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Postnatal development of numbers and mean sizes of pancreatic islets and beta-cells in healthy mice and GIPR(dn) transgenic diabetic mice.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
The aim of this study was to examine postnatal islet and beta-cell expansion in healthy female control mice and its disturbances in diabetic GIPR(dn) transgenic mice, which exhibit an early reduction of beta-cell mass. Pancreata of female control and GIPR(dn) transgenic mice, aged 10, 45, 90 and 180 days were examined, using state-of-the-art quantitative-stereological methods. Total islet and beta-cell volumes, as well as their absolute numbers increased significantly until 90 days in control mice, and remained stable thereafter. The mean islet volumes of controls also increased slightly but significantly between 10 and 45 days of age, and then remained stable until 180 days. The total volume of isolated beta-cells, an indicator of islet neogenesis, and the number of proliferating (BrdU-positive) islet cells were highest in 10-day-old controls and declined significantly between 10 and 45 days. In GIPR(dn) transgenic mice, the numbers of islets and beta-cells were significantly reduced from 10 days of age onwards vs. controls, and no postnatal expansion of total islet and beta-cell volumes occurred due to a reduction in islet neogenesis whereas early islet-cell proliferation and apoptosis were unchanged as compared to control mice. Insulin secretion in response to pharmacological doses of GIP was preserved in GIPR(dn) transgenic mice, and serum insulin to pancreatic insulin content in response to GLP-1 and arginine was significantly higher in GIPR(dn) transgenic mice vs. controls. We could show that the increase in islet number is mainly responsible for expansion of islet and beta-cell mass in healthy control mice. GIPR(dn) transgenic mice show a disturbed expansion of the endocrine pancreas, due to perturbed islet neogenesis.
The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes after 12 weeks of age and is the most extensively studied animal model of human Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Cell transfer studies in irradiated recipient mice have established that T cells are pivotal in T1D pathogenesis in this model. We describe herein a simple method to rapidly induce T1D by adoptive transfer of purified, primary CD4+ T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice transgenic for the islet-specific T cell receptor (TCR) BDC2.5 into NOD.SCID recipient mice. The major advantages of this technique are that isolation and adoptive transfer of diabetogenic T cells can be completed within the same day, irradiation of the recipients is not required, and a high incidence of T1D is elicited within 2 weeks after T cell transfer. Thus, studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions in T1D can proceed at a faster rate than with methods that rely on heterogenous T cell populations or clones derived from diabetic NOD mice.
18 Related JoVE Articles!
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Neo-Islet Formation in Liver of Diabetic Mice by Helper-dependent Adenoviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer
Authors: Rongying Li, Kazuhiro Oka, Vijay Yechoor.
Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine , Baylor College of Medicine , Baylor College of Medicine .
Type 1 diabetes is caused by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Until now insulin replacement is still the major therapy, because islet transplantation has been limited by donor availability and by the need for long-term immunosuppression. Induced islet neogenesis by gene transfer of Neuogenin3 (Ngn3), the islet lineage-defining specific transcription factor and Betacellulin (Btc), an islet growth factor has the potential to cure type 1 diabetes. Adenoviral vectors (Ads) are highly efficient gene transfer vector; however, early generation Ads have several disadvantages for in vivo use. Helper-dependent Ads (HDAds) are the most advanced Ads that were developed to improve the safety profile of early generation of Ads and to prolong transgene expression1. They lack chronic toxicity because they lack viral coding sequences2-5 and retain only Ad cis elements necessary for vector replication and packaging. This allows cloning of up to 36 kb genes. In this protocol, we describe the method to generate HDAd-Ngn3 and HDAd-Btc and to deliver these vectors into STZ-induced diabetic mice. Our results show that co-injection of HDAd-Ngn3 and HDAd-Btc induces 'neo islets' in the liver and reverses hyperglycemia in diabetic mice.
Medicine, Issue 68, Genetics, Physiology, Gene therapy, Neurogenin3, Betacellulin, helper-dependent adenoviral vectors, Type 1 diabetes, islet neogenesis
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Isolation of Human Islets from Partially Pancreatectomized Patients
Authors: Gregor Bötticher, Dorothèe Sturm, Florian Ehehalt, Klaus P. Knoch, Stephan Kersting, Robert Grützmann, Gustavo B. Baretton, Michele Solimena, Hans D. Saeger.
Institutions: University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden, Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden.
