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Hearing sensation levels of emitted biosonar clicks in an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.
Emitted biosonar clicks and auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses triggered by the clicks were synchronously recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) trained to wear suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28, and -22 dB were used at distances of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The AEP responses were sorted according to the corresponding emitted click source levels in 5-dB bins and averaged within each bin to extract biosonar click-related AEPs from noise. The AEP amplitudes were measured peak-to-peak and plotted as a function of click source levels for each target type, distance, and target-present or target-absent condition. Hearing sensation levels of the biosonar clicks were evaluated by comparing the functions of the biosonar click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click source level to a function of external (in free field) click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click sound pressure level. The results indicated that the dolphins hearing sensation levels to her own biosonar clicks were equal to that of external clicks with sound pressure levels 16 to 36 dB lower than the biosonar click source levels, varying with target type, distance, and condition. These data may be assumed to indicate that the bottlenose dolphin possesses effective protection mechanisms to isolate the self-produced intense biosonar beam from the animals ears during echolocation.
Authors: Bridget Valsamis, Susanne Schmid.
Published: 09-01-2011
The acoustic startle response is a protective response, elicited by a sudden and intense acoustic stimulus. Facial and skeletal muscles are activated within a few milliseconds, leading to a whole body flinch in rodents1. Although startle responses are reflexive responses that can be reliably elicited, they are not stereotypic. They can be modulated by emotions such as fear (fear potentiated startle) and joy (joy attenuated startle), by non-associative learning processes such as habituation and sensitization, and by other sensory stimuli through sensory gating processes (prepulse inhibition), turning startle responses into an excellent tool for assessing emotions, learning, and sensory gating, for review see 2, 3. The primary pathway mediating startle responses is very short and well described, qualifying startle also as an excellent model for studying the underlying mechanisms for behavioural plasticity on a cellular/molecular level3. We here describe a method for assessing short-term habituation, long-term habituation and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rodents. Habituation describes the decrease of the startle response magnitude upon repeated presentation of the same stimulus. Habituation within a testing session is called short-term habituation (STH) and is reversible upon a period of several minutes without stimulation. Habituation between testing sessions is called long-term habituation (LTH)4. Habituation is stimulus specific5. Prepulse inhibition is the attenuation of a startle response by a preceding non-startling sensory stimulus6. The interval between prepulse and startle stimulus can vary from 6 to up to 2000 ms. The prepulse can be any modality, however, acoustic prepulses are the most commonly used. Habituation is a form of non-associative learning. It can also be viewed as a form of sensory filtering, since it reduces the organisms' response to a non-threatening stimulus. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) was originally developed in human neuropsychiatric research as an operational measure for sensory gating7. PPI deficits may represent the interface of "psychosis and cognition" as they seem to predict cognitive impairment8-10. Both habituation and PPI are disrupted in patients suffering from schizophrenia11, and PPI disruptions have shown to be, at least in some cases, amenable to treatment with mostly atypical antipsychotics12, 13. However, other mental and neurodegenerative diseases are also accompanied by disruption in habituation and/or PPI, such as autism spectrum disorders (slower habituation), obsessive compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's Disease (PPI)11, 14, 15 Dopamine induced PPI deficits are a commonly used animal model for the screening of antipsychotic drugs16, but PPI deficits can also be induced by many other psychomimetic drugs, environmental modifications and surgical procedures.
24 Related JoVE Articles!
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Applications of EEG Neuroimaging Data: Event-related Potentials, Spectral Power, and Multiscale Entropy
Authors: Jennifer J. Heisz, Anthony R. McIntosh.
Institutions: Baycrest.
When considering human neuroimaging data, an appreciation of signal variability represents a fundamental innovation in the way we think about brain signal. Typically, researchers represent the brain's response as the mean across repeated experimental trials and disregard signal fluctuations over time as "noise". However, it is becoming clear that brain signal variability conveys meaningful functional information about neural network dynamics. This article describes the novel method of multiscale entropy (MSE) for quantifying brain signal variability. MSE may be particularly informative of neural network dynamics because it shows timescale dependence and sensitivity to linear and nonlinear dynamics in the data.
Neuroscience, Issue 76, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Electroencephalography, EEG, electroencephalogram, Multiscale entropy, sample entropy, MEG, neuroimaging, variability, noise, timescale, non-linear, brain signal, information theory, brain, imaging
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Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Authors: Riikka Möttönen, Jack Rogers, Kate E. Watkins.
Institutions: University of Oxford.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception. Researchers have used single-pulse and repetitive TMS to stimulate the lip representation in the motor cortex. The excitability of the lip motor representation can be investigated by applying single TMS pulses over this cortical area and recording TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) via electrodes attached to the lip muscles (electromyography; EMG). Larger MEPs reflect increased cortical excitability. Studies have shown that excitability increases during listening to speech as well as during viewing speech-related movements. TMS can be used also to disrupt the lip motor representation. A 15-min train of low-frequency sub-threshold repetitive stimulation has been shown to suppress motor excitability for a further 15-20 min. This TMS-induced disruption of the motor lip representation impairs subsequent performance in demanding speech perception tasks and modulates auditory-cortex responses to speech sounds. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that the motor cortex contributes to speech perception. This article describes how to localize the lip representation in the motor cortex and how to define the appropriate stimulation intensity for carrying out both single-pulse and repetitive TMS experiments.
