The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has long been the primary tool for detection of analytes of interest in biological samples for both life science research and clinical diagnostics. However, ELISA has limitations. It is typically performed in a 96-well microplate, and the wells are coated with capture antibody, requiring a relatively large amount of sample to capture an antigen of interest . The large surface area of the wells and the hydrophobic binding of capture antibody can also lead to non-specific binding and increased background. Additionally, most ELISAs rely upon enzyme-mediated amplification of signal in order to achieve reasonable sensitivity. Such amplification is not always linear and can thus skew results.
In the past 15 years, a new technology has emerged that offers the benefits of the ELISA, but also enables higher throughput, increased flexibility, reduced sample volume, and lower cost, with a similar workflow 1, 2. Luminex xMAP Technology is a microsphere (bead) array platform enabling both monoplex and multiplex assays that can be applied to both protein and nucleic acid applications 3-5. The beads have the capture antibody covalently immobilized on a smaller surface area, requiring less capture antibody and smaller sample volumes, compared to ELISA, and non-specific binding is significantly reduced. Smaller sample volumes are important when working with limiting samples such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, etc. 6. Multiplexing the assay further reduces sample volume requirements, enabling multiple results from a single sample.
Recent improvements by Luminex include: the new MAGPIX system, a smaller, less expensive, easier-to-use analyzer; Low-Concentration Magnetic MagPlex Microspheres which eliminate the need for expensive filter plates and come in a working concentration better suited for assay development and low-throughput applications; and the xMAP Antibody Coupling (AbC) Kit, which includes a protocol, reagents, and consumables necessary for coupling beads to the capture antibody of interest. (See Materials section for a detailed list of kit contents.)
In this experiment, we convert a pre-optimized ELISA assay for TNF-alpha cytokine to the xMAP platform and compare the performance of the two methods 7-11. TNF-alpha is a biomarker used in the measurement of inflammatory responses in patients with autoimmune disorders.
We begin by coupling four candidate capture antibodies to four different microsphere sets or regions. When mixed together, these four sets allow for the simultaneous testing of all four candidates with four separate detection antibodies to determine the best antibody pair, saving reagents, sample and time. Two xMAP assays are then constructed with the two most optimal antibody pairs and their performance is compared to that of the original ELISA assay in regards to signal strength, dynamic range, and sensitivity.
26 Related JoVE Articles!
Quantification of Proteins Using Peptide Immunoaffinity Enrichment Coupled with Mass Spectrometry
Institutions: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center - FHCRC, University of Victoria, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, University of Victoria, Plasma Proteome Institute.
There is a great need for quantitative assays in measuring proteins. Traditional sandwich immunoassays, largely considered the gold standard in quantitation, are associated with a high cost, long lead time, and are fraught with drawbacks (e.g. heterophilic antibodies, autoantibody interference, 'hook-effect').1
An alternative technique is affinity enrichment of peptides coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, commonly referred to as SISCAPA
(Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies).2
In this technique, affinity enrichment of peptides with stable isotope dilution and detection by selected/multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM/MRM-MS
) provides quantitative measurement of peptides as surrogates for their respective proteins. SRM/MRM-MS is well established for accurate quantitation of small molecules 3, 4
and more recently has been adapted to measure the concentrations of proteins in plasma and cell lysates.5-7
To achieve quantitation of proteins, these larger molecules are digested to component peptides using an enzyme such as trypsin. One or more selected peptides whose sequence is unique to the target protein in that species (i.e. "proteotypic" peptides) are then enriched from the sample using anti-peptide antibodies and measured as quantitative stoichiometric surrogates for protein concentration in the sample. Hence, coupled to stable isotope dilution (SID
) methods (i.e. a spiked-in stable isotope labeled peptide standard), SRM/MRM can be used to measure concentrations of proteotypic peptides as surrogates for quantification of proteins in complex biological matrices. The assays have several advantages compared to traditional immunoassays. The reagents are relatively less expensive to generate, the specificity for the analyte is excellent, the assays can be highly multiplexed, enrichment can be performed from neat plasma (no depletion required), and the technique is amenable to a wide array of proteins or modifications of interest.8-13
In this video we demonstrate the basic protocol as adapted to a magnetic bead platform.
Molecular Biology, Issue 53, Mass spectrometry, targeted assay, peptide, MRM, SISCAPA, protein quantitation
A Sensitive and Specific Quantitation Method for Determination of Serum Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C by Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay
Institutions: Loyola University Chicago.
Biomarkers are becoming increasingly more important in clinical decision-making, as well as basic science. Diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) is largely driven by detecting cardiac-specific proteins in patients' serum or plasma as an indicator of myocardial injury. Having recently shown that cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is detectable in the serum after MI, we have proposed it as a potential biomarker for MI. Biomarkers are typically detected by traditional sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. However, this technique requires a large sample volume, has a small dynamic range, and can measure only one protein at a time.
