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Drug-tolerant cancer cells show reduced tumor-initiating capacity: depletion of CD44 cells and evidence for epigenetic mechanisms.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess high tumor-initiating capacity and have been reported to be resistant to therapeutics. Vice versa, therapy-resistant cancer cells seem to manifest CSC phenotypes and properties. It has been generally assumed that drug-resistant cancer cells may all be CSCs although the generality of this assumption is unknown. Here, we chronically treated Du145 prostate cancer cells with etoposide, paclitaxel and some experimental drugs (i.e., staurosporine and 2 paclitaxel analogs), which led to populations of drug-tolerant cells (DTCs). Surprisingly, these DTCs, when implanted either subcutaneously or orthotopically into NOD/SCID mice, exhibited much reduced tumorigenicity or were even non-tumorigenic. Drug-tolerant DLD1 colon cancer cells selected by a similar chronic selection protocol also displayed reduced tumorigenicity whereas drug-tolerant UC14 bladder cancer cells demonstrated either increased or decreased tumor-regenerating capacity. Drug-tolerant Du145 cells demonstrated low proliferative and clonogenic potential and were virtually devoid of CD44(+) cells. Prospective knockdown of CD44 in Du145 cells inhibited cell proliferation and tumor regeneration, whereas restoration of CD44 expression in drug-tolerant Du145 cells increased cell proliferation and partially increased tumorigenicity. Interestingly, drug-tolerant Du145 cells showed both increases and decreases in many "stemness" genes. Finally, evidence was provided that chronic drug exposure generated DTCs via epigenetic mechanisms involving molecules such as CD44 and KDM5A. Our results thus reveal that 1) not all DTCs are necessarily CSCs; 2) conventional chemotherapeutic drugs such as taxol and etoposide may directly target CD44(+) tumor-initiating cells; and 3) DTCs generated via chronic drug selection involve epigenetic mechanisms.
Authors: Samuel J. Vidal, S. Aidan Quinn, Janis de la Iglesia-Vicente, Dennis M. Bonal, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo, Adolfo Firpo-Betancourt, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Josep Domingo-Domenech.
Published: 03-14-2014
The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been considerably revisited over the last two decades. During this time CSCs have been identified and directly isolated from human tissues and serially propagated in immunodeficient mice, typically through antibody labeling of subpopulations of cells and fractionation by flow cytometry. However, the unique clinical features of prostate cancer have considerably limited the study of prostate CSCs from fresh human tumor samples. We recently reported the isolation of prostate CSCs directly from human tissues by virtue of their HLA class I (HLAI)-negative phenotype. Prostate cancer cells are harvested from surgical specimens and mechanically dissociated. A cell suspension is generated and labeled with fluorescently conjugated HLAI and stromal antibodies. Subpopulations of HLAI-negative cells are finally isolated using a flow cytometer. The principal limitation of this protocol is the frequently microscopic and multifocal nature of primary cancer in prostatectomy specimens. Nonetheless, isolated live prostate CSCs are suitable for molecular characterization and functional validation by transplantation in immunodeficient mice.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
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Isolation and Expansion of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor Cells Using the Neurosphere Assay
Authors: Hassan Azari, Sebastien Millette, Saeed Ansari, Maryam Rahman, Loic P. Deleyrolle, Brent A. Reynolds.
Institutions: University of Florida , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
Stem-like cells have been isolated in tumors such as breast, lung, colon, prostate and brain. A critical issue in all these tumors, especially in glioblastoma mutliforme (GBM), is to identify and isolate tumor initiating cell population(s) to investigate their role in tumor formation, progression, and recurrence. Understanding tumor initiating cell populations will provide clues to finding effective therapeutic approaches for these tumors. The neurosphere assay (NSA) due to its simplicity and reproducibility has been used as the method of choice for isolation and propagation of many of this tumor cells. This protocol demonstrates the neurosphere culture method to isolate and expand stem-like cells in surgically resected human GBM tumor tissue. The procedures include an initial chemical digestion and mechanical dissociation of tumor tissue, and subsequently plating the resulting single cell suspension in NSA culture. After 7-10 days, primary neurospheres of 150-200 μm in diameter can be observed and are ready for further passaging and expansion.