Behavior, Issue 88, electromyography, motor cortex, motor evoked potential, motor excitability, speech, repetitive TMS, rTMS, virtual lesion, transcranial magnetic stimulation
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Using an EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Virtual Cursor Movement with BCI2000
Authors: J. Adam Wilson, Gerwin Schalk, Léo M. Walton, Justin C. Williams.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison, New York State Dept. of Health.
A brain-computer interface (BCI) functions by translating a neural signal, such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), into a signal that can be used to control a computer or other device. The amplitude of the EEG signals in selected frequency bins are measured and translated into a device command, in this case the horizontal and vertical velocity of a computer cursor. First, the EEG electrodes are applied to the user s scalp using a cap to record brain activity. Next, a calibration procedure is used to find the EEG electrodes and features that the user will learn to voluntarily modulate to use the BCI. In humans, the power in the mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (18-28 Hz) frequency bands decrease in amplitude during a real or imagined movement. These changes can be detected in the EEG in real-time, and used to control a BCI ([1],[2]). Therefore, during a screening test, the user is asked to make several different imagined movements with their hands and feet to determine the unique EEG features that change with the imagined movements. The results from this calibration will show the best channels to use, which are configured so that amplitude changes in the mu and beta frequency bands move the cursor either horizontally or vertically. In this experiment, the general purpose BCI system BCI2000 is used to control signal acquisition, signal processing, and feedback to the user [3].
Neuroscience, Issue 29, BCI, EEG, brain-computer interface, BCI2000
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Mapping Cortical Dynamics Using Simultaneous MEG/EEG and Anatomically-constrained Minimum-norm Estimates: an Auditory Attention Example
Authors: Adrian K.C. Lee, Eric Larson, Ross K. Maddox.
Institutions: University of Washington.
Magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) are neuroimaging techniques that provide a high temporal resolution particularly suitable to investigate the cortical networks involved in dynamical perceptual and cognitive tasks, such as attending to different sounds in a cocktail party. Many past studies have employed data recorded at the sensor level only, i.e., the magnetic fields or the electric potentials recorded outside and on the scalp, and have usually focused on activity that is time-locked to the stimulus presentation. This type of event-related field / potential analysis is particularly useful when there are only a small number of distinct dipolar patterns that can be isolated and identified in space and time. Alternatively, by utilizing anatomical information, these distinct field patterns can be localized as current sources on the cortex. However, for a more sustained response that may not be time-locked to a specific stimulus (e.g., in preparation for listening to one of the two simultaneously presented spoken digits based on the cued auditory feature) or may be distributed across multiple spatial locations unknown a priori, the recruitment of a distributed cortical network may not be adequately captured by using a limited number of focal sources. Here, we describe a procedure that employs individual anatomical MRI data to establish a relationship between the sensor information and the dipole activation on the cortex through the use of minimum-norm estimates (MNE). This inverse imaging approach provides us a tool for distributed source analysis. For illustrative purposes, we will describe all procedures using FreeSurfer and MNE software, both freely available. We will summarize the MRI sequences and analysis steps required to produce a forward model that enables us to relate the expected field pattern caused by the dipoles distributed on the cortex onto the M/EEG sensors. Next, we will step through the necessary processes that facilitate us in denoising the sensor data from environmental and physiological contaminants. We will then outline the procedure for combining and mapping MEG/EEG sensor data onto the cortical space, thereby producing a family of time-series of cortical dipole activation on the brain surface (or "brain movies") related to each experimental condition. Finally, we will highlight a few statistical techniques that enable us to make scientific inference across a subject population (i.e., perform group-level analysis) based on a common cortical coordinate space.
Neuroscience, Issue 68, Magnetoencephalography, MEG, Electroencephalography, EEG, audition, attention, inverse imaging
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A Method for Systematic Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Neural Recording Electrodes
Authors: Alexander R. Harris, Simeon J. Morgan, Gordon G. Wallace, Antonio G. Paolini.
Institutions: La Trobe University, University of Wollongong, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, RMIT University.
New materials and designs for neural implants are typically tested separately, with a demonstration of performance but without reference to other implant characteristics. This precludes a rational selection of a particular implant as optimal for a particular application and the development of new materials based on the most critical performance parameters. This article develops a protocol for in vitro and in vivo testing of neural recording electrodes. Recommended parameters for electrochemical and electrophysiological testing are documented with the key steps and potential issues discussed. This method eliminates or reduces the impact of many systematic errors present in simpler in vivo testing paradigms, especially variations in electrode/neuron distance and between animal models. The result is a strong correlation between the critical in vitro and in vivo responses, such as impedance and signal-to-noise ratio. This protocol can easily be adapted to test other electrode materials and designs. The in vitro techniques can be expanded to any other nondestructive method to determine further important performance indicators. The principles used for the surgical approach in the auditory pathway can also be modified to other neural regions or tissue.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, Electrochemistry, Electrophysiology, Neural Recording, Neural Implant, Electrode Coating, Bionics
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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Investigating Causal Brain-behavioral Relationships and their Time Course
Authors: Magdalena W. Sliwinska, Sylvia Vitello, Joseph T. Devlin.