Investigations into the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and islets of Langerhans malfunction 1 have been hampered by the limited availability of type 2 diabetic islets from organ donors2. Here we share our protocol for isolating islets from human pancreatic tissue obtained from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients who have undergone partial pancreatectomy due to different pancreatic diseases (benign or malignant pancreatic tumors, chronic pancreatitis, and common bile duct or duodenal tumors). All patients involved gave their consent to this study, which had also been approved by the local ethics committee. The surgical specimens were immediately delivered to the pathologist who selected soft and healthy appearing pancreatic tissue for islet isolation, retaining the damaged tissue for diagnostic purposes. We found that to isolate more than 1,000 islets, we had to begin with at least 2 g of pancreatic tissue. Also essential to our protocol was to visibly distend the tissue when injecting the enzyme-containing media and subsequently mince it to aid digestion by increasing the surface area. To extend the applicability of our protocol to include the occasional case in which a large amount (>15g) of human pancreatic tissue is available , we used a Ricordi chamber (50 ml) to digest the tissue. During digestion, we manually shook the Ricordi chamber3 at an intensity that varied by specimen according to its level of tissue fibrosis. A discontinous Ficoll gradient was then used to separate the islets from acinar tissue. We noted that the tissue pellet should be small enough to be homogenously resuspended in Ficoll medium with a density of 1.125 g/ml. After isolation, we cultured the islets under stress free conditions (no shaking or rotation) with 5% CO2 at 37 °C for at least 48 h in order to facilitate their functional recovery. Widespread application of our protocol and its future improvement could enable the timely harvesting of large quantities of human islets from diabetic and clinically matched non-diabetic subjects, greatly advancing type 2 diabetes research.
Medicine, Issue 53, human islets, Diabetes mellitus, partial pancreatectomy, human islet isolation
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Examination of Thymic Positive and Negative Selection by Flow Cytometry
Authors: Qian Hu, Stephanie A. Nicol, Alexander Y.W. Suen, Troy A. Baldwin.
Institutions: University of Alberta.
A healthy immune system requires that T cells respond to foreign antigens while remaining tolerant to self-antigens. Random rearrangement of the T cell receptor (TCR) α and β loci generates a T cell repertoire with vast diversity in antigen specificity, both to self and foreign. Selection of the repertoire during development in the thymus is critical for generating safe and useful T cells. Defects in thymic selection contribute to the development of autoimmune and immunodeficiency disorders1-4. T cell progenitors enter the thymus as double negative (DN) thymocytes that do not express CD4 or CD8 co-receptors. Expression of the αβTCR and both co-receptors occurs at the double positive (DP) stage. Interaction of the αβTCR with self-peptide-MHC (pMHC) presented by thymic cells determines the fate of the DP thymocyte. High affinity interactions lead to negative selection and elimination of self-reactive thymocytes. Low affinity interactions result in positive selection and development of CD4 or CD8 single positive (SP) T cells capable of recognizing foreign antigens presented by self-MHC5. Positive selection can be studied in mice with a polyclonal (wildtype) TCR repertoire by observing the generation of mature T cells. However, they are not ideal for the study of negative selection, which involves deletion of small antigen-specific populations. Many model systems have been used to study negative selection but vary in their ability to recapitulate physiological events6. For example, in vitro stimulation of thymocytes lacks the thymic environment that is intimately involved in selection, while administration of exogenous antigen can lead to non-specific deletion of thymocytes7-9. Currently, the best tools for studying in vivo negative selection are mice that express a transgenic TCR specific for endogenous self-antigen. However, many classical TCR transgenic models are characterized by premature expression of the transgenic TCRα chain at the DN stage, resulting in premature negative selection. Our lab has developed the HYcd4 model, in which the transgenic HY TCRα is conditionally expressed at the DP stage, allowing negative selection to occur during the DP to SP transition as occurs in wildtype mice10. Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based protocol to examine thymic positive and negative selection in the HYcd4 mouse model. While negative selection in HYcd4 mice is highly physiological, these methods can also be applied to other TCR transgenic models. We will also present general strategies for analyzing positive selection in a polyclonal repertoire applicable to any genetically manipulated mice.
Immunology, Issue 68, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Thymus, T cell, negative selection, positive selection, autoimmunity, flow cytometry
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Mouse Islet of Langerhans Isolation using a Combination of Purified Collagenase and Neutral Protease
Authors: Natalie D. Stull, Andrew Breite, Robert McCarthy, Sarah A. Tersey, Raghavendra G. Mirmira.
Institutions: Indiana University School of Medicine, VITACYTE, LLC, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine.