Here we show a multiplex immunoassay in which three cardiac proteins can be measured simultaneously with high sensitivity. Measuring cMyBP-C in uniplex or together with creatine kinase MB and cardiac troponin I showed comparable sensitivity. This technique uses the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) method of multiplexing in a 96-well plate combined with electrochemiluminescence for detection. While only small sample volumes are required, high sensitivity and a large dynamic range are achieved. Using this technique, we measured cMyBP-C, creatine kinase MB, and cardiac troponin I levels in serum samples from 16 subjects with MI and compared the results with 16 control subjects. We were able to detect all three markers in these samples and found all three biomarkers to be increased after MI. This technique is, therefore, suitable for the sensitive detection of cardiac biomarkers in serum samples.
Molecular Biology, Issue 78, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Cardiology, Heart Diseases, Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, Cardiovascular Diseases, cardiovascular disease, immunoassay, cardiac myosin binding protein-C, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase MB, electrochemiluminescence, multiplex biomarkers, ELISA, assay
Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis with the Xpert MTB/RIF Test
Institutions: University of Bern, MCL Laboratories Inc..
Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(MTB) remains a major public health issue: the infection affects up to one third of the world population1
, and almost two million people are killed by TB each year.2
Universal access to high-quality, patient-centered treatment for all TB patients is emphasized by WHO's Stop TB Strategy.3
The rapid detection of MTB in respiratory specimens and drug therapy based on reliable drug resistance testing results are a prerequisite for the successful implementation of this strategy. However, in many areas of the world, TB diagnosis still relies on insensitive, poorly standardized sputum microscopy methods. Ineffective TB detection and the emergence and transmission of drug-resistant MTB strains increasingly jeopardize global TB control activities.2
Effective diagnosis of pulmonary TB requires the availability - on a global scale - of standardized, easy-to-use, and robust diagnostic tools that would allow the direct detection of both the MTB complex and resistance to key antibiotics, such as rifampicin (RIF). The latter result can serve as marker for multidrug-resistant MTB (MDR TB) and has been reported in > 95% of the MDR-TB isolates.4, 5
The rapid availability of reliable test results is likely to directly translate into sound patient management decisions that, ultimately, will cure the individual patient and break the chain of TB transmission in the community.2
Cepheid's (Sunnyvale, CA, U.S.A.) Xpert MTB/RIF assay6, 7
meets the demands outlined above in a remarkable manner. It is a nucleic-acids amplification test for 1) the detection of MTB complex DNA in sputum or concentrated sputum sediments; and 2) the detection of RIF resistance-associated mutations of the rpoB
It is designed for use with Cepheid's GeneXpert Dx System that integrates and automates sample processing, nucleic acid amplification, and detection of the target sequences using real-time PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR. The system consists of an instrument, personal computer, barcode scanner, and preloaded software for running tests and viewing the results.9
It employs single-use disposable Xpert MTB/RIF cartridges that hold PCR reagents and host the PCR process. Because the cartridges are self-contained, cross-contamination between samples is eliminated.6
Current nucleic acid amplification methods used to detect MTB are complex, labor-intensive, and technically demanding. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has the potential to bring standardized, sensitive and very specific diagnostic testing for both TB and drug resistance to universal-access point-of-care settings3
, provided that they will be able to afford it. In order to facilitate access, the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) has negotiated significant price reductions. Current FIND-negotiated prices, along with the list of countries eligible for the discounts, are available on the web.10
Immunology, Issue 62, tuberculosis, drug resistance, rifampicin, rapid diagnosis, Xpert MTB/RIF test
A Microscopic Phenotypic Assay for the Quantification of Intracellular Mycobacteria Adapted for High-throughput/High-content Screening
Institutions: Université de Lille.
Despite the availability of therapy and vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly and widespread bacterial infections in the world. Since several decades, the sudden burst of multi- and extensively-drug resistant strains is a serious threat for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, it is essential to identify new targets and pathways critical for the causative agent of the tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
) and to search for novel chemicals that could become TB drugs. One approach is to set up methods suitable for the genetic and chemical screens of large scale libraries enabling the search of a needle in a haystack. To this end, we developed a phenotypic assay relying on the detection of fluorescently labeled Mtb
within fluorescently labeled host cells using automated confocal microscopy. This in vitro
assay allows an image based quantification of the colonization process of Mtb
into the host and was optimized for the 384-well microplate format, which is proper for screens of siRNA-, chemical compound- or Mtb
mutant-libraries. The images are then processed for multiparametric analysis, which provides read out inferring on the pathogenesis of Mtb
within host cells.
Infection, Issue 83, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, High-content/High-throughput screening, chemogenomics, Drug Discovery, siRNA library, automated confocal microscopy, image-based analysis
Hydrogel Nanoparticle Harvesting of Plasma or Urine for Detecting Low Abundance Proteins
Institutions: George Mason University, Ceres Nanosciences.
