Shawn M. Burgess.
Institutions: National Human Genome Research Institute, University of Maryland.
Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is able to regenerate HCs, an ability that mammals lose shortly after birth. We use the inner ear of adult zebrafish as a model system to study the mechanisms of inner ear HC regeneration in adult vertebrates that could be helpful for clinical therapy of hearing/balance deficits in human as a result of HC loss. Here we demonstrate how to do gross and fine dissections of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish. The gross dissection removes the tissues surrounding the inner ear and is helpful for preparing tissue sections, which allows us to examine the detailed structure of the sensory epithelia. The fine dissection cleans up the non-sensory-epithelial tissues of each individual epithelium and enables us to examine the heterogeneity of the whole epithelium easily in whole-mount epithelial samples.
Neuroscience, Issue 27, zebrafish, dissection, inner ear, sensory epithelia, hair cell, regeneration
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Surgical Induction of Endolymphatic Hydrops by Obliteration of the Endolymphatic Duct
Authors: Cliff A. Megerian, Chris Heddon, Sami Melki, Suhael Momin, Janis Paulsey, Joy Obokhare, Kumar Alagramam.
Institutions: Case Western Reserve University.
Surgical induction of endolymphatic hydrops (ELH) in the guinea pig by obliteration and obstruction of the endolymphatic duct is a well-accepted animal model of the condition and an important correlate for human Meniere's disease. In 1965, Robert Kimura and Harold Schuknecht first described an intradural approach for obstruction of the endolymphatic duct (Kimura 1965). Although effective, this technique, which requires penetration of the brain's protective covering, incurred an undesirable level of morbidity and mortality in the animal subjects. Consequently, Andrews and Bohmer developed an extradural approach, which predictably produces fewer of the complications associated with central nervous system (CNS) penetration.(Andrews and Bohmer 1989) The extradural approach described here first requires a midline incision in the region of the occiput to expose the underlying muscular layer. We operate only on the right side. After appropriate retraction of the overlying tissue, a horizontal incision is made into the musculature of the right occiput to expose the right temporo-occipital suture line. The bone immediately inferio-lateral the suture line (Fig 1) is then drilled with an otologic drill until the sigmoid sinus becomes visible. Medial retraction of the sigmoid sinus reveals the operculum of the endolymphatic duct, which houses the endolymphatic sac. Drilling medial to the operculum into the area of the endolymphatic sac reveals the endolymphatic duct, which is then packed with bone wax to produce obstruction and ultimately ELH. In the following weeks, the animal will demonstrate the progressive, fluctuating hearing loss and histologic evidence of ELH.
Medicine, Issue 35, Guinea Pig, Endolymphatic hydrops, Meniere's disease, surgical induction, endolymphatic duct
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An Assay for Permeability of the Zebrafish Embryonic Neuroepithelium
Authors: Jessica T. Chang, Hazel Sive.
Institutions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research.
The brain ventricular system is conserved among vertebrates and is composed of a series of interconnected cavities called brain ventricles, which form during the earliest stages of brain development and are maintained throughout the animal's life. The brain ventricular system is found in vertebrates, and the ventricles develop after neural tube formation, when the central lumen fills with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 1,2. CSF is a protein rich fluid that is essential for normal brain development and function3-6. In zebrafish, brain ventricle inflation begins at approximately 18 hr post fertilization (hpf), after the neural tube is closed. Multiple processes are associated with brain ventricle formation, including formation of a neuroepithelium, tight junction formation that regulates permeability and CSF production. We showed that the Na,K-ATPase is required for brain ventricle inflation, impacting all these processes 7,8, while claudin 5a is necessary for tight junction formation 9. Additionally, we showed that "relaxation" of the embryonic neuroepithelium, via inhibition of myosin, is associated with brain ventricle inflation. To investigate the regulation of permeability during zebrafish brain ventricle inflation, we developed a ventricular dye retention assay. This method uses brain ventricle injection in a living zebrafish embryo, a technique previously developed in our lab10, to fluorescently label the cerebrospinal fluid. Embryos are then imaged over time as the fluorescent dye moves through the brain ventricles and neuroepithelium. The distance the dye front moves away from the basal (non-luminal) side of the neuroepithelium over time is quantified and is a measure of neuroepithelial permeability (Figure 1). We observe that dyes 70 kDa and smaller will move through the neuroepithelium and can be detected outside the embryonic zebrafish brain at 24 hpf (Figure 2). This dye retention assay can be used to analyze neuroepithelial permeability in a variety of different genetic backgrounds, at different times during development, and after environmental perturbations. It may also be useful in examining pathological accumulation of CSF. Overall, this technique allows investigators to analyze the role and regulation of permeability during development and disease.
Neuroscience, Issue 68, Zebrafish, neuroepithelium, brain ventricle, permeability
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