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Prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 expression in human conjunctival epithelium and its changes in various ocular surface disorders.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
In our earlier genome-wide association study on Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), we found that in Japanese patients with these severe ocular surface complications there was an association with prostaglandin E receptor 3 (EP3) gene (PTGER3) polymorphisms. We also reported that EP3 is dominantly expressed in the ocular surface-, especially the conjunctival epithelium, and suggested that EP3 in the conjunctival epithelium may down-regulate ocular surface inflammation. In the current study we investigated the expression of EP3 protein in the conjunctiva of patients with various ocular surface diseases such as SJS/TEN, chemical eye burns, Moorens ulcers, and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP).
Authors: Mohit Parekh, Stefano Ferrari, Enzo Di Iorio, Vanessa Barbaro, Davide Camposampiero, Marianthi Karali, Diego Ponzin, Gianni Salvalaio.
Published: 06-12-2012
Enucleation is the process of retrieving the ocular globe from a cadaveric donor leaving the rest of the globe undisturbed. Excision refers to the retrieval of ocular tissues, especially cornea, by cutting it separate from the ocular globe. Evisceration is the process of removing the internal organs referred here as retina. The ocular globe consists of the cornea, the sclera, the vitreous body, the lens, the iris, the retina, the choroid, muscles etc (Suppl. Figure 1). When a patient is suffering from corneal damage, the cornea needs to be removed and a healthy one must be transplanted by keratoplastic surgeries. Genetic disorders or defects in retinal function can compromise vision. Human ocular globes can be used for various surgical procedures such as eye banking, transplantation of human cornea or sclera and research on ocular tissues. However, there is little information available on human corneal and retinal excision, probably due to the limited accessibility to human tissues. Most of the studies describing similar procedures are performed on animal models. Research scientists rely on the availability of properly dissected and well-conserved ocular tissues in order to extend the knowledge on human eye development, homeostasis and function. As we receive high amount of ocular globes out of which approximately 40% (Table 1) of them are used for research purposes, we are able to perform huge amount of experiments on these tissues, defining techniques to excise and preserve them regularly. The cornea is an avascular tissue which enables the transmission of light onto the retina and for this purpose should always maintain a good degree of transparency. Within the cornea, the limbus region, which is a reservoir of the stem cells, helps the reconstruction of epithelial cells and restricts the overgrowth of the conjunctiva maintaining corneal transparency and clarity. The size and thickness of the cornea are critical for clear vision, as changes in either of them could lead to distracted, unclear vision. The cornea comprises of 5 layers; a) epithelium, b) Bowman's layer, c) stroma, d) Descemet's membrane and e) endothelium. All layers should function properly to ensure clear vision4,5,6. The choroid is the intermediate tunic between the sclera and retina, bounded on the interior by the Bruch's membrane and is responsible for blood flow in the eye. The choroid also helps to regulate the temperature and supplies nourishment to the outer layers of the retina5,6. The retina is a layer of nervous tissue that covers the back of the ocular globe (Suppl. Figure 1) and consists of two parts: a photoreceptive part and a non-receptive part. The retina helps to receive the light from the cornea and lens and converts it into the chemical energy eventually transmitted to the brain with help of the optic nerve5,6. The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for the dissection of corneal and retinal tissues from human ocular globes. Avoiding cross-contamination with adjacent tissues and preserving RNA integrity is of fundamental importance as such tissues are indispensable for research purposes aimed at (i) characterizing the transcriptome of the ocular tissues, (ii) isolating stem cells for regenerative medicine projects, and (iii) evaluating histological differences between tissues from normal/affected subjects. In this paper we describe the technique we currently use to remove the cornea, the choroid and retinal tissues from an ocular globe. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the dissection of the human ocular globe and the excision of corneal and retinal tissues. The accompanying video will help researchers to learn an appropriate technique for the retrieval of precious human tissues which are difficult to find regularly.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
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Combination of Microstereolithography and Electrospinning to Produce Membranes Equipped with Niches for Corneal Regeneration
Authors: Ílida Ortega, Farshid Sefat, Pallavi Deshpande, Thomas Paterson, Charanya Ramachandran, Anthony J. Ryan, Sheila MacNeil, Frederik Claeyssens.
Institutions: University of Sheffield, University of Sheffield, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute.