The interrogation of beta cell gene expression and function in vitro has squarely shifted over the years from the study of rodent tumorigenic cell lines to the study of isolated rodent islets. Primary islets offer the distinct advantage that they more faithfully reflect the biology of intracellular signaling pathways and secretory responses. Whereas the method of islet isolation using tissue dissociating enzyme (TDE) preparations has been well established in many laboratories1-4, variations in the consistency of islet yield and quality from any given rodent strain limit the extent and feasibility of primary islet studies. These variations often occur as a result of the crude partially purified TDEs used in the islet isolation procedure; TDEs frequently exhibit lot-to-lot variations in activity and often require adjustments to the dose of enzyme used. A small number of reports have used purified TDEs for rodent cell isolations5, 6, but the practice is not widespread despite the routine use and advantages of purified TDEs for human islet isolations. In collaboration with VitaCyte, LLC (Indianapolis, IN), we developed a modified mouse islet isolation protocol based on that described by Gotoh7, 8, in which the TDEs are perfused directly into the pancreatic duct of mice, followed by crude tissue fractionation through a Histopaque gradient9, and isolation of purified islets. A significant difference in our protocol is the use of purified collagenase (CIzyme MA) and neutral protease (CIzyme BP) combination. The collagenase was characterized by the use of a6 fluorescence collagen degrading activity (CDA) assay that utilized fluorescently labeled soluble calf skin fibrils as substrate6. This substrate is more predictive of the kinetics of collagen degradation in the tissue matrix because it relies on native collagen as the substrate. The protease was characterized with a sensitive fluorescent kinetic assay10. Utilizing these improved assays along with more traditional biochemical analysis enable the TDE to be manufactured more consistently, leading to improved performance consistency between lots. The protocol described in here was optimized for maximal islet yield and optimal islet morphology using C57BL/6 mice. During the development of this protocol, several combinations of collagenase and neutral proteases were evaluated at different concentrations, and the final ratio of collagenase:neutral protease of 35:10 represents enzyme performance comparable to Sigma Type XI. Because significant variability in average islet yields from different strains of rats and mice have been reported, additional modifications of the TDE composition should be made to improve the yield and quality of islets recovered from different species and strains.
Cellular Biology, Issue 67, Islet, collagenase, mouse, insulin, fluorescence
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Human Pancreatic Islet Isolation: Part I: Digestion and Collection of Pancreatic Tissue
Authors: Meirigeng Qi, Barbara Barbaro, Shusen Wang, Yong Wang, Mike Hansen, Jose Oberholzer.
Institutions: University of Illinois, Chicago.
Management of Type 1 diabetes is burdensome, both to the individual and society, costing over 100 billion dollars annually. Despite the widespread use of glucose monitoring and new insulin formulations, many individuals still develop devastating secondary complications. Pancreatic islet transplantation can restore near normal glucose control in diabetic patients 1, without the risk of serious hypoglycemic episodes that are associated with intensive insulin therapy. Providing sufficient islet mass is important for successful islet transplantation. However, donor characteristic, organ procurement and preservation affect the isolation outcome 2. At University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) we have developed a successful isolation protocol with an improved purification gradient 3. The program started in January 2004, and more than 300 isolations were performed up to November 2008. The pancreata were sent in cold preservation solutions (UW, University of Wisconsin or HTK, Histidine-Tryptophan Ketoglutarate) 4-7 to the Cell Isolation Laboratory at UIC for islet isolation. Pancreatic islets were isolated using the UIC method, which is a modified version of the method originally described by Ricordi et al 8. Briefly, after cleaning the pancreas from the surrounding tissue, it was perfused with enzyme solution (Serva Collagenase + Neutral Protease or Sigma V enzyme). The distended pancreas was then transferred to the Ricordi digestion chamber, connected to a modified, closed circulation tubing system, and warmed up to 37°C. During the digestion, the chamber was shaken gently. Samples were taken continuously to monitor the digestion progress. Once free islets were detected under the microscope, the digestion was stopped by flushing cold (4°C) RPMI dilution solution (Mediatech, Herndon, VA) into the circulation system to dilute the enzyme. After being collected and washed in M199 media supplemented with human albumin, the tissue was sampled for pre-purification count and incubated with UW solution before purification. Purification process will be described in Part II: Purification and Culture of Human Islets.
Medicine, Issue 27, Human islets, Type 1 diabetes, pancreatic tissue, digestion, human islet transplantation
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Assessing Replication and Beta Cell Function in Adenovirally-transduced Isolated Rodent Islets
Authors: Patrick T. Fueger, Angelina M. Hernandez, Yi-Chun Chen, E. Scott Colvin.
Institutions: Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine.