Neuroscience, Issue 56, Glioblastoma Multiforme, Tumor Cell, Neurosphere Assay, Isolation, Expansion
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Electrochemotherapy of Tumours
Authors: Gregor Sersa, Damijan Miklavcic.
Institutions: Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, University of Ljubljana.
Electrochemotherapy is a combined use of certain chemotherapeutic drugs and electric pulses applied to the treated tumour nodule. Local application of electric pulses to the tumour increases drug delivery into cells, specifically at the site of electric pulse application. Drug uptake by delivery of electric pulses is increased for only those chemotherapeutic drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical use. Clinical data collected within a number of clinical studies indicate that approximately 80% of the treated cutaneous and subcutaneous tumour nodules of different malignancies are in an objective response, from these, approximately 70% in complete response after a single application of electrochemotherapy. Usually only one treatment is needed, however, electrochemotherapy can be repeated several times every few weeks with equal effectiveness each time. The treatment results in an effective eradication of the treated nodules, with a good cosmetic effect without tissue scarring.
Medicine, Issue 22, electrochemotherapy, electroporation, cisplatin, bleomycin, malignant tumours, cutaneous lesions
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Trans-vivo Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Assay for Antigen Specific Regulation
Authors: Ewa Jankowska-Gan, Subramanya Hegde, William J. Burlingham.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health.
Delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) is a rapid in vivo manifestation of T cell-dependent immune response to a foreign antigen (Ag) that the host immune system has experienced in the recent past. DTH reactions are often divided into a sensitization phase, referring to the initial antigen experience, and a challenge phase, which usually follows several days after sensitization. The lack of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to a recall Ag demonstrated by skin testing is often regarded as an evidence of anergy. The traditional DTH assay has been effectively used in diagnosing many microbial infections. Despite sharing similar immune features such as lymphocyte infiltration, edema, and tissue necrosis, the direct DTH is not a feasible diagnostic technique in transplant patients because of the possibility of direct injection resulting in sensitization to donor antigens and graft loss. To avoid this problem, the human-to-mouse "trans-vivo" DTH assay was developed 1,2. This test is essentially a transfer DTH assay, in which human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and specific antigens were injected subcutaneously into the pinnae or footpad of a naïve mouse and DTH-like swelling is measured after 18-24 hr 3. The antigen presentation by human antigen presenting cells such as macrophages or DCs to T cells in highly vascular mouse tissue triggers the inflammatory cascade and attracts mouse immune cells resulting in swelling responses. The response is antigen-specific and requires prior antigen sensitization. A positive donor-reactive DTH response in the Tv-DTH assay reflects that the transplant patient has developed a pro-inflammatory immune disposition toward graft alloantigens. The most important feature of this assay is that it can also be used to detect regulatory T cells, which cause bystander suppression. Bystander suppression of a DTH recall response in the presence of donor antigen is characteristic of transplant recipients with accepted allografts 2,4-14. The monitoring of transplant recipients for alloreactivity and regulation by Tv-DTH may identify a subset of patients who could benefit from reduction of immunosuppression without elevated risk of rejection or deteriorating renal function. A promising area is the application of the Tv-DTH assay in monitoring of autoimmunity15,16 and also in tumor immunology 17.
Immunology, Issue 75, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, Surgery, Trans-vivo delayed type hypersensitivity, Tv-DTH, Donor antigen, Antigen-specific regulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC, T regulatory cells, severe combined immunodeficient mice, SCID, T cells, lymphocytes, inflammation, injection, mouse, animal model
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Mouse Bladder Wall Injection
Authors: Chi-Ling Fu, Charity A. Apelo, Baldemar Torres, Kim H. Thai, Michael H. Hsieh.
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine.
Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.