Corneal problems affect millions of people worldwide reducing their quality of life significantly. Corneal disease can be caused by illnesses such as Aniridia or Steven Johnson Syndrome as well as by external factors such as chemical burns or radiation. Current treatments are (i) the use of corneal grafts and (ii) the use of stem cell expanded in the laboratory and delivered on carriers (e.g., amniotic membrane); these treatments are relatively successful but unfortunately they can fail after 3-5 years. There is a need to design and manufacture new corneal biomaterial devices able to mimic in detail the physiological environment where stem cells reside in the cornea. Limbal stem cells are located in the limbus (circular area between cornea and sclera) in specific niches known as the Palisades of Vogt. In this work we have developed a new platform technology which combines two cutting-edge manufacturing techniques (microstereolithography and electrospinning) for the fabrication of corneal membranes that mimic to a certain extent the limbus. Our membranes contain artificial micropockets which aim to provide cells with protection as the Palisades of Vogt do in the eye.
Bioengineering, Issue 91, electrospinning, microstereolithography, stem cell niche, storage, limbal explants
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Manipulating the Murine Lacrimal Gland
Authors: Jennifer K. Finley, D'Juan Farmer, Elaine Emmerson, Noel Cruz Pacheco, Sarah M. Knox.
Institutions: University of California San Francisco.
The lacrimal gland (LG) secretes aqueous tears necessary for maintaining the structure and function of the cornea, a transparent tissue essential for vision. In the human a single LG resides in the orbit above the lateral end of each eye delivering tears to the ocular surface through 3 - 5 ducts. The mouse has three pairs of major ocular glands, the most studied of which is the exorbital lacrimal gland (LG) located anterior and ventral to the ear. Similar to other glandular organs, the LG develops through the process of epithelial branching morphogenesis in which a single epithelial bud within a condensed mesenchyme undergoes multiple rounds of bud and duct formation to form an intricate interconnected network of secretory acini and ducts. This elaborate process has been well documented in many other epithelial organs such as the pancreas and salivary gland. However, the LG has been much less explored and the mechanisms controlling morphogenesis are poorly understood. We suspect that this under-representation as a model system is a consequence of the difficulties associated with finding, dissecting and culturing the LG. Thus, here we describe dissection techniques for harvesting embryonic and post-natal LG and methods for ex vivo culture of the tissue.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, lacrimal gland, ex vivo, branching morphogenesis, organ culture, embryogenesis
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Evisceration of Mouse Vitreous and Retina for Proteomic Analyses
Authors: Jessica M. Skeie, Stephen H. Tsang, Vinit B. Mahajan.
Institutions: University of Iowa, University of Iowa, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
While the mouse retina has emerged as an important genetic model for inherited retinal disease, the mouse vitreous remains to be explored. The vitreous is a highly aqueous extracellular matrix overlying the retina where intraocular as well as extraocular proteins accumulate during disease.1-3 Abnormal interactions between vitreous and retina underlie several diseases such as retinal detachment, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy.1,4 The relative mouse vitreous volume is significantly smaller than the human vitreous (Figure 1), since the mouse lens occupies nearly 75% of its eye.5 This has made biochemical studies of mouse vitreous challenging. In this video article, we present a technique to dissect and isolate the mouse vitreous from the retina, which will allow use of transgenic mouse models to more clearly define the role of this extracellular matrix in the development of vitreoretinal diseases.
Cellular Biology, Issue 50, mouse, vitreous, retina, proteomics, superoxide dismutase
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Recurrent Herpetic Stromal Keratitis in Mice, a Model for Studying Human HSK
Authors: Jessica Morris, Patrick M. Stuart, Megan Rogge, Chloe Potter, Nipun Gupta, Xiao-Tang Yin.
Institutions: Saint Louis University.
Herpetic eye disease, termed herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), is a potentially blinding infection of the cornea that results in over 300,000 clinical visits each year for treatment. Between 1 and 2 percent of those patients with clinical disease will experience loss of vision of the infected cornea. The vast majority of these cases are the result of reactivation of a latent infection by herpes simplex type I virus and not due to acute disease. Interestingly, the acute infection is the model most often used to study this disease. However, it was felt that a recurrent model of HSK would be more reflective of what occurs during clinical disease. The recurrent animal models for HSK have employed both rabbits and mice. The advantage of rabbits is that they experience reactivation from latency absent any known stimulus. That said, it is difficult to explore the role that many immunological factors play in recurrent HSK because the rabbit model does not have the immunological and genetic resources that the mouse has. We chose to use the mouse model for recurrent HSK because it has the advantage of there being many resources available and also we know when reactivation will occur because reactivation is induced by exposure to UV-B light. Thus far, this model has allowed those laboratories using it to define several immunological factors that are important to this disease. It has also allowed us to test both therapeutic and vaccine efficacy.