Glucose homeostasis is primarily controlled by the endocrine hormones insulin and glucagon, secreted from the pancreatic beta and alpha cells, respectively. Functional beta cell mass is determined by the anatomical beta cell mass as well as the ability of the beta cells to respond to a nutrient load. A loss of functional beta cell mass is central to both major forms of diabetes 1-3. Whereas the declining functional beta cell mass results from an autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes, in type 2 diabetes, this decrement develops from both an inability of beta cells to secrete insulin appropriately and the destruction of beta cells from a cadre of mechanisms. Thus, efforts to restore functional beta cell mass are paramount to the better treatment of and potential cures for diabetes. Efforts are underway to identify molecular pathways that can be exploited to stimulate the replication and enhance the function of beta cells. Ideally, therapeutic targets would improve both beta cell growth and function. Perhaps more important though is to identify whether a strategy that stimulates beta cell growth comes at the cost of impairing beta cell function (such as with some oncogenes) and vice versa. By systematically suppressing or overexpressing the expression of target genes in isolated rat islets, one can identify potential therapeutic targets for increasing functional beta cell mass 4-6. Adenoviral vectors can be employed to efficiently overexpress or knockdown proteins in isolated rat islets 4,7-15. Here, we present a method to manipulate gene expression utilizing adenoviral transduction and assess islet replication and beta cell function in isolated rat islets (Figure 1). This method has been used previously to identify novel targets that modulate beta cell replication or function 5,6,8,9,16,17.
Medicine, Issue 64, Physiology, beta cell, gene expression, islet, diabetes, insulin secretion, proliferation, adenovirus, rat
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Human Pancreatic Islet Isolation: Part II: Purification and Culture of Human Islets
Authors: Meirigeng Qi, Barbara Barbaro, Shusen Wang, Yong Wang, Mike Hansen, Jose Oberholzer.
Institutions: University of Illinois, Chicago.
Management of Type 1 diabetes is burdensome, both to the individual and society, costing over 100 billion dollars annually. Despite the widespread use of glucose monitoring and new insulin formulations, many individuals still develop devastating secondary complications. Pancreatic islet transplantation can restore near normal glucose control in diabetic patients 1, without the risk of serious hypoglycemic episodes that are associated with intensive insulin therapy. Providing sufficient islet mass is important for successful islet transplantation. However, donor characteristics, organ procurement and preservation affect the isolation outcome 2. At University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) we developed a successful isolation protocol with an improved purification gradient 3. The program started in January 2004 and more than 300 isolations were performed up to November 2008. The pancreata were sent in cold preservation solutions (UW, University of Wisconsin or HTK, Histidine-Tryptophan Ketoglutarate) 4-7 to the Cell Isolation Laboratory at UIC for islet isolation. Pancreatic islets were isolated using the UIC method, which is a modified version of the method originally described by Ricordi et al 8. As described in Part I: Digestion and Collection of Pancreatic Tissue, human pancreas was trimmed, cannulated, perfused, and digested. After collection and at least 30 minutes of incubation in UW solution, the tissue was loaded in the cell separator (COBE 2991, Cobe, Lakewood, CO) for purification 3. Following purification, islet yield (expressed as islet equivalents, IEQ), tissue volume, and purity was determined according to standard methods 9. Isolated islets were cultured in CMRL-1066 media (Mediatech, Herndon, VA), supplemented with 1.5% human albumin, 0.1% insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), 1 ml of Ciprofloxacin, 5 ml o f 1M HEPES, and 14.5 ml of 7.5% Sodium Bicarbonate in T175 flasks at 37°C overnight culture before islets were transplanted or used for research.
Medicine, Issue 27, Human islets, Type 1 diabetes, human islet purification, human islet transplantation
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Coculture Analysis of Extracellular Protein Interactions Affecting Insulin Secretion by Pancreatic Beta Cells
Authors: Charles Zhang, Arthur T. Suckow, Steven D. Chessler.
Institutions: University of California, San Diego, Janssen Research & Development, University of California, San Diego.
Interactions between cell-surface proteins help coordinate the function of neighboring cells. Pancreatic beta cells are clustered together within pancreatic islets and act in a coordinated fashion to maintain glucose homeostasis. It is becoming increasingly clear that interactions between transmembrane proteins on the surfaces of adjacent beta cells are important determinants of beta-cell function. Elucidation of the roles of particular transcellular interactions by knockdown, knockout or overexpression studies in cultured beta cells or in vivo necessitates direct perturbation of mRNA and protein expression, potentially affecting beta-cell health and/or function in ways that could confound analyses of the effects of specific interactions. These approaches also alter levels of the intracellular domains of the targeted proteins and may prevent effects due to interactions between proteins within the same cell membrane to be distinguished from the effects of transcellular interactions. Here a method for determining the effect of specific transcellular interactions on the insulin secreting capacity and responsiveness of beta cells is presented. This method is applicable to beta-cell lines, such as INS-1 cells, and to dissociated primary beta cells. It is based on coculture models developed by neurobiologists, who found that exposure of cultured neurons to specific neuronal proteins expressed on HEK293 (or COS) cell layers identified proteins important for driving synapse formation. Given the parallels between the secretory machinery of neuronal synapses and of beta cells, we reasoned that beta-cell functional maturation might be driven by similar transcellular interactions. We developed a system where beta cells are cultured on a layer of HEK293 cells expressing a protein of interest. In this model, the beta-cell cytoplasm is untouched while extracellular protein-protein interactions are manipulated. Although we focus here primarily on studies of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, other processes can be analyzed; for example, changes in gene expression as determined by immunoblotting or qPCR.