Medicine, Issue 53, stem cell, bladder cancer, intramural injection, bladder wall injection, bladder
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Patient Derived Cell Culture and Isolation of CD133+ Putative Cancer Stem Cells from Melanoma
Authors: Yvonne Welte, Cathrin Davies, Reinhold Schäfer, Christian R.A. Regenbrecht.
Institutions: Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Free University Berlin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
Despite improved treatments options for melanoma available today, patients with advanced malignant melanoma still have a poor prognosis for progression-free and overall survival. Therefore, translational research needs to provide further molecular evidence to improve targeted therapies for malignant melanomas. In the past, oncogenic mechanisms related to melanoma were extensively studied in established cell lines. On the way to more personalized treatment regimens based on individual genetic profiles, we propose to use patient-derived cell lines instead of generic cell lines. Together with high quality clinical data, especially on patient follow-up, these cells will be instrumental to better understand the molecular mechanisms behind melanoma progression. Here, we report the establishment of primary melanoma cultures from dissected fresh tumor tissue. This procedure includes mincing and dissociation of the tissue into single cells, removal of contaminations with erythrocytes and fibroblasts as well as primary culture and reliable verification of the cells' melanoma origin. Recent reports revealed that melanomas, like the majority of tumors, harbor a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which seem to exclusively fuel tumor initiation and progression towards the metastatic state. One of the key markers for CSC identification and isolation in melanoma is CD133. To isolate CD133+ CSCs from primary melanoma cultures, we have modified and optimized the Magnetic-Activated Cell Sorting (MACS) procedure from Miltenyi resulting in high sorting purity and viability of CD133+ CSCs and CD133- bulk, which can be cultivated and functionally analyzed thereafter.
Cancer Biology, Issue 73, Medicine, Stem Cell Biology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics, Oncology, Primary cell culture, melanoma, MACS, cancer stem cells, CD133, cancer, prostate cancer cells, melanoma, stem cells, cell culture, personalized treatment
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Generation of Subcutaneous and Intrahepatic Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenografts in Immunodeficient Mice
Authors: Sharif U. Ahmed, Murtuza Zair, Kui Chen, Matthew Iu, Feng He, Oyedele Adeyi, Sean P. Cleary, Anand Ghanekar.
Institutions: University Health Network, University Health Network, University Health Network.
In vivo experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that recapitulate the human disease provide a valuable platform for research into disease pathophysiology and for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapies. We present a variety of methods to generate subcutaneous or orthotopic human HCC xenografts in immunodeficient mice that could be utilized in a variety of research applications. With a focus on the use of primary tumor tissue from patients undergoing surgical resection as a starting point, we describe the preparation of cell suspensions or tumor fragments for xenografting. We describe specific techniques to xenograft these tissues i) subcutaneously; or ii) intrahepatically, either by direct implantation of tumor cells or fragments into the liver, or indirectly by injection of cells into the mouse spleen. We also describe the use of partial resection of the native mouse liver at the time of xenografting as a strategy to induce a state of active liver regeneration in the recipient mouse that may facilitate the intrahepatic engraftment of primary human tumor cells. The expected results of these techniques are illustrated. The protocols described have been validated using primary human HCC samples and xenografts, which typically perform less robustly than the well-established human HCC cell lines that are widely used and frequently cited in the literature. In comparison with cell lines, we discuss factors which may contribute to the relatively low chance of primary HCC engraftment in xenotransplantation models and comment on technical issues that may influence the kinetics of xenograft growth. We also suggest methods that should be applied to ensure that xenografts obtained accurately resemble parent HCC tissues.
Medicine, Issue 79, Liver Neoplasms, Hepatectomy, animal models, hepatocellular carcinoma, xenograft, cancer, liver, subcutaneous, intrahepatic, orthotopic, mouse, human, immunodeficient
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Directed Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells towards T Lymphocytes
Authors: Fengyang Lei, Rizwanul Haque, Xiaofang Xiong, Jianxun Song.
Institutions: Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine.