Infection, Issue 70, Immunology, Virology, Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Ophthalmology, Herpes, herpetic stromal keratitis, HSK, keratitis, pathogenesis, clinical evaluation, virus, eye, mouse, animal model
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A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Authors: Daniel T. Claiborne, Jessica L. Prince, Eric Hunter.
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro replication of chronically derived gag-pro sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
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Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology
Authors: F. Aura Kullmann, Stephanie L. Daugherty, William C. de Groat, Lori A. Birder.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to pharmaceutical development of compounds currently used clinically for bladder management.
Medicine, Issue 90, Krebs, species differences, in vitro, smooth muscle contractility, neural stimulation
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High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry
Authors: Subarna Bhattacharya, Paul W. Burridge, Erin M. Kropp, Sandra L. Chuppa, Wai-Meng Kwok, Joseph C. Wu, Kenneth R. Boheler, Rebekah L. Gundry.
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Stanford University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Hong Kong University, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.
There is an urgent need to develop approaches for repairing the damaged heart, discovering new therapeutic drugs that do not have toxic effects on the heart, and improving strategies to accurately model heart disease. The potential of exploiting human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology to generate cardiac muscle “in a dish” for these applications continues to generate high enthusiasm. In recent years, the ability to efficiently generate cardiomyogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has greatly improved, offering us new opportunities to model very early stages of human cardiac development not otherwise accessible. In contrast to many previous methods, the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol described here does not require cell aggregation or the addition of Activin A or BMP4 and robustly generates cultures of cells that are highly positive for cardiac troponin I and T (TNNI3, TNNT2), iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-4 (IRX4), myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform (MLC2v) and myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform (MLC2a) by day 10 across all human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and hiPSC lines tested to date. Cells can be passaged and maintained for more than 90 days in culture. The strategy is technically simple to implement and cost-effective. Characterization of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent cells often includes the analysis of reference markers, both at the mRNA and protein level. For protein analysis, flow cytometry is a powerful analytical tool for assessing quality of cells in culture and determining subpopulation homogeneity. However, technical variation in sample preparation can significantly affect quality of flow cytometry data. Thus, standardization of staining protocols should facilitate comparisons among various differentiation strategies. Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described.
Cellular Biology, Issue 91, human induced pluripotent stem cell, flow cytometry, directed differentiation, cardiomyocyte, IRX4, TNNI3, TNNT2, MCL2v, MLC2a
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Strategies for Study of Neuroprotection from Cold-preconditioning
Authors: Heidi M. Mitchell, David M. White, Richard P. Kraig.
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident. Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro model that closely reflects their in vivo counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning.
Neuroscience, Issue 43, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, hippocampus, slice culture, immunohistochemistry, neural-immune, gene expression, real-time PCR
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Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Authors: Laura E. Brown, Celine Fuchs, Martin W. Nicholson, F. Anne Stephenson, Alex M. Thomson, Jasmina N. Jovanovic.
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA receptors (GABAARs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials. During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAARs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAAR subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAAR subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAARs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
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Intravitreous Injection for Establishing Ocular Diseases Model
Authors: Kin Chiu, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Kwok-Fai So.
Institutions: The University of Hong Kong - HKU.