Institutions: University College London.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe, non-invasive brain stimulation technique that uses a strong electromagnet in order to temporarily disrupt information processing in a brain region, generating a short-lived “virtual lesion.” Stimulation that interferes with task performance indicates that the affected brain region is necessary to perform the task normally. In other words, unlike neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that indicate correlations between brain and behavior, TMS can be used to demonstrate causal brain-behavior relations. Furthermore, by varying the duration and onset of the virtual lesion, TMS can also reveal the time course of normal processing. As a result, TMS has become an important tool in cognitive neuroscience. Advantages of the technique over lesion-deficit studies include better spatial-temporal precision of the disruption effect, the ability to use participants as their own control subjects, and the accessibility of participants. Limitations include concurrent auditory and somatosensory stimulation that may influence task performance, limited access to structures more than a few centimeters from the surface of the scalp, and the relatively large space of free parameters that need to be optimized in order for the experiment to work. Experimental designs that give careful consideration to appropriate control conditions help to address these concerns. This article illustrates these issues with TMS results that investigate the spatial and temporal contributions of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) to reading.
Behavior, Issue 89, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual lesion, chronometric, cognition, brain, behavior
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The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism
Authors: Sara Tremblay, Vincent Beaulé, Sébastien Proulx, Louis-Philippe Lafleur, Julien Doyon, Małgorzata Marjańska, Hugo Théoret.
Institutions: University of Montréal, McGill University, University of Minnesota.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has been increasingly used over the past decade in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke and depression. Yet, the mechanisms underlying its ability to modulate brain excitability to improve clinical symptoms remains poorly understood 33. To help improve this understanding, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used as it allows the in vivo quantification of brain metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in a region-specific manner 41. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that 1H-MRS is indeed a powerful means to better understand the effects of tDCS on neurotransmitter concentration 34. This article aims to describe the complete protocol for combining tDCS (NeuroConn MR compatible stimulator) with 1H-MRS at 3 T using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. We will describe the impact of a protocol that has shown great promise for the treatment of motor dysfunctions after stroke, which consists of bilateral stimulation of primary motor cortices 27,30,31. Methodological factors to consider and possible modifications to the protocol are also discussed.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, transcranial direct current stimulation, primary motor cortex, GABA, glutamate, stroke
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Use of In vivo Imaging to Monitor the Progression of Experimental Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infection in Neonates
Authors: Eleonore Ostermann, Cécile Macquin, Seiamak Bahram, Philippe Georgel.
Institutions: Université de Strasbourg.
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV-5) is a life-threatening pathogen in immune-compromised individuals. Upon congenital or neonatal infection, the virus can infect and replicate in the developing brain, which may induce severe neurological damage, including deafness and mental retardation. Despite the potential severity of the symptoms, the therapeutic options are limited by the unavailability of a vaccine and the absence of a specific antiviral therapy. Furthermore, a precise description of the molecular events occurring during infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is still lacking since observations mostly derive from the autopsy of infected children. Several animal models, such as rhesus macaque CMV, have been developed and provided important insights into CMV pathogenesis in the CNS. However, despite its evolutionary proximity with humans, this model was limited by the intracranial inoculation procedure used to infect the animals and consistently induce CNS infection. Furthermore, ethical considerations have promoted the development of alternative models, among which neonatal infection of newborn mice with mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has recently led to significant advances. For instance, it was reported that intraperitoneal injection of MCMV to Balb/c neonates leads to infection of neurons and glial cells in specific areas of the brain. These findings suggested that experimental inoculation of mice might recapitulate the deficits induced by HCMV infection in children. Nevertheless, a dynamic analysis of MCMV infection of neonates is difficult to perform because classical methodology requires the sacrifice of a significant number of animals at different time points to analyze the viral burden and/or immune-related parameters. To circumvent this bottleneck and to enable future investigations of rare mutant animals, we applied in vivo imaging technology to perform a time-course analysis of the viral dissemination in the brain upon peripheral injection of a recombinant MCMV expressing luciferase to C57Bl/6 neonates.
Infection, Issue 77, Infectious Diseases, Virology, Microbiology, Immunology, Medicine, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Herpesviridae Infections, Encephalitis, Viral, animal models, MCMV, encephalitis, neonates, in vivo imaging, Human Cytomegalovirus, HCMV, HHV-5, virus, animal model
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Preparation of an Awake Mouse for Recording Neural Responses and Injecting Tracers
Authors: Michael A. Muniak, Zachary M. Mayko, David K. Ryugo, Christine V. Portfors.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Washington State University, Johns Hopkins University.