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a promising treatment for a variety of malignancies 1. CTLs can recognize malignant cells by interacting tumor antigens with the T cell receptors (TCR), and release cytotoxins as well as cytokines to kill malignant cells. It is known that less-differentiated and central-memory-like (termed highly reactive) CTLs are the optimal population for ACT-based immunotherapy, because these CTLs have a high proliferative potential, are less prone to apoptosis than more differentiated cells and have a higher ability to respond to homeostatic cytokines 2-7. However, due to difficulties in obtaining a high number of such CTLs from patients, there is an urgent need to find a new approach to generate highly reactive Ag-specific CTLs for successful ACT-based therapies. TCR transduction of the self-renewable stem cells for immune reconstitution has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases 8-10. However, the approach to obtain embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from patients is not feasible. Although the use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for therapeutic purposes has been widely applied in clinic 11-13, HSCs have reduced differentiation and proliferative capacities, and HSCs are difficult to expand in in vitro cell culture 14-16. Recent iPS cell technology and the development of an in vitro system for gene delivery are capable of generating iPS cells from patients without any surgical approach. In addition, like ESCs, iPS cells possess indefinite proliferative capacity in vitro, and have been shown to differentiate into hematopoietic cells. Thus, iPS cells have greater potential to be used in ACT-based immunotherapy compared to ESCs or HSCs. Here, we present methods for the generation of T lymphocytes from iPS cells in vitro, and in vivo programming of antigen-specific CTLs from iPS cells for promoting cancer immune surveillance. Stimulation in vitro with a Notch ligand drives T cell differentiation from iPS cells, and TCR gene transduction results in iPS cells differentiating into antigen-specific T cells in vivo, which prevents tumor growth. Thus, we demonstrate antigen-specific T cell differentiation from iPS cells. Our studies provide a potentially more efficient approach for generating antigen-specific CTLs for ACT-based therapies and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for diseases.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 63, Immunology, T cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, differentiation, Notch signaling, T cell receptor, adoptive cell transfer
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Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth and Isocitrate Dehydrogenase I Mutation
Authors: J. Geraldo Valadez, Anuraag Sarangi, Christopher J. Lundberg, Michael K. Cooper.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Veteran Affairs TVHS.
Malignant gliomas constitute a heterogeneous group of highly infiltrative glial neoplasms with distinct clinical and molecular features. Primary orthotopic xenografts recapitulate the histopathological and molecular features of malignant glioma subtypes in preclinical animal models. To model WHO grades III and IV malignant gliomas in transplantation assays, human tumor cells are xenografted into an orthotopic site, the brain, of immunocompromised mice. In contrast to secondary xenografts that utilize cultured tumor cells, human glioma cells are dissociated from resected specimens and transplanted without prior passage in tissue culture to generate primary xenografts. The procedure in this report details tumor sample preparation, intracranial transplantation into immunocompromised mice, monitoring for tumor engraftment and tumor harvesting for subsequent passage into recipient animals or analysis. Tumor cell preparation requires 2 hr and surgical procedure requires 20 min/animal.
Medicine, Issue 83, Glioma, Malignant glioma, primary orthotopic xenograft, isocitrate dehydrogenase
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Method for Novel Anti-Cancer Drug Development using Tumor Explants of Surgical Specimens
Authors: Kaushal Joshi, Habibe Demir, Ryosuke Yamada, Takeshi Miyazaki, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Ichiro Nakano.
Institutions: The Ohio State University Medical Center, The Ohio State University Medical Center.