Intravitreous injection is a widely used technique in visual sciences research. It can be used to establish animal models with ocular diseases or as direct application of local treatment. This video introduces how to use simple and inexpensive tools to finish the intravitreous injection procedure. Use of a 1 ml syringe, instead of a hemilton syringe, is used. Practical tips for how to make appropriate injection needles using glass pipettes with perfect tips, and how to easily connect the syringe needle with the glass pipette tightly together, are given. To conduct a good intravitreous injection, there are three aspects to be observed: 1) injection site should not disrupt retina structure; 2) bleeding should be avoided to reduce the risk of infection; 3) lens should be untouched to avoid traumatic cataract. In brief, the most important point is to reduce the interruption of normal ocular structure. To avoid interruption of retina, the superior nasal region of rat eye was chosen. Also, the puncture point of the needle was at the par planar, which was about 1.5 mm from the limbal region of the rat eye. A small amount of vitreous is gently pushed out through the puncture hole to reduce the intraocular pressure before injection. With the 45° injection angle, it is less likely to cause traumatic cataract in the rat eye, thus avoiding related complications and influence from lenticular factors. In this operation, there was no cutting of the conjunctiva and ocular muscle, no bleeding. With quick and minor injury, a successful intravitreous injection can be done in minutes. The injection set outlined in this particular protocol is specific for intravitreous injection. However, the methods and materials presented here can also be used for other injection procedures in drug delivery to the brain, spinal cord or other organs in small mammals.
Neuroscience, Issue 8, eye, injection, rat
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Laser-Induced Chronic Ocular Hypertension Model on SD Rats
Authors: Kin Chiu, Raymond Chang, Kwok-Fai So.
Institutions: The University of Hong Kong - HKU.
Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness in the world. Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor. Laser photocoagulation induced ocular hypertension is one of the well established animal models. This video demonstrates how to induce ocular hypertension by Argon laser photocoagulation in rat.
Neuroscience, Issue 10, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, rat
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A Laser-induced Mouse Model of Chronic Ocular Hypertension to Characterize Visual Defects
Authors: Liang Feng, Hui Chen, Genn Suyeoka, Xiaorong Liu.
Institutions: Northwestern University, Northwestern University.
Glaucoma, frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), is one of the leading causes of blindness. We sought to establish a mouse model of ocular hypertension to mimic human high-tension glaucoma. Here laser illumination is applied to the corneal limbus to photocoagulate the aqueous outflow, inducing angle closure. The changes of IOP are monitored using a rebound tonometer before and after the laser treatment. An optomotor behavioral test is used to measure corresponding changes in visual capacity. The representative result from one mouse which developed sustained IOP elevation after laser illumination is shown. A decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity is observed in this ocular hypertensive mouse. Together, our study introduces a valuable model system to investigate neuronal degeneration and the underlying molecular mechanisms in glaucomatous mice.
Medicine, Issue 78, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Neuroscience, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Ophthalmology, Retinal Neurons, Retinal Neurons, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ocular Hypertension, Retinal Degeneration, Vision Tests, Visual Acuity, Eye Diseases, Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC), Ocular Hypertension, Laser Photocoagulation, Intraocular pressure (IOP), Tonometer; Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Optomotor, animal model
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Video-oculography in Mice
Authors: Marcel de Jeu, Chris I. De Zeeuw.
Institutions: Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Royal Dutch Academy of Arts & Sciences (KNAW).
Eye movements are very important in order to track an object or to stabilize an image on the retina during movement. Animals without a fovea, such as the mouse, have a limited capacity to lock their eyes onto a target. In contrast to these target directed eye movements, compensatory ocular eye movements are easily elicited in afoveate animals1,2,3,4. Compensatory ocular movements are generated by processing vestibular and optokinetic information into a command signal that will drive the eye muscles. The processing of the vestibular and optokinetic information can be investigated separately and together, allowing the specification of a deficit in the oculomotor system. The oculomotor system can be tested by evoking an optokinetic reflex (OKR), vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) or a visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VVOR). The OKR is a reflex movement that compensates for "full-field" image movements on the retina, whereas the VOR is a reflex eye movement that compensates head movements. The VVOR is a reflex eye movement that uses both vestibular as well as optokinetic information to make the appropriate compensation. The cerebellum monitors and is able to adjust these compensatory eye movements. Therefore, oculography is a very powerful tool to investigate brain-behavior relationship under normal as well as under pathological conditions (f.e. of vestibular, ocular and/or cerebellar origin). Testing the oculomotor system, as a behavioral paradigm, is interesting for several reasons. First, the oculomotor system is a well understood neural system5. Second, the oculomotor system is relative simple6; the amount of possible eye movement is limited by its ball-in-socket architecture ("single joint") and the three pairs of extra-ocular muscles7. Third, the behavioral output and sensory input can easily be measured, which makes this a highly accessible system for quantitative analysis8. Many behavioral tests lack this high level of quantitative power. And finally, both performance as well as plasticity of the oculomotor system can be tested, allowing research on learning and memory processes9. Genetically modified mice are nowadays widely available and they form an important source for the exploration of brain functions at various levels10. In addition, they can be used as models to mimic human diseases. Applying oculography on normal, pharmacologically-treated or genetically modified mice is a powerful research tool to explore the underlying physiology of motor behaviors under normal and pathological conditions. Here, we describe how to measure video-oculography in mice8.