It is well known that anesthesia alters neural response properties in various regions of the brain.13. In the auditory system, fundamental response properties of brainstem neurons including threshold, frequency specificity, and inhibitory sidebands are altered in significant ways under anesthesia1-2. These observations prompted physiologists to seek ways to record from single neurons without the contaminating effects of anesthesia. One result was a decerebrate preparation, where the brainstem was completely transected at the level of the midbrain4. The drawbacks of this preparation are a formidable surgery, the elimination of descending projections from the forebrain, and an inability to use sensory stimulation to examine structures above the midbrain. A different strategy has been to implant electrode arrays chronically to record from single neurons and multiunit clusters while the animal is awake and/or behaving5,6. These techniques however are not compatible with injecting tracer dyes after first electrophysiologically characterizing a brain structure. To avoid altering neural response properties with anesthetics while recording electrophysiological response properties from single neurons, we have adapted a head restraint technique long used in bats7-9 to mouse10-12. Using this method, we are able to conduct electrophysiological recordings over several days in the unanesthetized mouse. At the end of the recording sessions, we can then inject a dye to reconstruct electrode positions and recording sites or inject a tracer so that pathways to and from the recording loci can be determined. This method allows for well isolated single neuron recordings over multiple days without the use anesthetics.
Neuroscience, Issue 64, Physiology, brain, auditory system, mouse, electrophysiology, recordings, dye injections, neuron labeling
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Paired Nanoinjection and Electrophysiology Assay to Screen for Bioactivity of Compounds using the Drosophila melanogaster Giant Fiber System
Authors: Monica Mejia, Mari D. Heghinian, Alexandra Busch, Frank Marí, Tanja A. Godenschwege.
Institutions: Florida Atlantic University, Florida Atlantic University.
Screening compounds for in vivo activity can be used as a first step to identify candidates that may be developed into pharmacological agents1,2. We developed a novel nanoinjection/electrophysiology assay that allows the detection of bioactive modulatory effects of compounds on the function of a neuronal circuit that mediates the escape response in Drosophila melanogaster3,4. Our in vivo assay, which uses the Drosophila Giant Fiber System (GFS, Figure 1) allows screening of different types of compounds, such as small molecules or peptides, and requires only minimal quantities to elicit an effect. In addition, the Drosophila GFS offers a large variety of potential molecular targets on neurons or muscles. The Giant Fibers (GFs) synapse electrically (Gap Junctions) as well as chemically (cholinergic) onto a Peripheral Synapsing Interneuron (PSI) and the Tergo Trochanteral Muscle neuron (TTMn)5. The PSI to DLMn (Dorsal Longitudinal Muscle neuron) connection is dependent on Dα7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)6. Finally, the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of the TTMn and the DLMn with the jump (TTM) and flight muscles (DLM) are glutamatergic7-12. Here, we demonstrate how to inject nanoliter quantities of a compound, while obtaining electrophysiological intracellular recordings from the Giant Fiber System13 and how to monitor the effects of the compound on the function of this circuit. We show specificity of the assay with methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA), a nAChR antagonist, which disrupts the PSI to DLMn connection but not the GF to TTMn connection or the function of the NMJ at the jump or flight muscles. Before beginning this video it is critical that you carefully watch and become familiar with the JoVE video titled "Electrophysiological Recordings from the Giant Fiber Pathway of D. melanogaster " from Augustin et al7, as the video presented here is intended as an expansion to this existing technique. Here we use the electrophysiological recordings method and focus in detail only on the addition of the paired nanoinjections and monitoring technique.
Neuroscience, Issue 62, Drosophila melanogaster, Giant Fiber Circuit, screening, in vivo, nanoinjection, electrophysiology, modulatory compounds, biochemistry
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The ITS2 Database
Authors: Benjamin Merget, Christian Koetschan, Thomas Hackl, Frank Förster, Thomas Dandekar, Tobias Müller, Jörg Schultz, Matthias Wolf.
Institutions: University of Würzburg, University of Würzburg.
The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) has been used as a phylogenetic marker for more than two decades. As ITS2 research mainly focused on the very variable ITS2 sequence, it confined this marker to low-level phylogenetics only. However, the combination of the ITS2 sequence and its highly conserved secondary structure improves the phylogenetic resolution1 and allows phylogenetic inference at multiple taxonomic ranks, including species delimitation2-8. The ITS2 Database9 presents an exhaustive dataset of internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences from NCBI GenBank11 accurately reannotated10. Following an annotation by profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), the secondary structure of each sequence is predicted. First, it is tested whether a minimum energy based fold12 (direct fold) results in a correct, four helix conformation. If this is not the case, the structure is predicted by homology modeling13. In homology modeling, an already known secondary structure is transferred to another ITS2 sequence, whose secondary structure was not able to fold correctly in a direct fold. The ITS2 Database is not only a database for storage and retrieval of ITS2 sequence-structures. It also provides several tools to process your own ITS2 sequences, including annotation, structural prediction, motif detection and BLAST14 search on the combined sequence-structure information. Moreover, it integrates trimmed versions of 4SALE15,16 and ProfDistS17 for multiple sequence-structure alignment calculation and Neighbor Joining18 tree reconstruction. Together they form a coherent analysis pipeline from an initial set of sequences to a phylogeny based on sequence and secondary structure. In a nutshell, this workbench simplifies first phylogenetic analyses to only a few mouse-clicks, while additionally providing tools and data for comprehensive large-scale analyses.