Novel biomarker discovery plays a crucial role in providing more sensitive and specific disease detection. Unfortunately many low-abundance biomarkers that exist in biological fluids cannot be easily detected with mass spectrometry or immunoassays because they are present in very low concentration, are labile, and are often masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin or immunoglobulin. Bait containing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAm) based nanoparticles are able to overcome these physiological barriers. In one step they are able to capture, concentrate and preserve biomarkers from body fluids. Low-molecular weight analytes enter the core of the nanoparticle and are captured by different organic chemical dyes, which act as high affinity protein baits. The nanoparticles are able to concentrate the proteins of interest by several orders of magnitude. This concentration factor is sufficient to increase the protein level such that the proteins are within the detection limit of current mass spectrometers, western blotting, and immunoassays. Nanoparticles can be incubated with a plethora of biological fluids and they are able to greatly enrich the concentration of low-molecular weight proteins and peptides while excluding albumin and other high-molecular weight proteins. Our data show that a 10,000 fold amplification in the concentration of a particular analyte can be achieved, enabling mass spectrometry and immunoassays to detect previously undetectable biomarkers.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, biomarker, hydrogel, low abundance, mass spectrometry, nanoparticle, plasma, protein, urine
Single Cell Measurements of Vacuolar Rupture Caused by Intracellular Pathogens
Institutions: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
are pathogenic bacteria that invade host cells entering into an endocytic vacuole. Subsequently, the rupture of this membrane-enclosed compartment allows bacteria to move within the cytosol, proliferate and further invade neighboring cells. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
is phagocytosed by immune cells, and has recently been shown to rupture phagosomal membrane in macrophages. We developed a robust assay for tracking phagosomal membrane disruption after host cell entry of Shigella flexneri
or Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. The approach makes use of CCF4, a FRET reporter sensitive to β-lactamase that equilibrates in the cytosol of host cells. Upon invasion of host cells by bacterial pathogens, the probe remains intact as long as the bacteria reside in membrane-enclosed compartments. After disruption of the vacuole, β-lactamase activity on the surface of the intracellular pathogen cleaves CCF4 instantly leading to a loss of FRET signal and switching its emission spectrum. This robust ratiometric assay yields accurate information about the timing of vacuolar rupture induced by the invading bacteria, and it can be coupled to automated microscopy and image processing by specialized algorithms for the detection of the emission signals of the FRET donor and acceptor. Further, it allows investigating the dynamics of vacuolar disruption elicited by intracellular bacteria in real time in single cells. Finally, it is perfectly suited for high-throughput analysis with a spatio-temporal resolution exceeding previous methods. Here, we provide the experimental details of exemplary protocols for the CCF4 vacuolar rupture assay on HeLa cells and THP-1 macrophages for time-lapse experiments or end points experiments using Shigella flexneri
as well as multiple mycobacterial strains such as Mycobacterium marinum
, Mycobacterium bovis,
and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Infection, Issue 76, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Medicine, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Pathology, Bacteria, biology (general), life sciences, CCF4-AM, Shigella flexneri, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vacuolar rupture, fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, pathogens, cell culture
Sample Preparation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Extracts for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomic Studies
Institutions: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
is a major cause of mortality in human beings on a global scale. The emergence of both multi- (MDR) and extensively-(XDR) drug-resistant strains threatens to derail current disease control efforts. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop drugs and vaccines that are more effective than those currently available. The genome of M. tuberculosis
has been known for more than 10 years, yet there are important gaps in our knowledge of gene function and essentiality. Many studies have since used gene expression analysis at both the transcriptomic and proteomic levels to determine the effects of drugs, oxidants, and growth conditions on the global patterns of gene expression. Ultimately, the final response of these changes is reflected in the metabolic composition of the bacterium including a few thousand small molecular weight chemicals. Comparing the metabolic profiles of wild type and mutant strains, either untreated or treated with a particular drug, can effectively allow target identification and may lead to the development of novel inhibitors with anti-tubercular activity. Likewise, the effects of two or more conditions on the metabolome can also be assessed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technology that is used to identify and quantify metabolic intermediates. In this protocol, procedures for the preparation of M. tuberculosis
cell extracts for NMR metabolomic analysis are described. Cell cultures are grown under appropriate conditions and required Biosafety Level 3 containment,1
harvested, and subjected to mechanical lysis while maintaining cold temperatures to maximize preservation of metabolites. Cell lysates are recovered, filtered sterilized, and stored at ultra-low temperatures. Aliquots from these cell extracts are plated on Middlebrook 7H9 agar for colony-forming units to verify absence of viable cells. Upon two months of incubation at 37 °C, if no viable colonies are observed, samples are removed from the containment facility for downstream processing. Extracts are lyophilized, resuspended in deuterated buffer and injected in the NMR instrument, capturing spectroscopic data that is then subjected to statistical analysis. The procedures described can be applied for both one-dimensional (1D) 1
H NMR and two-dimensional (2D) 1
C NMR analyses. This methodology provides more reliable small molecular weight metabolite identification and more reliable and sensitive quantitative analyses of cell extract metabolic compositions than chromatographic methods. Variations of the procedure described following the cell lysis step can also be adapted for parallel proteomic analysis.
Infection, Issue 67, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, NMR, Metabolomics, homogenizer, lysis, cell extracts, sample preparation
An Experimental Model to Study Tuberculosis-Malaria Coinfection upon Natural Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium berghei
Institutions: University Hospital Heidelberg, Research Center Borstel.