The current therapies for malignant glioma have only palliative effect. For therapeutic development, one hurdle is the discrepancy of efficacy determined by current drug efficacy tests and the efficacy on patients. Thus, novel and reliable methods for evaluating drug efficacy are warranted in pre-clinical phase. In vitro culture of tumor tissues, including cell lines, has substantial phenotypic, genetic, and epigenetic alterations of cancer cells caused by artificial environment of cell culture, which may not reflect the biology of original tumors in situ. Xenograft models with the immunodeficient mice also have limitations, i.e., the lack of immune system and interspecies genetic and epigenetic discrepancies in microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate a novel method using the surgical specimens of malignant glioma as undissociated tumor blocks to evaluate treatment effects. To validate this method, data with the current first-line chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ), are described. We used the freshly-removed surgical specimen of malignant glioma for our experiments. We performed intratumoral injection of TMZ or other drug candidates, followed by incubation and analysis on surgical specimens. Here, we sought to establish a tumor tissue explant method as a platform to determine the efficacy of novel anti-cancer therapies so that we may be able to overcome, at least, some of the current limitations and fill the existing gap between the current experimental data and the efficacy on an actual patient's tumor. This method may have the potential to accelerate identifying novel chemotherapeutic agents for solid cancer treatment.
Medicine, Issue 53, Glioblastoma multiforme, glioma, temozolomide, therapeutics, drug design
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Generation of a Novel Dendritic-cell Vaccine Using Melanoma and Squamous Cancer Stem Cells
Authors: Qiao Li, Lin Lu, Huimin Tao, Carolyn Xue, Seagal Teitz-Tennenbaum, John H. Owen, Jeffrey S Moyer, Mark E.P. Prince, Alfred E. Chang, Max S. Wicha.
Institutions: University of Michigan, University of Michigan, University of Michigan.
We identified cancer stem cell (CSC)-enriched populations from murine melanoma D5 syngeneic to C57BL/6 mice and the squamous cancer SCC7 syngeneic to C3H mice using ALDEFLUOR/ALDH as a marker, and tested their immunogenicity using the cell lysate as a source of antigens to pulse dendritic cells (DCs). DCs pulsed with ALDHhigh CSC lysates induced significantly higher protective antitumor immunity than DCs pulsed with the lysates of unsorted whole tumor cell lysates in both models and in a lung metastasis setting and a s.c. tumor growth setting, respectively. This phenomenon was due to CSC vaccine-induced humoral as well as cellular anti-CSC responses. In particular, splenocytes isolated from the host subjected to CSC-DC vaccine produced significantly higher amount of IFNγ and GM-CSF than splenocytes isolated from the host subjected to unsorted tumor cell lysate pulsed-DC vaccine. These results support the efforts to develop an autologous CSC-based therapeutic vaccine for clinical use in an adjuvant setting.
Cancer Biology, Issue 83, Cancer stem cell (CSC), Dendritic cells (DC), Vaccine, Cancer immunotherapy, antitumor immunity, aldehyde dehydrogenase
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Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Authors: James Smadbeck, Meghan B. Peterson, George A. Khoury, Martin S. Taylor, Christodoulos A. Floudas.
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity. To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (, a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
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Enrichment for Chemoresistant Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells from Human Cell Lines
Authors: Jennifer M. Cole, Stancy Joseph, Christopher G. Sudhahar, Karen D. Cowden Dahl.
Institutions: Indiana University School of Medicine.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a subset of slow cycling and undifferentiated cells that divide asymmetrically to generate highly proliferative, invasive, and chemoresistant tumor cells. Therefore, CSCs are an attractive population of cells to target therapeutically. CSCs are predicted to contribute to a number of types of malignancies including those in the blood, brain, lung, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, and ovary. Isolating and enriching a tumor cell population for CSCs will enable researchers to study the properties, genetics, and therapeutic response of CSCs. We generated a protocol that reproducibly enriches for ovarian cancer CSCs from ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and OVCA429). Cell lines are treated with 20 µM cisplatin for 3 days. Surviving cells are isolated and cultured in a serum-free stem cell media containing cytokines and growth factors. We demonstrate an enrichment of these purified CSCs by analyzing the isolated cells for known stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, and Prom1 (CD133) and cell surface expression of CD177 and CD133. The CSCs exhibit increased chemoresistance. This method for isolation of CSCs is a useful tool for studying the role of CSCs in chemoresistance and tumor relapse.