Neuroscience, Issue 65, Physiology, Medicine, mouse mutants, pupil tracking, motor learning, motor performance, cerebellum, olivocerebellar system, vestibulo-ocular reflex, optokinetic reflex, ophthalmology, oculography
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Three Dimensional Vestibular Ocular Reflex Testing Using a Six Degrees of Freedom Motion Platform
Authors: Joyce Dits, Mark M.J. Houben, Johannes van der Steen.
Institutions: Erasmus MC, TNO Human Factors.
The vestibular organ is a sensor that measures angular and linear accelerations with six degrees of freedom (6DF). Complete or partial defects in the vestibular organ results in mild to severe equilibrium problems, such as vertigo, dizziness, oscillopsia, gait unsteadiness nausea and/or vomiting. A good and frequently used measure to quantify gaze stabilization is the gain, which is defined as the magnitude of compensatory eye movements with respect to imposed head movements. To test vestibular function more fully one has to realize that 3D VOR ideally generates compensatory ocular rotations not only with a magnitude (gain) equal and opposite to the head rotation but also about an axis that is co-linear with the head rotation axis (alignment). Abnormal vestibular function thus results in changes in gain and changes in alignment of the 3D VOR response. Here we describe a method to measure 3D VOR using whole body rotation on a 6DF motion platform. Although the method also allows testing translation VOR responses 1, we limit ourselves to a discussion of the method to measure 3D angular VOR. In addition, we restrict ourselves here to description of data collected in healthy subjects in response to angular sinusoidal and impulse stimulation. Subjects are sitting upright and receive whole-body small amplitude sinusoidal and constant acceleration impulses. Sinusoidal stimuli (f = 1 Hz, A = 4°) were delivered about the vertical axis and about axes in the horizontal plane varying between roll and pitch at increments of 22.5° in azimuth. Impulses were delivered in yaw, roll and pitch and in the vertical canal planes. Eye movements were measured using the scleral search coil technique 2. Search coil signals were sampled at a frequency of 1 kHz. The input-output ratio (gain) and misalignment (co-linearity) of the 3D VOR were calculated from the eye coil signals 3. Gain and co-linearity of 3D VOR depended on the orientation of the stimulus axis. Systematic deviations were found in particular during horizontal axis stimulation. In the light the eye rotation axis was properly aligned with the stimulus axis at orientations 0° and 90° azimuth, but gradually deviated more and more towards 45° azimuth. The systematic deviations in misalignment for intermediate axes can be explained by a low gain for torsion (X-axis or roll-axis rotation) and a high gain for vertical eye movements (Y-axis or pitch-axis rotation (see Figure 2). Because intermediate axis stimulation leads a compensatory response based on vector summation of the individual eye rotation components, the net response axis will deviate because the gain for X- and Y-axis are different. In darkness the gain of all eye rotation components had lower values. The result was that the misalignment in darkness and for impulses had different peaks and troughs than in the light: its minimum value was reached for pitch axis stimulation and its maximum for roll axis stimulation. Case Presentation Nine subjects participated in the experiment. All subjects gave their informed consent. The experimental procedure was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Erasmus University Medical Center and adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki for research involving human subjects. Six subjects served as controls. Three subjects had a unilateral vestibular impairment due to a vestibular schwannoma. The age of control subjects (six males and three females) ranged from 22 to 55 years. None of the controls had visual or vestibular complaints due to neurological, cardio vascular and ophthalmic disorders. The age of the patients with schwannoma varied between 44 and 64 years (two males and one female). All schwannoma subjects were under medical surveillance and/or had received treatment by a multidisciplinary team consisting of an othorhinolaryngologist and a neurosurgeon of the Erasmus University Medical Center. Tested patients all had a right side vestibular schwannoma and underwent a wait and watch policy (Table 1; subjects N1-N3) after being diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma. Their tumors had been stabile for over 8-10 years on magnetic resonance imaging.