Coinfections naturally occur due to the geographic overlap of distinct types of pathogenic organisms. Concurrent infections most likely modulate the respective immune response to each single pathogen and may thereby affect pathogenesis and disease outcome. Coinfected patients may also respond differentially to anti-infective interventions. Coinfection between tuberculosis as caused by mycobacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium
, both of which are coendemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, has not been studied in detail. In order to approach the challenging but scientifically and clinically highly relevant question how malaria-tuberculosis coinfection modulate host immunity and the course of each disease, we established an experimental mouse model that allows us to dissect the elicited immune responses to both pathogens in the coinfected host. Of note, in order to most precisely mimic naturally acquired human infections, we perform experimental infections of mice with both pathogens by their natural routes of infection, i.e.
aerosol and mosquito bite, respectively.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 84, coinfection, mouse, Tuberculosis, Malaria, Plasmodium berghei, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, natural transmission
A Novel Microdissection Approach to Recovering Mycobacterium tuberculosis Specific Transcripts from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Lung Granulomas
Institutions: Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane National Primate Research Center.
Microdissection has been used for the examination of tissues at DNA, RNA, and protein levels for over a decade. Laser capture microscopy (LCM) is the most common microdissection technique used today. In this technique, a laser is used to focally melt a thermoplastic membrane that overlies a dehydrated tissue section1
. The tissue section composite is then lifted and separated from the membrane. Although this technique can be used successfully for tissue examination, it is time consuming and expensive. Furthermore, the successful completion of procedures using this technique requires the use of a laser, thus limiting its use. A new more affordable and practical microdissection approach called mesodissection is a possible solution to the pitfalls of LCM. This technique employs the MESO-1/MeSectr system to mill the desired tissue from a slide mounted tissue sample while concurrently dispensing and aspirating fluid to recover the desired tissue sample into a consumable mill bit. Before the dissection process begins, the user aligns the formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) slide with a hematoxylin and eosin stained (H&E) reference slide. Thereafter, the operator annotates the desired dissection area and proceeds to dissect the appropriate segment. The program generates an archived image of the dissection. The main advantage of mesodissection is the short duration needed to dissect a slide, taking an average of ten minutes from set up to sample generation in this experiment. Additionally, the system is significantly more cost effective and user friendly. A slight disadvantage is that it is not as precise as laser capture microscopy. In this article we demonstrate how mesodissection can be used to extract RNA from slides from FFPE granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)
Immunology, Issue 88, Microdissection, mesodissection, formalin fixed paraffin embedded, Mtb, LCM, TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biofilms
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh.
, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis, has an extraordinary ability to survive against environmental stresses including antibiotics. Although stress tolerance of M. tuberculosis
is one of the likely contributors to the 6-month long chemotherapy of tuberculosis 1
, the molecular mechanisms underlying this characteristic phenotype of the pathogen remain unclear. Many microbial species have evolved to survive in stressful environments by self-assembling in highly organized, surface attached, and matrix encapsulated structures called biofilms 2-4
. Growth in communities appears to be a preferred survival strategy of microbes, and is achieved through genetic components that regulate surface attachment, intercellular communications, and synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) 5,6
. The tolerance to environmental stress is likely facilitated by EPS, and perhaps by the physiological adaptation of individual bacilli to heterogeneous microenvironments within the complex architecture of biofilms 7
In a series of recent papers we established that M. tuberculosis
and Mycobacterium smegmatis
have a strong propensity to grow in organized multicellular structures, called biofilms, which can tolerate more than 50 times the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin 8-10
. M. tuberculosis,
however, intriguingly requires specific conditions to form mature biofilms, in particular 9:1 ratio of headspace: media as well as limited exchange of air with the atmosphere 9
. Requirements of specialized environmental conditions could possibly be linked to the fact that M. tuberculosis
is an obligate human pathogen and thus has adapted to tissue environments. In this publication we demonstrate methods for culturing M. tuberculosis
biofilms in a bottle and a 12-well plate format, which is convenient for bacteriological as well as genetic studies. We have described the protocol for an attenuated strain of M. tuberculosis
, with deletion in the two loci, panCD
that are critical for in vivo
growth of the pathogen 9
. This strain can be safely used in a BSL-2 containment for understanding the basic biology of the tuberculosis pathogen thus avoiding the requirement of an expensive BSL-3 facility. The method can be extended, with appropriate modification in media, to grow biofilm of other culturable mycobacterial species.
Overall, a uniform protocol of culturing mycobacterial biofilms will help the investigators interested in studying the basic resilient characteristics of mycobacteria. In addition, a clear and concise method of growing mycobacterial biofilms will also help the clinical and pharmaceutical investigators to test the efficacy of a potential drug.
Immunology, Issue 60, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis, drug tolerance, biofilms
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex for First and Second Line Drugs by Broth Dilution in a Microtiter Plate Format
Institutions: Mayo Clinic .
The rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance is important in the effort to control the increase in resistant Mycobacterium
tuberculosis (Mtb). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Mtb has traditionally been performed by the agar method of proportion or by
macrobroth testing on an instrument such as the BACTEC (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), VersaTREK (TREK Diagnostics, Cleveland, OH) or BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Hazelwood, MO). The agar proportion method, while considered the “gold” standard of AST, is labor intensive and requires calculation of resistance by performing colony counts on drug-containing agar as compared to drug-free agar. If there is ≥1% growth on the drug-containing medium as compared to drug-free medium, the organism is considered resistant to that drug. The macrobroth methods require instrumentation and test break point ("critical") drug concentrations for the first line drugs (isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin, and pyrazinamide). The method described here is commercially available in a 96 well microtiter plate format [MYCOTB (TREK Diagnostics)] and contains increasing concentrations of 12 antimicrobials used for treatment of tuberculosis including both first (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol) and second line drugs (amikacin, cycloserine, ethionamide, kanamycin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, rifabutin, and streptomycin). Pyrazinamide, a first line drug, is not included in the microtiter plate due to its need for acidic test conditions. Advantages of the microtiter system include both ease of set up and faster turn around time (14 days) compared with traditional agar proportion (21 days). In addition, the plate can be set up from inoculum prepared using either broth or solid medium. Since the microtiter plate format is new and since Mtb presents unique safety challenges in the laboratory, this protocol will describe how to safely setup, incubate and read the microtiter plate.
Immunology, Issue 52, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MIC, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, first and second line drugs, microtiter plate, broth dilution
Developing Custom Chinese Hamster Ovary-host Cell Protein Assays using Acoustic Membrane Microparticle Technology
Institutions: BioScale, Inc., BioScale, Inc..
Custom assays for unique proteins are often limited to time consuming manual detection and quantitation techniques such as ELISA or Western blots due to the complexity of development on alternate platforms. BioScale's proprietary Acoustic Membrane MicroParticle (AMMP) technology allows sandwich immunoassays to be easily developed for use on the ViBE platform, providing better sensitivity, reproducibility, and automated operation. Provided as an example, this protocol outlines the procedure for developing a custom Chinese Hamster Ovary- Host Cell Protein (CHO-HCP) assay. The general principles outlined here can be followed for the development of a wide variety of immunoassays.
An AMMP assay measures antigen concentration by measuring changes in oscillation frequency caused by the binding of microparticles to the sensor surface to calculate. It consists of four major components: (1) a cartridge that contains a functionalized eight sensor chip (2) antibody labeled magnetic microparticles, (3) hapten tagged antibody that binds to the surface of the functionalized chip (4) samples containing the antigen of interest. BioScale's biosensor is a resonant device that contains eight individual membranes with separate fluidic paths. The membranes change oscillation frequency in response to mass accumulating on the surface and this frequency change is used to quantitate the amount of added mass.
To facilitate use in a wide variety of immunoassays the sensor is functionalized with an anti-hapten antibody. Assay specific antibodies are modified through the covalent conjugation of a hapten tag to one antibody and biotin to the other. The biotin label is used to bind the antibody to streptavidin coupled magnetic beads which, in combination with the hapten-tagged antibody, are used to capture the analyte in a sandwich. The complex binds to the chip through the anti-hapten/hapten interaction. At the end of each assay run the sensors are cleaned with a dilute acid enabling the sequential analysis of columns from a 96-well plate.
Here, we present the method for developing a custom CHO-HCP AMMP assay for bioprocess development. Developing AMMP assays or modifying existing assays into AMMP assays can provide better performance (reproducibility, sensitivity) in complex samples and reduced operator time. The protocol shows the steps for development and the discussion section reviews representative results. For a more in-depth explanation of assay optimization and customization parameters contact BioScale. This kit offers generic bioprocess development assays such as Residual Protein A, Product titer, and CHO-HCP.
Bioengineering, Issue 48, Immunoassays, Chinese Hamster Ovary Host Cell Protein, Residual Protein A assay, Assay development, Biomarker detection and quantitation, Phospho-AKT, Gadd34, tissue sample, tumor sample, bioreactor sample
Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System to Study Protein Homeostasis in a Multicellular Organism
Institutions: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
The folding and assembly of proteins is essential for protein function, the long-term health of the cell, and longevity of the organism. Historically, the function and regulation of protein folding was studied in vitro
, in isolated tissue culture cells and in unicellular organisms. Recent studies have uncovered links between protein homeostasis (proteostasis), metabolism, development, aging, and temperature-sensing. These findings have led to the development of new tools for monitoring protein folding in the model metazoan organism Caenorhabditis elegans
. In our laboratory, we combine behavioral assays, imaging and biochemical approaches using temperature-sensitive or naturally occurring metastable proteins as sensors of the folding environment to monitor protein misfolding. Behavioral assays that are associated with the misfolding of a specific protein provide a simple and powerful readout for protein folding, allowing for the fast screening of genes and conditions that modulate folding. Likewise, such misfolding can be associated with protein mislocalization in the cell. Monitoring protein localization can, therefore, highlight changes in cellular folding capacity occurring in different tissues, at various stages of development and in the face of changing conditions. Finally, using biochemical tools ex vivo
, we can directly monitor protein stability and conformation. Thus, by combining behavioral assays, imaging and biochemical techniques, we are able to monitor protein misfolding at the resolution of the organism, the cell, and the protein, respectively.
Biochemistry, Issue 82, aging, Caenorhabditis elegans, heat shock response, neurodegenerative diseases, protein folding homeostasis, proteostasis, stress, temperature-sensitive
Multiplexed Fluorescent Microarray for Human Salivary Protein Analysis Using Polymer Microspheres and Fiber-optic Bundles
Institutions: Tufts University, Complutense University (Spain), Tufts University.