Medicine, Issue 91, cancer stem cells, stem cell markers, ovarian cancer, chemoresistance, cisplatin, cancer progression
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Isolation of Stem Cells from Human Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts
Authors: Zeshaan Rasheed, Qiuju Wang, William Matsui.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a growing number of malignancies and are functionally defined by their ability to undergo self-renewal and produce differentiated progeny1. These properties allow CSCs to recapitulate the original tumor when injected into immunocompromised mice. CSCs within an epithelial malignancy were first described in breast cancer and found to display specific cell surface antigen expression (CD44+CD24low/-)2. Since then, CSCs have been identified in an increasing number of other human malignancies using CD44 and CD24 as well as a number of other surface antigens. Physiologic properties, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, have also been used to isolate CSCs from malignant tissues3-5. Recently, we and others identified CSCs from pancreatic adenocarcinoma based on ALDH activity and the expression of the cell surface antigens CD44 and CD24, and CD1336-8. These highly tumorigenic populations may or may not be overlapping and display other functions. We found that ALDH+ and CD44+CD24+ pancreatic CSCs are similarly tumorigenic, but ALDH+ cells are relatively more invasive8. In this protocol we describe a method to isolate viable pancreatic CSCs from low-passage human xenografts9. Xenografted tumors are harvested from mice and made into a single-cell suspension. Tissue debris and dead cells are separated from live cells and then stained using antibodies against CD44 and CD24 and using the ALDEFLUOR reagent, a fluorescent substrate of ALDH10. CSCs are then isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Isolated CSCs can then be used for analytical or functional assays requiring viable cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 43, mouse models, pancreatic cancer, cancer stem cell, xenograft, fluorescent activated cell sorting, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CD44, CD24
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Adaptation of Semiautomated Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Assays for Clinical and Preclinical Research Applications
Authors: Lori E. Lowes, Benjamin D. Hedley, Michael Keeney, Alison L. Allan.
Institutions: London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London Health Sciences Centre, Lawson Health Research Institute, Western University.
The majority of cancer-related deaths occur subsequent to the development of metastatic disease. This highly lethal disease stage is associated with the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). These rare cells have been demonstrated to be of clinical significance in metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. The current gold standard in clinical CTC detection and enumeration is the FDA-cleared CellSearch system (CSS). This manuscript outlines the standard protocol utilized by this platform as well as two additional adapted protocols that describe the detailed process of user-defined marker optimization for protein characterization of patient CTCs and a comparable protocol for CTC capture in very low volumes of blood, using standard CSS reagents, for studying in vivo preclinical mouse models of metastasis. In addition, differences in CTC quality between healthy donor blood spiked with cells from tissue culture versus patient blood samples are highlighted. Finally, several commonly discrepant items that can lead to CTC misclassification errors are outlined. Taken together, these protocols will provide a useful resource for users of this platform interested in preclinical and clinical research pertaining to metastasis and CTCs.
Medicine, Issue 84, Metastasis, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), CellSearch system, user defined marker characterization, in vivo, preclinical mouse model, clinical research
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Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Authors: Robert S. McNeill, Ralf S. Schmid, Ryan E. Bash, Mark Vitucci, Kristen K. White, Andrea M. Werneke, Brian H. Constance, Byron Huff, C. Ryan Miller.
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
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Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?
Authors: Julia Y. Ljubimova, Hui Ding, Jose Portilla-Arias, Rameshwar Patil, Pallavi R. Gangalum, Alexandra Chesnokova, Satoshi Inoue, Arthur Rekechenetskiy, Tala Nassoura, Keith L. Black, Eggehard Holler.
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
Tumors with similar grade and morphology often respond differently to the same treatment because of variations in molecular profiling. To account for this diversity, personalized medicine is developed for silencing malignancy associated genes. Nano drugs fit these needs by targeting tumor and delivering antisense oligonucleotides for silencing of genes. As drugs for the treatment are often administered repeatedly, absence of toxicity and negligible immune response are desirable. In the example presented here, a nano medicine is synthesized from the biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic platform polymalic acid by controlled chemical ligation of antisense oligonucleotides and tumor targeting molecules. The synthesis and treatment is exemplified for human Her2-positive breast cancer using an experimental mouse model. The case can be translated towards synthesis and treatment of other tumors.