Genetics, Issue 61, alignment, internal transcribed spacer 2, molecular systematics, secondary structure, ribosomal RNA, phylogenetic tree, homology modeling, phylogeny
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P50 Sensory Gating in Infants
Authors: Anne Spencer Ross, Sharon Kay Hunter, Mark A Groth, Randal Glenn Ross.
Institutions: University of Colorado School of Medicine, Colorado State University.
Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations.
Behavior, Issue 82, Child Development, Psychophysiology, Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Evoked Potentials, Auditory, auditory evoked potential, sensory gating, infant, attention, electrophysiology, infants, sensory gating, endophenotype, attention, P50
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Optogenetic Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve
Authors: Victor H. Hernandez, Anna Gehrt, Zhizi Jing, Gerhard Hoch, Marcus Jeschke, Nicola Strenzke, Tobias Moser.
Institutions: University Medical Center Goettingen, University of Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, University of Goettingen, University of Guanajuato.
Direct electrical stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by cochlear implants (CIs) enables open speech comprehension in the majority of implanted deaf subjects1-6. Nonetheless, sound coding with current CIs has poor frequency and intensity resolution due to broad current spread from each electrode contact activating a large number of SGNs along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea7-9. Optical stimulation is proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation that promises spatially more confined activation of SGNs and, hence, higher frequency resolution of coding. In recent years, direct infrared illumination of the cochlea has been used to evoke responses in the auditory nerve10. Nevertheless it requires higher energies than electrical stimulation10,11 and uncertainty remains as to the underlying mechanism12. Here we describe a method based on optogenetics to stimulate SGNs with low intensity blue light, using transgenic mice with neuronal expression of channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)13 or virus-mediated expression of the ChR2-variant CatCh14. We used micro-light emitting diodes (µLEDs) and fiber-coupled lasers to stimulate ChR2-expressing SGNs through a small artificial opening (cochleostomy) or the round window. We assayed the responses by scalp recordings of light-evoked potentials (optogenetic auditory brainstem response: oABR) or by microelectrode recordings from the auditory pathway and compared them with acoustic and electrical stimulation.
Neuroscience, Issue 92, hearing, cochlear implant, optogenetics, channelrhodopsin, optical stimulation, deafness
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Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy
Authors: Nikki M. Curthoys, Michael J. Mlodzianoski, Dahan Kim, Samuel T. Hess.
Institutions: University of Maine.
Localization-based super resolution microscopy can be applied to obtain a spatial map (image) of the distribution of individual fluorescently labeled single molecules within a sample with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. Using either photoactivatable (PAFP) or photoswitchable (PSFP) fluorescent proteins fused to proteins of interest, or organic dyes conjugated to antibodies or other molecules of interest, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) can simultaneously image multiple species of molecules within single cells. By using the following approach, populations of large numbers (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of individual molecules are imaged in single cells and localized with a precision of ~10-30 nm. Data obtained can be applied to understanding the nanoscale spatial distributions of multiple protein types within a cell. One primary advantage of this technique is the dramatic increase in spatial resolution: while diffraction limits resolution to ~200-250 nm in conventional light microscopy, FPALM can image length scales more than an order of magnitude smaller. As many biological hypotheses concern the spatial relationships among different biomolecules, the improved resolution of FPALM can provide insight into questions of cellular organization which have previously been inaccessible to conventional fluorescence microscopy. In addition to detailing the methods for sample preparation and data acquisition, we here describe the optical setup for FPALM. One additional consideration for researchers wishing to do super-resolution microscopy is cost: in-house setups are significantly cheaper than most commercially available imaging machines. Limitations of this technique include the need for optimizing the labeling of molecules of interest within cell samples, and the need for post-processing software to visualize results. We here describe the use of PAFP and PSFP expression to image two protein species in fixed cells. Extension of the technique to living cells is also described.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Microscopy, Super-resolution imaging, Multicolor, single molecule, FPALM, Localization microscopy, fluorescent proteins
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Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI
Authors: Trecia A. Brown, Joseph S. Gati, Sarah M. Hughes, Pam L. Nixon, Ravi S. Menon, Stephen G. Lomber.
Institutions: University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario.