Herein, we describe a protocol for simultaneously measuring six proteins in saliva using a fiber-optic microsphere-based antibody array. The immuno-array technology employed combines the advantages of microsphere-based suspension array fabrication with the use of fluorescence microscopy. As described in the video protocol, commercially available 4.5 μm polymer microspheres were encoded into seven different types, differentiated by the concentration of two fluorescent dyes physically trapped inside the microspheres. The encoded microspheres containing surface carboxyl groups were modified with monoclonal capture antibodies through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. To assemble the protein microarray, the different types of encoded and functionalized microspheres were mixed and randomly deposited in 4.5 μm microwells, which were chemically etched at the proximal end of a fiber-optic bundle. The fiber-optic bundle was used as both a carrier and for imaging the microspheres. Once assembled, the microarray was used to capture proteins in the saliva supernatant collected from the clinic. The detection was based on a sandwich immunoassay using a mixture of biotinylated detection antibodies for different analytes with a streptavidin-conjugated fluorescent probe, R-phycoerythrin. The microarray was imaged by fluorescence microscopy in three different channels, two for microsphere registration and one for the assay signal. The fluorescence micrographs were then decoded and analyzed using a homemade algorithm in MATLAB.
Chemistry, Issue 80, protein sensing, microarray, multiplexed fluorescent quantification, fiber-optic biosensor, microsphere-based immunoassays, saliva analysis, microsphere encoding
Demonstrating a Multi-drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Amplification Microarray
Institutions: Akonni Biosystems, Inc..
Simplifying microarray workflow is a necessary first step for creating MDR-TB microarray-based diagnostics that can be routinely used in lower-resource environments. An amplification microarray combines asymmetric PCR amplification, target size selection, target labeling, and microarray hybridization within a single solution and into a single microfluidic chamber. A batch processing method is demonstrated with a 9-plex asymmetric master mix and low-density gel element microarray for genotyping multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(MDR-TB). The protocol described here can be completed in 6 hr and provide correct genotyping with at least 1,000 cell equivalents of genomic DNA. Incorporating on-chip wash steps is feasible, which will result in an entirely closed amplicon method and system. The extent of multiplexing with an amplification microarray is ultimately constrained by the number of primer pairs that can be combined into a single master mix and still achieve desired sensitivity and specificity performance metrics, rather than the number of probes that are immobilized on the array. Likewise, the total analysis time can be shortened or lengthened depending on the specific intended use, research question, and desired limits of detection. Nevertheless, the general approach significantly streamlines microarray workflow for the end user by reducing the number of manually intensive and time-consuming processing steps, and provides a simplified biochemical and microfluidic path for translating microarray-based diagnostics into routine clinical practice.
Immunology, Issue 86, MDR-TB, gel element microarray, closed amplicon, drug resistance, rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol
Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples
Institutions: Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, Thomas Jefferson University , Drexel University College of Medicine, Van Andel Research Institute, Serome Biosciences Inc..
In this study, we describe an effective protocol for use in a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with glycan binding protein detection that allows for the glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. Glycosylation of proteins is the most prevalent post-translational modification found on proteins, and leads diversified modifications of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of proteins. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, current methods to study protein glycosylation typically are too complicated or expensive for use in most normal laboratory or clinical settings and a more practical method to study protein glycosylation is needed. The new protocol described in this study makes use of a chemically blocked antibody microarray with glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection and significantly reduces the time, cost, and lab equipment requirements needed to study protein glycosylation. In this method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are printed directly onto the microarray slides and the N-glycans on the antibodies are blocked. The blocked, immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are able to capture and isolate glycoproteins from a complex sample that is applied directly onto the microarray slides. Glycan detection then can be performed by the application of biotinylated lectins and other GBPs to the microarray slide, while binding levels can be determined using Dylight 549-Streptavidin. Through the use of an antibody panel and probing with multiple biotinylated lectins, this method allows for an effective glycosylation profile of the different proteins found in a given human or animal sample to be developed.
Glycosylation of protein, which is the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins, modifies the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a protein, and plays a fundamental role in various biological processes1-6
. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases 7-12
. In fact, most current cancer biomarkers, such as the L3 fraction of α-1 fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma 13-15
, and CA199 for pancreatic cancer 16, 17
are all aberrant glycan moieties on glycoproteins. However, methods to study protein glycosylation have been complicated, and not suitable for routine laboratory and clinical settings. Chen et al.