Medicine, Issue 76, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Hepatology, Islets of Langerhans, islet, Insulin, Coculture, pancreatic beta cells, INS-1 cells, extracellular contact, transmembrane protein, transcellular interactions, insulin secretion, diabetes, cell culture
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In Vitro Pancreas Organogenesis from Dispersed Mouse Embryonic Progenitors
Authors: Chiara Greggio, Filippo De Franceschi, Manuel Figueiredo-Larsen, Anne Grapin-Botton.
Institutions: Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University of Copenhagen.
The pancreas is an essential organ that regulates glucose homeostasis and secretes digestive enzymes. Research on pancreas embryogenesis has led to the development of protocols to produce pancreatic cells from stem cells 1. The whole embryonic organ can be cultured at multiple stages of development 2-4. These culture methods have been useful to test drugs and to image developmental processes. However the expansion of the organ is very limited and morphogenesis is not faithfully recapitulated since the organ flattens. We propose three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions that enable the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the composition of the culture medium it is possible to generate either hollow spheres, mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors expanding in their initial state, or, complex organoids which progress to more mature expanding progenitors and differentiate into endocrine, acinar and ductal cells and which spontaneously self-organize to resemble the embryonic pancreas. We show here that the in vitro process recapitulates many aspects of natural pancreas development. This culture system is suitable to investigate how cells cooperate to form an organ by reducing its initial complexity to few progenitors. It is a model that reproduces the 3D architecture of the pancreas and that is therefore useful to study morphogenesis, including polarization of epithelial structures and branching. It is also appropriate to assess the response to mechanical cues of the niche such as stiffness and the effects on cell´s tensegrity.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, Pancreas, Progenitors, Branching Epithelium, Development, Organ Culture, 3D Culture, Diabetes, Differentiation, Morphogenesis, Cell organization, Beta Cell.
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Computer-assisted Large-scale Visualization and Quantification of Pancreatic Islet Mass, Size Distribution and Architecture
Authors: Abraham Kim, German Kilimnik, Charles Guo, Joshua Sung, Junghyo Jo, Vipul Periwal, Piotr Witkowski, Philip Dilorio, Manami Hara.
Institutions: University of Chicago, National Institutes of Health, University of Chicago, University of Massachusetts.
The pancreatic islet is a unique micro-organ composed of several hormone secreting endocrine cells such as beta-cells (insulin), alpha-cells (glucagon), and delta-cells (somatostatin) that are embedded in the exocrine tissues and comprise 1-2% of the entire pancreas. There is a close correlation between body and pancreas weight. Total beta-cell mass also increases proportionately to compensate for the demand for insulin in the body. What escapes this proportionate expansion is the size distribution of islets. Large animals such as humans share similar islet size distributions with mice, suggesting that this micro-organ has a certain size limit to be functional. The inability of large animal pancreata to generate proportionately larger islets is compensated for by an increase in the number of islets and by an increase in the proportion of larger islets in their overall islet size distribution. Furthermore, islets exhibit a striking plasticity in cellular composition and architecture among different species and also within the same species under various pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, we describe novel approaches for the analysis of biological image data in order to facilitate the automation of analytic processes, which allow for the analysis of large and heterogeneous data collections in the study of such dynamic biological processes and complex structures. Such studies have been hampered due to technical difficulties of unbiased sampling and generating large-scale data sets to precisely capture the complexity of biological processes of islet biology. Here we show methods to collect unbiased "representative" data within the limited availability of samples (or to minimize the sample collection) and the standard experimental settings, and to precisely analyze the complex three-dimensional structure of the islet. Computer-assisted automation allows for the collection and analysis of large-scale data sets and also assures unbiased interpretation of the data. Furthermore, the precise quantification of islet size distribution and spatial coordinates (i.e. X, Y, Z-positions) not only leads to an accurate visualization of pancreatic islet structure and composition, but also allows us to identify patterns during development and adaptation to altering conditions through mathematical modeling. The methods developed in this study are applicable to studies of many other systems and organisms as well.
Cellular Biology, Issue 49, beta-cells, islets, large-scale analysis, pancreas
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Staining Protocols for Human Pancreatic Islets
Authors: Martha L. Campbell-Thompson, Tiffany Heiple, Emily Montgomery, Li Zhang, Lynda Schneider.
Institutions: University of Florida .