Neurobiology, Issue 75, Neuroscience, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Ophthalmology, vestibulo ocular reflex, eye movements, torsion, balance disorders, rotation translation, equilibrium, eye rotation, motion, body rotation, vestibular organ, clinical techniques
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In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio
Authors: Adrienne R. Niederriter, Erica E. Davis, Christelle Golzio, Edwin C. Oh, I-Chun Tsai, Nicholas Katsanis.
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Duke University Medical Center.
Here, we present methods for the development of assays to query potentially clinically significant nonsynonymous changes using in vivo complementation in zebrafish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a useful animal system due to their experimental tractability; embryos are transparent to enable facile viewing, undergo rapid development ex vivo, and can be genetically manipulated.1 These aspects have allowed for significant advances in the analysis of embryogenesis, molecular processes, and morphogenetic signaling. Taken together, the advantages of this vertebrate model make zebrafish highly amenable to modeling the developmental defects in pediatric disease, and in some cases, adult-onset disorders. Because the zebrafish genome is highly conserved with that of humans (~70% orthologous), it is possible to recapitulate human disease states in zebrafish. This is accomplished either through the injection of mutant human mRNA to induce dominant negative or gain of function alleles, or utilization of morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides to suppress genes to mimic loss of function variants. Through complementation of MO-induced phenotypes with capped human mRNA, our approach enables the interpretation of the deleterious effect of mutations on human protein sequence based on the ability of mutant mRNA to rescue a measurable, physiologically relevant phenotype. Modeling of the human disease alleles occurs through microinjection of zebrafish embryos with MO and/or human mRNA at the 1-4 cell stage, and phenotyping up to seven days post fertilization (dpf). This general strategy can be extended to a wide range of disease phenotypes, as demonstrated in the following protocol. We present our established models for morphogenetic signaling, craniofacial, cardiac, vascular integrity, renal function, and skeletal muscle disorder phenotypes, as well as others.
Molecular Biology, Issue 78, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Developmental Biology, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Genomics, Medical, zebrafish, in vivo, morpholino, human disease modeling, transcription, PCR, mRNA, DNA, Danio rerio, animal model
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Techniques for Processing Eyes Implanted With a Retinal Prosthesis for Localized Histopathological Analysis
Authors: David A. X. Nayagam, Ceara McGowan, Joel Villalobos, Richard A. Williams, Cesar Salinas-LaRosa, Penny McKelvie, Irene Lo, Meri Basa, Justin Tan, Chris E. Williams.
Institutions: Bionics Institute, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, University of Melbourne, University of Melbourne.
With the recent development of retinal prostheses, it is important to develop reliable techniques for assessing the safety of these devices in preclinical studies. However, the standard fixation, preparation, and automated histology procedures are not ideal. Here we describe new procedures for evaluating the health of the retina directly adjacent to an implant. Retinal prostheses feature electrode arrays in contact with eye tissue. Previous methods have not been able to spatially localize the ocular tissue adjacent to individual electrodes within the array. In addition, standard histological processing often results in gross artifactual detachment of the retinal layers when assessing implanted eyes. Consequently, it has been difficult to assess localized damage, if present, caused by implantation and stimulation of an implanted electrode array. Therefore, we developed a method for identifying and localizing the ocular tissue adjacent to implanted electrodes using a (color-coded) dye marking scheme, and we modified an eye fixation technique to minimize artifactual retinal detachment. This method also rendered the sclera translucent, enabling localization of individual electrodes and specific parts of an implant. Finally, we used a matched control to increase the power of the histopathological assessments. In summary, this method enables reliable and efficient discrimination and assessment of the retinal cytoarchitecture in an implanted eye.
Medicine, Issue 78, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Surgery, Ophthalmology, Pathology, Tissue Engineering, Prosthesis Implantation, Implantable Neurostimulators, Implants, Experimental, Histology, bionics, Retina, Prosthesis, Bionic Eye, Retinal, Implant, Suprachoroidal, Fixation, Localization, Safety, Preclinical, dissection, embedding, staining, tissue, surgical techniques, clinical techniques
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Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Authors: Kristen K. McCampbell, Kristin N. Springer, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90, zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
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Mouse Embryonic Development in a Serum-free Whole Embryo Culture System
Authors: Vijay K. Kalaskar, James D. Lauderdale.