Chemistry, Issue 88, Cancer treatment, personalized medicine, polymalic acid, nanodrug, biopolymer, targeting, host compatibility, biodegradability
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Murine Model for Non-invasive Imaging to Detect and Monitor Ovarian Cancer Recurrence
Authors: Natalia J. Sumi, Eydis Lima, John Pizzonia, Sean P. Orton, Vinicius Craveiro, Wonduk Joo, Jennie C. Holmberg, Marta Gurrea, Yang Yang-Hartwich, Ayesha Alvero, Gil Mor.
Institutions: Yale University School of Medicine, NatureMost Laboratories, Bruker Preclinical Imaging.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Although patients initially respond to the current standard of care consisting of surgical debulking and combination chemotherapy consisting of platinum and taxane compounds, almost 90% of patients recur within a few years. In these patients the development of chemoresistant disease limits the efficacy of currently available chemotherapy agents and therefore contributes to the high mortality. To discover novel therapy options that can target recurrent disease, appropriate animal models that closely mimic the clinical profile of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer are required. The challenge in monitoring intra-peritoneal (i.p.) disease limits the use of i.p. models and thus most xenografts are established subcutaneously. We have developed a sensitive optical imaging platform that allows the detection and anatomical location of i.p. tumor mass. The platform includes the use of optical reporters that extend from the visible light range to near infrared, which in combination with 2-dimensional X-ray co-registration can provide anatomical location of molecular signals. Detection is significantly improved by the use of a rotation system that drives the animal to multiple angular positions for 360 degree imaging, allowing the identification of tumors that are not visible in single orientation. This platform provides a unique model to non-invasively monitor tumor growth and evaluate the efficacy of new therapies for the prevention or treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.
Cancer Biology, Issue 93, ovarian cancer, recurrence, in vivo imaging, tumor burden, cancer stem cells, chemotherapy
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An Orthotopic Murine Model of Human Prostate Cancer Metastasis
Authors: Janet Pavese, Irene M. Ogden, Raymond C. Bergan.
Institutions: Northwestern University, Northwestern University, Northwestern University.
Our laboratory has developed a novel orthotopic implantation model of human prostate cancer (PCa). As PCa death is not due to the primary tumor, but rather the formation of distinct metastasis, the ability to effectively model this progression pre-clinically is of high value. In this model, cells are directly implanted into the ventral lobe of the prostate in Balb/c athymic mice, and allowed to progress for 4-6 weeks. At experiment termination, several distinct endpoints can be measured, such as size and molecular characterization of the primary tumor, the presence and quantification of circulating tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow, and formation of metastasis to the lung. In addition to a variety of endpoints, this model provides a picture of a cells ability to invade and escape the primary organ, enter and survive in the circulatory system, and implant and grow in a secondary site. This model has been used effectively to measure metastatic response to both changes in protein expression as well as to response to small molecule therapeutics, in a short turnaround time.
Medicine, Issue 79, Urogenital System, Male Urogenital Diseases, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Life Sciences (General), Prostate Cancer, Metastasis, Mouse Model, Drug Discovery, Molecular Biology
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Pre-clinical Evaluation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Acute Leukemia
Authors: Sandra Christoph, Alisa B. Lee-Sherick, Susan Sather, Deborah DeRyckere, Douglas K. Graham.
Institutions: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University Hospital of Essen.
Receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and progression of many cancers, including both leukemia and solid tumors, and are attractive druggable therapeutic targets. Here we describe an efficient four-step strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of acute leukemia. Initially, western blot analysis is used to confirm target inhibition in cultured leukemia cells. Functional activity is then evaluated using clonogenic assays in methylcellulose or soft agar cultures. Experimental compounds that demonstrate activity in cell culture assays are evaluated in vivo using NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice transplanted orthotopically with human leukemia cell lines. Initial in vivo pharmacodynamic studies evaluate target inhibition in leukemic blasts isolated from the bone marrow. This approach is used to determine the dose and schedule of administration required for effective target inhibition. Subsequent studies evaluate the efficacy of the TKIs in vivo using luciferase expressing leukemia cells, thereby allowing for non-invasive bioluminescent monitoring of leukemia burden and assessment of therapeutic response using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. This strategy has been effective for evaluation of TKIs in vitro and in vivo and can be applied for identification of molecularly-targeted agents with therapeutic potential or for direct comparison and prioritization of multiple compounds.