Estimates of islet area and numbers and endocrine cell composition in the adult human pancreas vary from several hundred thousand to several million and beta mass ranges from 500 to 1500 mg 1-3. With this known heterogeneity, a standard processing and staining procedure was developed so that pancreatic regions were clearly defined and islets characterized using rigorous histopathology and immunolocalization examinations. Standardized procedures for processing human pancreas recovered from organ donors are described in part 1 of this series. The pancreas is processed into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by transverse sections. Transverse sections from the pancreas head are further divided, as indicated based on size, and numbered alphabetically to denote subsections. This standardization allows for a complete cross sectional analysis of the head region including the uncinate region which contains islets composed primarily of pancreatic polypeptide cells to the tail region. The current report comprises part 2 of this series and describes the procedures used for serial sectioning and histopathological characterization of the pancreatic paraffin sections with an emphasis on islet endocrine cells, replication, and T-cell infiltrates. Pathology of pancreatic sections is intended to characterize both exocrine, ductular, and endocrine components. The exocrine compartment is evaluated for the presence of pancreatitis (active or chronic), atrophy, fibrosis, and fat, as well as the duct system, particularly in relationship to the presence of pancreatic intraductal neoplasia4. Islets are evaluated for morphology, size, and density, endocrine cells, inflammation, fibrosis, amyloid, and the presence of replicating or apoptotic cells using H&E and IHC stains. The final component described in part 2 is the provision of the stained slides as digitized whole slide images. The digitized slides are organized by case and pancreas region in an online pathology database creating a virtual biobank. Access to this online collection is currently provided to over 200 clinicians and scientists involved in type 1 diabetes research. The online database provides a means for rapid and complete data sharing and for investigators to select blocks for paraffin or frozen serial sections.
Medicine, Issue 63, Physiology, type 1 diabetes, histology, H&E, immunohistochemistry, insulin, beta-cells, glucagon, alpha-cells, pancreatic polypeptide, islet, pancreas, spleen, organ donor
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A Method for Murine Islet Isolation and Subcapsular Kidney Transplantation
Authors: Erik J. Zmuda, Catherine A. Powell, Tsonwin Hai.
Institutions: The Ohio State University, The Ohio State University, The Ohio State University.
Since the early pioneering work of Ballinger and Reckard demonstrating that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into diabetic rodents could normalize their blood glucose levels, islet transplantation has been proposed to be a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes 1,2. More recently, advances in human islet transplantation have further strengthened this view 1,3. However, two major limitations prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread clinical reality: (a) the requirement for large numbers of islets per patient, which severely reduces the number of potential recipients, and (b) the need for heavy immunosuppression, which significantly affects the pediatric population of patients due to their vulnerability to long-term immunosuppression. Strategies that can overcome these limitations have the potential to enhance the therapeutic utility of islet transplantation. Islet transplantation under the mouse kidney capsule is a widely accepted model to investigate various strategies to improve islet transplantation. This experiment requires the isolation of high quality islets and implantation of islets to the diabetic recipients. Both procedures require surgical steps that can be better demonstrated by video than by text. Here, we document the detailed steps for these procedures by both video and written protocol. We also briefly discuss different transplantation models: syngeneic, allogeneic, syngeneic autoimmune, and allogeneic autoimmune.
Medicine, Issue 50, islet isolation, islet transplantation, diabetes, murine, pancreas
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A Method for Mouse Pancreatic Islet Isolation and Intracellular cAMP Determination
Authors: Joshua C. Neuman, Nathan A. Truchan, Jamie W. Joseph, Michelle E. Kimple.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Waterloo.
Uncontrolled glycemia is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus and promotes morbidities like neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, both immune-mediated type 1 and obesity-linked type 2, studies aimed at delineating diabetes pathophysiology and therapeutic mechanisms are of critical importance. The β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for appropriately secreting insulin in response to elevated blood glucose concentrations. In addition to glucose and other nutrients, the β-cells are also stimulated by specific hormones, termed incretins, which are secreted from the gut in response to a meal and act on β-cell receptors that increase the production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Decreased β-cell function, mass, and incretin responsiveness are well-understood to contribute to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and are also being increasingly linked with type 1 diabetes. The present mouse islet isolation and cAMP determination protocol can be a tool to help delineate mechanisms promoting disease progression and therapeutic interventions, particularly those that are mediated by the incretin receptors or related receptors that act through modulation of intracellular cAMP production. While only cAMP measurements will be described, the described islet isolation protocol creates a clean preparation that also allows for many other downstream applications, including glucose stimulated insulin secretion, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, protein abundance, and mRNA expression.
Physiology, Issue 88, islet, isolation, insulin secretion, β-cell, diabetes, cAMP production, mouse
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Isolation, Culture, and Imaging of Human Fetal Pancreatic Cell Clusters
Authors: Ana D. Lopez, Ayse G. Kayali, Alberto Hayek, Charles C. King.