Institutions: University of Georgia, University of Georgia.
Mid-gestation stage mouse embryos were cultured utilizing a serum-free culture medium prepared from commercially available stem cell media supplements in an oxygenated rolling bottle culture system. Mouse embryos at E10.5 were carefully isolated from the uterus with intact yolk sac and in a process involving precise surgical maneuver the embryos were gently exteriorized from the yolk sac while maintaining the vascular continuity of the embryo with the yolk sac. Compared to embryos prepared with intact yolk sac or with the yolk sac removed, these embryos exhibited superior survival rate and developmental progression when cultured under similar conditions. We show that these mouse embryos, when cultured in a defined medium in an atmosphere of 95% O2 / 5% CO2 in a rolling bottle culture apparatus at 37 °​C for 16-40 hr, exhibit morphological growth and development comparable to the embryos developing in utero. We believe this method will be useful for investigators needing to utilize whole embryo culture to study signaling interactions important in embryonic organogenesis.
Developmental Biology, Issue 85, mouse embryo, mid-gestation, serum-free, defined media, roller culture, organogenesis, development
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An Isolated Semi-intact Preparation of the Mouse Vestibular Sensory Epithelium for Electrophysiology and High-resolution Two-photon Microscopy
Authors: Victoria W. K. Tung, Stefano Di Marco, Rebecca Lim, Alan M. Brichta, Aaron J. Camp.
Institutions: University of Sydney, University of Newcastle.
Understanding vestibular hair cells function under normal conditions, or how trauma, disease, and aging disrupt this function is a vital step in the development of preventative approaches and/or novel therapeutic strategies. However, the majority of studies looking at abnormal vestibular function have not been at the cellular level but focused primarily on behavioral assays of vestibular dysfunction such as gait analyses and vestibulo-ocular reflex performance. While this work has yielded valuable data about what happens when things go wrong, little information is gleaned regarding the underlying causes of dysfunction. Of the studies that focus on the cellular and subcellular processes that underlie vestibular function, most have relied on acutely isolated hair cells, devoid of their synaptic connections and supporting cell environment. Therefore, a major technical challenge has been access to the exquisitely sensitive vestibular hair cells in a preparation that is least disrupted, physiologically. Here we demonstrate a semi-intact preparation of the mouse vestibular sensory epithelium that retains the local micro-environment including hair cell/primary afferent complexes.
Neurobiology, Issue 76, Neuroscience, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Vestibular, Hair cells, Epithelium, two-photon microscopy, isolated, semi-intact, electrophysiology, electroporation, microscopy, tissue, isolation, animal model
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Retrograde Labeling of Retinal Ganglion Cells by Application of Fluoro-Gold on the Surface of Superior Colliculus
Authors: Kin Chiu, Wui-Man Lau, Sze-chun Yeung, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Kwok-Fai So.
Institutions: The University of Hong Kong - HKU.
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) counting is essential to evaluate retinal degeneration especially in glaucoma. Reliable RGC labeling is fundamental for evaluating the effects of any treatment. In rat, about 98% of RGCs is known to project to the contralateral superior colliculus (SC) (Forrester and Peters, 1967). Applying fluoro-gold (FG) on the surface of SC can label almost all the RGCs, so that we can focus on this most vulnerable retinal neuron in glaucoma. FG is taken up by the axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and bilaterally transported retrogradely to its somas in the retina. Compare with retrograde labeling of RGC by putting FG at stump of transected optic nerve for 2 days, the interference of RGC survival is minimized. Compare with cresyl violet staining that stains RGCs, amacrine cells and endothelium of the blood vessel in the retinal ganglion cell layer, this labeling method is more specific to the RGC. This video describes the method of retrograde labeling of RGC by applying FG on the surface of SC. The surgical procedures include drilling the skull; aspirating the cortex to expose the SC and applying gelatin sponge over entire dorsal surface of SC are shown. Useful tips for avoiding massive intracranial bleeding and aspiration of the SC have been given.
Neuroscience, Issue 16, Retrograde labeling, retinal ganglion cells, ophthalmology research, superior colliculus, experimental glaucoma
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