Current knowledge of sensory processing in the mammalian auditory system is mainly derived from electrophysiological studies in a variety of animal models, including monkeys, ferrets, bats, rodents, and cats. In order to draw suitable parallels between human and animal models of auditory function, it is important to establish a bridge between human functional imaging studies and animal electrophysiological studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an established, minimally invasive method of measuring broad patterns of hemodynamic activity across different regions of the cerebral cortex. This technique is widely used to probe sensory function in the human brain, is a useful tool in linking studies of auditory processing in both humans and animals and has been successfully used to investigate auditory function in monkeys and rodents. The following protocol describes an experimental procedure for investigating auditory function in anesthetized adult cats by measuring stimulus-evoked hemodynamic changes in auditory cortex using fMRI. This method facilitates comparison of the hemodynamic responses across different models of auditory function thus leading to a better understanding of species-independent features of the mammalian auditory cortex.
Neuroscience, Issue 84, Central Nervous System, Ear, Animal Experimentation, Models, Animal, Functional Neuroimaging, Brain Mapping, Nervous System, Sense Organs, auditory cortex, BOLD signal change, hemodynamic response, hearing, acoustic stimuli
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Making Sense of Listening: The IMAP Test Battery
Authors: Johanna G. Barry, Melanie A. Ferguson, David R. Moore.
Institutions: MRC Institute of Hearing Research, National Biomedical Research Unit in Hearing.
The ability to hear is only the first step towards making sense of the range of information contained in an auditory signal. Of equal importance are the abilities to extract and use the information encoded in the auditory signal. We refer to these as listening skills (or auditory processing AP). Deficits in these skills are associated with delayed language and literacy development, though the nature of the relevant deficits and their causal connection with these delays is hotly debated. When a child is referred to a health professional with normal hearing and unexplained difficulties in listening, or associated delays in language or literacy development, they should ideally be assessed with a combination of psychoacoustic (AP) tests, suitable for children and for use in a clinic, together with cognitive tests to measure attention, working memory, IQ, and language skills. Such a detailed examination needs to be relatively short and within the technical capability of any suitably qualified professional. Current tests for the presence of AP deficits tend to be poorly constructed and inadequately validated within the normal population. They have little or no reference to the presenting symptoms of the child, and typically include a linguistic component. Poor performance may thus reflect problems with language rather than with AP. To assist in the assessment of children with listening difficulties, pediatric audiologists need a single, standardized child-appropriate test battery based on the use of language-free stimuli. We present the IMAP test battery which was developed at the MRC Institute of Hearing Research to supplement tests currently used to investigate cases of suspected AP deficits. IMAP assesses a range of relevant auditory and cognitive skills and takes about one hour to complete. It has been standardized in 1500 normally-hearing children from across the UK, aged 6-11 years. Since its development, it has been successfully used in a number of large scale studies both in the UK and the USA. IMAP provides measures for separating out sensory from cognitive contributions to hearing. It further limits confounds due to procedural effects by presenting tests in a child-friendly game-format. Stimulus-generation, management of test protocols and control of test presentation is mediated by the IHR-STAR software platform. This provides a standardized methodology for a range of applications and ensures replicable procedures across testers. IHR-STAR provides a flexible, user-programmable environment that currently has additional applications for hearing screening, mapping cochlear implant electrodes, and academic research or teaching.
Neuroscience, Issue 44, Listening skills, auditory processing, auditory psychophysics, clinical assessment, child-friendly testing
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Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children
Authors: Joe Bathelt, Helen O'Reilly, Michelle de Haan.
Institutions: UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London.
EEG is traditionally described as a neuroimaging technique with high temporal and low spatial resolution. Recent advances in biophysical modelling and signal processing make it possible to exploit information from other imaging modalities like structural MRI that provide high spatial resolution to overcome this constraint1. This is especially useful for investigations that require high resolution in the temporal as well as spatial domain. In addition, due to the easy application and low cost of EEG recordings, EEG is often the method of choice when working with populations, such as young children, that do not tolerate functional MRI scans well. However, in order to investigate which neural substrates are involved, anatomical information from structural MRI is still needed. Most EEG analysis packages work with standard head models that are based on adult anatomy. The accuracy of these models when used for children is limited2, because the composition and spatial configuration of head tissues changes dramatically over development3.  In the present paper, we provide an overview of our recent work in utilizing head models based on individual structural MRI scans or age specific head models to reconstruct the cortical generators of high density EEG. This article describes how EEG recordings are acquired, processed, and analyzed with pediatric populations at the London Baby Lab, including laboratory setup, task design, EEG preprocessing, MRI processing, and EEG channel level and source analysis. 
Behavior, Issue 88, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials 
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Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro
Authors: Aya D. Pusic, Yelena Y. Grinberg, Heidi M. Mitchell, Richard P. Kraig.
Institutions: The University of Chicago Medical Center, The University of Chicago Medical Center.
Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro using spreading depression (SD), as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets for episodic and chronic migraine. SD is the likely cause of migraine aura and migraine pain. It is a paroxysmal loss of neuronal function triggered by initially increased neuronal activity, which slowly propagates within susceptible brain regions. Normal brain function is exquisitely sensitive to, and relies on, coincident low-level immune signaling. Thus, neural immune signaling likely affects electrical activity of SD, and therefore migraine. Pain perception studies of SD in whole animals are fraught with difficulties, but whole animals are well suited to examine systems biology aspects of migraine since SD activates trigeminal nociceptive pathways. However, whole animal studies alone cannot be used to decipher the cellular and neural circuit mechanisms of SD. Instead, in vitro preparations where environmental conditions can be controlled are necessary. Here, it is important to recognize limitations of acute slices and distinct advantages of hippocampal slice cultures. Acute brain slices cannot reveal subtle changes in immune signaling since preparing the slices alone triggers: pro-inflammatory changes that last days, epileptiform behavior due to high levels of oxygen tension needed to vitalize the slices, and irreversible cell injury at anoxic slice centers. In contrast, we examine immune signaling in mature hippocampal slice cultures since the cultures closely parallel their in vivo counterpart with mature trisynaptic function; show quiescent astrocytes, microglia, and cytokine levels; and SD is easily induced in an unanesthetized preparation. Furthermore, the slices are long-lived and SD can be induced on consecutive days without injury, making this preparation the sole means to-date capable of modeling the neuroimmune consequences of chronic SD, and thus perhaps chronic migraine. We use electrophysiological techniques and non-invasive imaging to measure neuronal cell and circuit functions coincident with SD. Neural immune gene expression variables are measured with qPCR screening, qPCR arrays, and, importantly, use of cDNA preamplification for detection of ultra-low level targets such as interferon-gamma using whole, regional, or specific cell enhanced (via laser dissection microscopy) sampling. Cytokine cascade signaling is further assessed with multiplexed phosphoprotein related targets with gene expression and phosphoprotein changes confirmed via cell-specific immunostaining. Pharmacological and siRNA strategies are used to mimic and modulate SD immune signaling.
Neuroscience, Issue 52, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, T-cells, hippocampus, slice culture, gene expression, laser dissection microscopy, real-time qPCR, interferon-gamma
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Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice
Authors: Hirotaka Shoji, Keizo Takao, Satoko Hattori, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa.
Institutions: Fujita Health University, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), National Institutes of Natural Sciences.
The contextual and cued fear conditioning test is one of the behavioral tests that assesses the ability of mice to learn and remember an association between environmental cues and aversive experiences. In this test, mice are placed into a conditioning chamber and are given parings of a conditioned stimulus (an auditory cue) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (an electric footshock). After a delay time, the mice are exposed to the same conditioning chamber and a differently shaped chamber with presentation of the auditory cue. Freezing behavior during the test is measured as an index of fear memory. To analyze the behavior automatically, we have developed a video analyzing system using the ImageFZ application software program, which is available as a free download at Here, to show the details of our protocol, we demonstrate our procedure for the contextual and cued fear conditioning test in C57BL/6J mice using the ImageFZ system. In addition, we validated our protocol and the video analyzing system performance by comparing freezing time measured by the ImageFZ system or a photobeam-based computer measurement system with that scored by a human observer. As shown in our representative results, the data obtained by ImageFZ were similar to those analyzed by a human observer, indicating that the behavioral analysis using the ImageFZ system is highly reliable. The present movie article provides detailed information regarding the test procedures and will promote understanding of the experimental situation.
Behavior, Issue 85, Fear, Learning, Memory, ImageFZ program, Mouse, contextual fear, cued fear
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Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Authors: James Smadbeck, Meghan B. Peterson, George A. Khoury, Martin S. Taylor, Christodoulos A. Floudas.
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity. To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (, a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
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Using the Threat Probability Task to Assess Anxiety and Fear During Uncertain and Certain Threat
Authors: Daniel E. Bradford, Katherine P. Magruder, Rachel A. Korhumel, John J. Curtin.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Fear of certain threat and anxiety about uncertain threat are distinct emotions with unique behavioral, cognitive-attentional, and neuroanatomical components. Both anxiety and fear can be studied in the laboratory by measuring the potentiation of the startle reflex. The startle reflex is a defensive reflex that is potentiated when an organism is threatened and the need for defense is high. The startle reflex is assessed via electromyography (EMG) in the orbicularis oculi muscle elicited by brief, intense, bursts of acoustic white noise (i.e., “startle probes”). Startle potentiation is calculated as the increase in startle response magnitude during presentation of sets of visual threat cues that signal delivery of mild electric shock relative to sets of matched cues that signal the absence of shock (no-threat cues). In the Threat Probability Task, fear is measured via startle potentiation to high probability (100% cue-contingent shock; certain) threat cues whereas anxiety is measured via startle potentiation to low probability (20% cue-contingent shock; uncertain) threat cues. Measurement of startle potentiation during the Threat Probability Task provides an objective and easily implemented alternative to assessment of negative affect via self-report or other methods (e.g., neuroimaging) that may be inappropriate or impractical for some researchers. Startle potentiation has been studied rigorously in both animals (e.g., rodents, non-human primates) and humans which facilitates animal-to-human translational research. Startle potentiation during certain and uncertain threat provides an objective measure of negative affective and distinct emotional states (fear, anxiety) to use in research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse and broadly in affective science. As such, it has been used extensively by clinical scientists interested in psychopathology etiology and by affective scientists interested in individual differences in emotion.