Institutions: University of California, San Diego.
For almost 30 years, scientists have demonstrated that human fetal ICCs transplanted under the kidney capsule of nude mice matured into functioning endocrine cells, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating human C-peptide following glucose stimulation1-9. However in vitro, genesis of insulin producing cells from human fetal ICCs is low10; results reminiscent of recent experiments performed with human embryonic stem cells (hESC), a renewable source of cells that hold great promise as a potential therapeutic treatment for type 1 diabetes. Like ICCs, transplantation of partially differentiated hESC generate glucose responsive, insulin producing cells, but in vitro genesis of insulin producing cells from hESC is much less robust11-17. A complete understanding of the factors that influence the growth and differentiation of endocrine precursor cells will likely require data generated from both ICCs and hESC. While a number of protocols exist to generate insulin producing cells from hESC in vitro11-22, far fewer exist for ICCs10,23,24. Part of that discrepancy likely comes from the difficulty of working with human fetal pancreas. Towards that end, we have continued to build upon existing methods to isolate fetal islets from human pancreases with gestational ages ranging from 12 to 23 weeks, grow the cells as a monolayer or in suspension, and image for cell proliferation, pancreatic markers and human hormones including glucagon and C-peptide. ICCs generated by the protocol described below result in C-peptide release after transplantation under the kidney capsule of nude mice that are similar to C-peptide levels obtained by transplantation of fresh tissue6. Although the examples presented here focus upon the pancreatic endoderm proliferation and β cell genesis, the protocol can be employed to study other aspects of pancreatic development, including exocrine, ductal, and other hormone producing cells.
Medicine, Issue 87, human fetal pancreas, islet cell cluster (ICC), transplantation, immunofluorescence, endocrine cell proliferation, differentiation, C-peptide
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Near Infrared Optical Projection Tomography for Assessments of β-cell Mass Distribution in Diabetes Research
Authors: Anna U. Eriksson, Christoffer Svensson, Andreas Hörnblad, Abbas Cheddad, Elena Kostromina, Maria Eriksson, Nils Norlin, Antonello Pileggi, James Sharpe, Fredrik Georgsson, Tomas Alanentalo, Ulf Ahlgren.
Institutions: Umeå University, University of Miami,, Catalan Institute of Research and Advanced Studies, Umeå University.
By adapting OPT to include the capability of imaging in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum, we here illustrate the possibility to image larger bodies of pancreatic tissue, such as the rat pancreas, and to increase the number of channels (cell types) that may be studied in a single specimen. We further describe the implementation of a number of computational tools that provide: 1/ accurate positioning of a specimen's (in our case the pancreas) centre of mass (COM) at the axis of rotation (AR)2; 2/ improved algorithms for post-alignment tuning which prevents geometric distortions during the tomographic reconstruction2 and 3/ a protocol for intensity equalization to increase signal to noise ratios in OPT-based BCM determinations3. In addition, we describe a sample holder that minimizes the risk for unintentional movements of the specimen during image acquisition. Together, these protocols enable assessments of BCM distribution and other features, to be performed throughout the volume of intact pancreata or other organs (e.g. in studies of islet transplantation), with a resolution down to the level of individual islets of Langerhans.
Medicine, Issue 71, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Pancreas, Islets of Langerhans, Diabetes Mellitus, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Optical Projection Tomography, Beta-cell Mass, Near Infrared, Computational Processing
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Improved Protocol For Laser Microdissection Of Human Pancreatic Islets From Surgical Specimens
Authors: Dorothée Sturm, Lorella Marselli, Florian Ehehalt, Daniela Richter, Marius Distler, Stephan Kersting, Robert Grützmann, Krister Bokvist, Philippe Froguel, Robin Liechti, Anne Jörns, Paolo Meda, Gustavo Bruno Baretton, Hans-Detlev Saeger, Anke M. Schulte, Piero Marchetti, Michele Solimena.
Institutions: Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, University of Technology Dresden, Metabolic Unit University of Pisa, Lilly Corporate Center, Faculty of Medicine Imperial College London, SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Hannover Medical School, University of Geneva, University of Technology Dresden, Sanofi-Aventis.