Medicine, Issue 79, Leukemia, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Therapeutics, novel small molecule inhibitor, receptor tyrosine kinase, leukemia
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Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting
Authors: Chitra Venugopal, Nicole M. McFarlane, Sara Nolte, Branavan Manoranjan, Sheila K. Singh.
Institutions: McMaster University .
Brain tumors are typically comprised of morphologically diverse cells that express a variety of neural lineage markers. Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), possess an ability to differentiate along multiple lineages, self-renew, and initiate tumors in vivo. We applied culture conditions originally used for normal neural stem cells (NSCs) to a variety of human brain tumors and found that this culture method specifically selects for stem-like populations. Serum-free medium (NSC) allows for the maintenance of an undifferentiated stem cell state, and the addition of bFGF and EGF allows for the proliferation of multi-potent, self-renewing, and expandable tumorspheres. To further characterize each tumor's BTIC population, we evaluate cell surface markers by flow cytometry. We may also sort populations of interest for more specific characterization. Self-renewal assays are performed on single BTICs sorted into 96 well plates; the formation of tumorspheres following incubation at 37 °C indicates the presence of a stem or progenitor cell. Multiple cell numbers of a particular population can also be sorted in different wells for limiting dilution analysis, to analyze self-renewal capacity. We can also study differential gene expression within a particular cell population by using single cell RT-PCR. The following protocols describe our procedures for the dissociation and culturing of primary human samples to enrich for BTIC populations, as well as the dissociation of tumorspheres. Also included are protocols for staining for flow cytometry analysis or sorting, self-renewal assays, and single cell RT-PCR.
Cancer Biology, Issue 67, Stem Cell Biology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, BTIC (brain tumor initiating cells), tumorspheres, self-renewal, flow cytometry, single cell RT-PCR
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In vivo Bioluminescent Imaging of Mammary Tumors Using IVIS Spectrum
Authors: Ed Lim, Kshitij D Modi, JaeBeom Kim.
Institutions: Caliper Life Sciences.
4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells can be implanted sub-cutaneously in nu/nu mice to form palpable tumors in 15 to 20 days. This xenograft tumor model system is valuable for the pre-clinical in vivo evaluation of putative antitumor compounds. The 4T1 cell line has been engineered to constitutively express the firefly luciferase gene (luc2). When mice carrying 4T1-luc2 tumors are injected with Luciferin the tumors emit a visual light signal that can be monitored using a sensitive optical imaging system like the IVIS Spectrum. The photon flux from the tumor is proportional to the number of light emitting cells and the signal can be measured to monitor tumor growth and development. IVIS is calibrated to enable absolute quantitation of the bioluminescent signal and longitudinal studies can be performed over many months and over several orders of signal magnitude without compromising the quantitative result. Tumor growth can be monitored for several days by bioluminescence before the tumor size becomes palpable or measurable by traditional physical means. This rapid monitoring can provide insight into early events in tumor development or lead to shorter experimental procedures. Tumor cell death and necrosis due to hypoxia or drug treatment is indicated early by a reduction in the bioluminescent signal. This cell death might not be accompanied by a reduction in tumor size as measured by physical means. The ability to see early events in tumor necrosis has significant impact on the selection and development of therapeutic agents. Quantitative imaging of tumor growth using IVIS provides precise quantitation and accelerates the experimental process to generate results.
Cellular Biology, Issue 26, tumor, mammary, mouse, bioluminescence, in vivo, imaging, IVIS, luciferase, luciferin
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