has recently invented a chemically blocked antibody microarray with a glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection method for high-throughput and multiplexed profile glycosylation of native glycoproteins in a complex sample 18
. In this affinity based microarray method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies capture and isolate glycoproteins from the complex mixture directly on the microarray slide, and the glycans on each individual captured protein are measured by GBPs. Because all normal antibodies contain N-glycans which could be recognized by most GBPs, the critical step of this method is to chemically block the glycans on the antibodies from binding to GBP. In the procedure, the cis
-diol groups of the glycans on the antibodies were first oxidized to aldehyde groups by using NaIO4
in sodium acetate buffer avoiding light. The aldehyde groups were then conjugated to the hydrazide group of a cross-linker, 4-(4-N-MaleimidoPhenyl)butyric acid Hydrazide HCl (MPBH), followed by the conjugation of a dipeptide, Cys-Gly, to the maleimide group of the MPBH. Thus, the cis-diol groups on glycans of antibodies were converted into bulky none hydroxyl groups, which hindered the lectins and other GBPs bindings to the capture antibodies. This blocking procedure makes the GBPs and lectins bind only to the glycans of captured proteins. After this chemically blocking, serum samples were incubated with the antibody microarray, followed by the glycans detection by using different biotinylated lectins and GBPs, and visualized with Cy3-streptavidin. The parallel use of an antibody panel and multiple lectin probing provides discrete glycosylation profiles of multiple proteins in a given sample 18-20
. This method has been used successfully in multiple different labs 1, 7, 13, 19-31
. However, stability of MPBH and Cys-Gly, complicated and extended procedure in this method affect the reproducibility, effectiveness and efficiency of the method. In this new protocol, we replaced both MPBH and Cys-Gly with one much more stable reagent glutamic acid hydrazide (Glu-hydrazide), which significantly improved the reproducibility of the method, simplified and shorten the whole procedure so that the it can be completed within one working day. In this new protocol, we describe the detailed procedure of the protocol which can be readily adopted by normal labs for routine protein glycosylation study and techniques which are necessary to obtain reproducible and repeatable results.
Molecular Biology, Issue 63, Glycoproteins, glycan-binding protein, specific protein glycosylation, multiplexed high-throughput glycan blocked antibody microarray
Strategies for Study of Neuroprotection from Cold-preconditioning
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident.
Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro
model that closely reflects their in vivo
counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro
for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning.
Neuroscience, Issue 43, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, hippocampus, slice culture, immunohistochemistry, neural-immune, gene expression, real-time PCR
Characterization of Complex Systems Using the Design of Experiments Approach: Transient Protein Expression in Tobacco as a Case Study
Institutions: RWTH Aachen University, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft.
Plants provide multiple benefits for the production of biopharmaceuticals including low costs, scalability, and safety. Transient expression offers the additional advantage of short development and production times, but expression levels can vary significantly between batches thus giving rise to regulatory concerns in the context of good manufacturing practice. We used a design of experiments (DoE) approach to determine the impact of major factors such as regulatory elements in the expression construct, plant growth and development parameters, and the incubation conditions during expression, on the variability of expression between batches. We tested plants expressing a model anti-HIV monoclonal antibody (2G12) and a fluorescent marker protein (DsRed). We discuss the rationale for selecting certain properties of the model and identify its potential limitations. The general approach can easily be transferred to other problems because the principles of the model are broadly applicable: knowledge-based parameter selection, complexity reduction by splitting the initial problem into smaller modules, software-guided setup of optimal experiment combinations and step-wise design augmentation. Therefore, the methodology is not only useful for characterizing protein expression in plants but also for the investigation of other complex systems lacking a mechanistic description. The predictive equations describing the interconnectivity between parameters can be used to establish mechanistic models for other complex systems.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, design of experiments (DoE), transient protein expression, plant-derived biopharmaceuticals, promoter, 5'UTR, fluorescent reporter protein, model building, incubation conditions, monoclonal antibody
Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA
Rs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials.
During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAA
Rs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other.
To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro
co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAA
R subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAA
R subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro
model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo
conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAA
Rs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
Isolation and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin From Complex Matrices Using the BoTest Matrix Assays
Institutions: BioSentinel Inc., Madison, WI.
Accurate detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in complex matrices is required for pharmaceutical, environmental, and food sample testing. Rapid BoNT testing of foodstuffs is needed during outbreak forensics, patient diagnosis, and food safety testing while accurate potency testing is required for BoNT-based drug product manufacturing and patient safety. The widely used mouse bioassay for BoNT testing is highly sensitive but lacks the precision and throughput needed for rapid and routine BoNT testing. Furthermore, the bioassay's use of animals has resulted in calls by drug product regulatory authorities and animal-rights proponents in the US and abroad to replace the mouse bioassay for BoNT testing. Several in vitro
replacement assays have been developed that work well with purified BoNT in simple buffers, but most have not been shown to be applicable to testing in highly complex matrices. Here, a protocol for the detection of BoNT in complex matrices using the BoTest Matrix assays is presented. The assay consists of three parts: The first part involves preparation of the samples for testing, the second part is an immunoprecipitation step using anti-BoNT antibody-coated paramagnetic beads to purify BoNT from the matrix, and the third part quantifies the isolated BoNT's proteolytic activity using a fluorogenic reporter. The protocol is written for high throughput testing in 96-well plates using both liquid and solid matrices and requires about 2 hr of manual preparation with total assay times of 4-26 hr depending on the sample type, toxin load, and desired sensitivity. Data are presented for BoNT/A testing with phosphate-buffered saline, a drug product, culture supernatant, 2% milk, and fresh tomatoes and includes discussion of critical parameters for assay success.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, Botulinum, food testing, detection, quantification, complex matrices, BoTest Matrix, Clostridium, potency testing
High-throughput Flow Cytometry Cell-based Assay to Detect Antibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor or Dopamine-2 Receptor in Human Serum
Institutions: The University of Sydney, Westmead Millennium Institute for Medical Research.