Laser microdissection (LMD) is a technique that allows the recovery of selected cells and tissues from minute amounts of parenchyma 1,2. The dissected cells can be used for a variety of investigations, such as transcriptomic or proteomic studies, DNA assessment or chromosomal analysis 2,3. An especially challenging application of LMD is transcriptome analysis, which, due to the lability of RNA 4, can be particularly prominent when cells are dissected from tissues that are rich of RNases, such as the pancreas. A microdissection protocol that enables fast identification and collection of target cells is essential in this setting in order to shorten the tissue handling time and, consequently, to ensure RNA preservation. Here we describe a protocol for acquiring human pancreatic beta cells from surgical specimens to be used for transcriptomic studies 5. Small pieces of pancreas of about 0.5-1 cm3 were cut from the healthy appearing margins of resected pancreas specimens, embedded in Tissue-Tek O.C.T. Compound, immediately frozen in chilled 2-Methylbutane, and stored at -80 °C until sectioning. Forty serial sections of 10 μm thickness were cut on a cryostat under a -20 °C setting, transferred individually to glass slides, dried inside the cryostat for 1-2 min, and stored at -80 °C. Immediately before the laser microdissection procedure, sections were fixed in ice cold, freshly prepared 70% ethanol for 30 sec, washed by 5-6 dips in ice cold DEPC-treated water, and dehydrated by two one-minute incubations in ice cold 100% ethanol followed by xylene (which is used for tissue dehydration) for 4 min; tissue sections were then air-dried afterwards for 3-5 min. Importantly, all steps, except the incubation in xylene, were performed using ice-cold reagents - a modification over a previously described protocol 6. utilization of ice cold reagents resulted in a pronounced increase of the intrinsic autofluorescence of beta cells, and facilitated their recognition. For microdissection, four sections were dehydrated each time: two were placed into a foil-wrapped 50 ml tube, to protect the tissue from moisture and bleaching; the remaining two were immediately microdissected. This procedure was performed using a PALM MicroBeam instrument (Zeiss) employing the Auto Laser Pressure Catapulting (AutoLPC) mode. The completion of beta cell/islet dissection from four cryosections required no longer than 40-60 min. Cells were collected into one AdhesiveCap and lysed with 10 μl lysis buffer. Each single RNA specimen for transcriptomic analysis was obtained by combining 10 cell microdissected samples, followed by RNA extraction using the Pico Pure RNA Isolation Kit (Arcturus). This protocol improves the intrinsic autofluorescence of human beta cells, thus facilitating their rapid and accurate recognition and collection. Further improvement of this procedure could enable the dissection of phenotypically different beta cells, with possible implications for better understanding the changes associated with type 2 diabetes.
Medicine, Issue 71, Physiology, Anatomy, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Immunology, Surgery, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, laser microdissection, dissection, human beta cells, intrinsic autofluorescence, pancreas, partial resection, Diabetes type 2, transcriptomic studies, RNA analysis, islet
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A Multi-Parametric Islet Perifusion System within a Microfluidic Perifusion Device
Authors: Adeola F. Adewola, Yong Wang, Tricia Harvat, David T. Eddington, Dongyoung Lee, Jose Oberholzer.
Institutions: University of Illinois, Chicago, University of Illinois, Chicago.
A microfluidic islet perifusion device was developed for the assessment of dynamic insulin secretion of multiple islets and simultaneous fluorescence imaging of calcium influx and mitochondrial potential changes. The device consists of three layers: first layer contains an array of microscale wells (500 μm diameter and 150 μm depth) that help to immobilize the islets while exposed to flow and maximize the exposed surface area of the islets; the second layer contains a circular perifusion chamber (3 mm deep, 7 mm diameter); and the third layer contains an inlet-mixing channel that fans out before injection into the perifusion chamber (2 mm in width, 19 mm in length, and 500 μm in height) for optimizing the mixing efficiency prior to entering the perifusion chamber. The creation of various glucose gradients including a linear, bell shape, and square shapes also can be created in the microfluidic perifusion network and is demonstrated.
Cellular Biology, Issue 35, Microfluidics, Islet perifusion, glucose ramp, imaging, perifusion, beta cells, insulin secretion
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In situ Quantification of Pancreatic Beta-cell Mass in Mice
Authors: Abraham Kim, German Kilimnik, Manami Hara.
Institutions: University of Chicago.
Tracing changes of specific cell populations in health and disease is an important goal of biomedical research. The process of monitoring pancreatic beta-cell proliferation and islet growth is particularly challenging. We have developed a method to capture the distribution of beta-cells in the intact pancreas of transgenic mice with fluorescence-tagged beta-cells with a macro written for ImageJ ( Following pancreatic dissection and tissue clearing, the entire pancreas is captured as a virtual slice, after which the GFP-tagged beta-cells are examined. The analysis includes the quantification of total beta-cell area, islet number and size distribution with reference to specific parameters and locations for each islet and for small clusters of beta-cells. The entire distribution of islets can be plotted in three dimensions, and the information from the distribution on the size and shape of each islet allows a quantitative and qualitative comparison of changes in overall beta-cell area at a glance.
Cellular Biology, Issue 40, beta-cells, islets, mouse, pancreas
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