Over the recent years, antibodies against surface and conformational proteins involved in neurotransmission have been detected in autoimmune CNS diseases in children and adults. These antibodies have been used to guide diagnosis and treatment. Cell-based assays have improved the detection of antibodies in patient serum. They are based on the surface expression of brain antigens on eukaryotic cells, which are then incubated with diluted patient sera followed by fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibodies. After washing, secondary antibody binding is then analyzed by flow cytometry. Our group has developed a high-throughput flow cytometry live cell-based assay to reliably detect antibodies against specific neurotransmitter receptors. This flow cytometry method is straight forward, quantitative, efficient, and the use of a high-throughput sampler system allows for large patient cohorts to be easily assayed in a short space of time. Additionally, this cell-based assay can be easily adapted to detect antibodies to many different antigenic targets, both from the central nervous system and periphery. Discovering additional novel antibody biomarkers will enable prompt and accurate diagnosis and improve treatment of immune-mediated disorders.
Medicine, Issue 81, Flow cytometry, cell-based assay, autoantibody, high-throughput sampler, autoimmune CNS disease
Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90,
zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
Immunohistochemistry on Paraffin Sections of Mouse Epidermis Using Fluorescent Antibodies
Institutions: Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa Health Research Institute.
In the epidermis, immunohistochemistry is an efficient means of localizing specific proteins to their relative expression compartment; namely the basal, suprabasal, and stratum corneum layers. The precise localization within the epidermis of a particular protein lends clues toward its functional role within the epidermis. In this chapter, we describe a reliable method for immunolocalization within the epidermis modified for both frozen and paraffin sections that we use very routinely in our laboratory. Paraffin sections generally provide much better morphology, hence, superior results and photographs; however, not all antibodies will work with the harsh fixation and treatment involved in their processing. Therefore, the protocol for frozen sectioning is also included. Within paraffin sectioning, two fixation protocols are described (Bouin's and paraformaldehyde); the choice of fixative will be directly related to the antibody specifications and may require another fixing method.
Cellular Biology, Issue 11, Springer Protocols, Immunohistochemistry, epidermis, differentiation, keratins, antibody
Microfluidic Applications for Disposable Diagnostics
Institutions: Boston University.
In this interview, Dr. Klapperich discusses the fabrication of thermoplastic microfluidic devices and their application for development of new diagnostics.
Cellular Biology, Issue 12, bioengineering, diagnostics, microfluidics, solid phase, purification
Institutions: UVP, LLC, Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences.
Immunoblotting (western blotting) is a rapid and sensitive assay for the detection and characterization of proteins that works by exploiting the specificity inherent in antigen-antibody recognition. It involves the solubilization and electrophoretic separation of proteins, glycoproteins, or lipopolysaccharides by gel electrophoresis, followed by quantitative transfer and irreversible binding to nitrocellulose, PVDF, or nylon. The immunoblotting technique has been useful in identifying specific antigens recognized by polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies and is highly sensitive (1 ng of antigen can be detected). This unit provides protocols for protein separation, blotting proteins onto membranes, immunoprobing, and visualization using chromogenic or chemiluminescent substrates.
Basic Protocols, Issue 16, Current Protocols Wiley, Immunoblotting, Biochemistry, Western Blotting, chromogenic substrates, chemiluminescent substrates, protein detection.
Enrichment of NK Cells from Human Blood with the RosetteSep Kit from StemCell Technologies
Institutions: University of California, Irvine (UCI).
Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular cytotoxic lymphocytes that belong to the innate immune system and play major roles in fighting against cancer and infections, but are also implicated in the early stages of pregnancy and transplant rejection. These cells are present in peripheral blood, from which they can be isolated. Cells can be isolated using either positive or negative selection. For positive selection we use antibodies directed to a surface marker present only on the cells of interest whereas for negative selection we use cocktails of antibodies targeted to surface markers present on all cells but the cells of interest. This latter technique presents the advantage of leaving the cells of interest free of antibodies, thereby reducing the risk of unwanted cell activation or differenciation. In this video-protocol we demonstrate how to separate NK cells from human blood by negative selection, using the RosetteSep kit from StemCell technologies. The procedure involves obtaining human peripheral blood (under an institutional review board-approved protocol to protect the human subjects) and mixing it with a cocktail of antibodies that will bind to markers absent on NK cells, but present on all other mononuclear cells present in peripheral blood (e.g., T lymphocytes, monocytes...). The antibodies present in the cocktail are conjugated to antibodies directed to glycophorin A on erythrocytes. All unwanted cells and red blood cells will therefore be trapped in complexes. The mix of blood and antibody cocktail is then diluted, overlayed on a Histopaque gradient, and centrifuged. NK cells (>80% pure) can be collected at the interface between the Histopaque and the diluted plasma. Similar cocktails are available for enrichment of other cell populations, such as human T lymphocytes.
Immunology, issue 8, blood, cell isolation, natural killer, lymphocyte, primary cells, negative selection, PBMC, Ficoll gradient, cell separation