Behavior, Issue 91, Startle; electromyography; shock; addiction; uncertainty; fear; anxiety; humans; psychophysiology; translational
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Long-term Behavioral Tracking of Freely Swimming Weakly Electric Fish
Authors: James J. Jun, André Longtin, Leonard Maler.
Institutions: University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa, University of Ottawa.
Long-term behavioral tracking can capture and quantify natural animal behaviors, including those occurring infrequently. Behaviors such as exploration and social interactions can be best studied by observing unrestrained, freely behaving animals. Weakly electric fish (WEF) display readily observable exploratory and social behaviors by emitting electric organ discharge (EOD). Here, we describe three effective techniques to synchronously measure the EOD, body position, and posture of a free-swimming WEF for an extended period of time. First, we describe the construction of an experimental tank inside of an isolation chamber designed to block external sources of sensory stimuli such as light, sound, and vibration. The aquarium was partitioned to accommodate four test specimens, and automated gates remotely control the animals' access to the central arena. Second, we describe a precise and reliable real-time EOD timing measurement method from freely swimming WEF. Signal distortions caused by the animal's body movements are corrected by spatial averaging and temporal processing stages. Third, we describe an underwater near-infrared imaging setup to observe unperturbed nocturnal animal behaviors. Infrared light pulses were used to synchronize the timing between the video and the physiological signal over a long recording duration. Our automated tracking software measures the animal's body position and posture reliably in an aquatic scene. In combination, these techniques enable long term observation of spontaneous behavior of freely swimming weakly electric fish in a reliable and precise manner. We believe our method can be similarly applied to the study of other aquatic animals by relating their physiological signals with exploratory or social behaviors.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, animal tracking, weakly electric fish, electric organ discharge, underwater infrared imaging, automated image tracking, sensory isolation chamber, exploratory behavior
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Inducing Plasticity of Astrocytic Receptors by Manipulation of Neuronal Firing Rates
Authors: Alison X. Xie, Kelli Lauderdale, Thomas Murphy, Timothy L. Myers, Todd A. Fiacco.
Institutions: University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside, University of California Riverside.
Close to two decades of research has established that astrocytes in situ and in vivo express numerous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be stimulated by neuronally-released transmitter. However, the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity in response to changes in neuronal activity has received little attention. Here we describe a model system that can be used to globally scale up or down astrocytic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in acute brain slices. Included are methods on how to prepare parasagittal hippocampal slices, construct chambers suitable for long-term slice incubation, bidirectionally manipulate neuronal action potential frequency, load astrocytes and astrocyte processes with fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, and measure changes in astrocytic Gq GPCR activity by recording spontaneous and evoked astrocyte Ca2+ events using confocal microscopy. In essence, a “calcium roadmap” is provided for how to measure plasticity of astrocytic Gq GPCRs. Applications of the technique for study of astrocytes are discussed. Having an understanding of how astrocytic receptor signaling is affected by changes in neuronal activity has important implications for both normal synaptic function as well as processes underlying neurological disorders and neurodegenerative disease.
Neuroscience, Issue 85, astrocyte, plasticity, mGluRs, neuronal Firing, electrophysiology, Gq GPCRs, Bolus-loading, calcium, microdomains, acute slices, Hippocampus, mouse
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A Low Cost Setup for Behavioral Audiometry in Rodents
Authors: Konstantin Tziridis, Sönke Ahlf, Holger Schulze.
Institutions: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
In auditory animal research it is crucial to have precise information about basic hearing parameters of the animal subjects that are involved in the experiments. Such parameters may be physiological response characteristics of the auditory pathway, e.g. via brainstem audiometry (BERA). But these methods allow only indirect and uncertain extrapolations about the auditory percept that corresponds to these physiological parameters. To assess the perceptual level of hearing, behavioral methods have to be used. A potential problem with the use of behavioral methods for the description of perception in animal models is the fact that most of these methods involve some kind of learning paradigm before the subjects can be behaviorally tested, e.g. animals may have to learn to press a lever in response to a sound. As these learning paradigms change perception itself 1,2 they consequently will influence any result about perception obtained with these methods and therefore have to be interpreted with caution. Exceptions are paradigms that make use of reflex responses, because here no learning paradigms have to be carried out prior to perceptual testing. One such reflex response is the acoustic startle response (ASR) that can highly reproducibly be elicited with unexpected loud sounds in naïve animals. This ASR in turn can be influenced by preceding sounds depending on the perceptibility of this preceding stimulus: Sounds well above hearing threshold will completely inhibit the amplitude of the ASR; sounds close to threshold will only slightly inhibit the ASR. This phenomenon is called pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) 3,4, and the amount of PPI on the ASR gradually depends on the perceptibility of the pre-pulse. PPI of the ASR is therefore well suited to determine behavioral audiograms in naïve, non-trained animals, to determine hearing impairments or even to detect possible subjective tinnitus percepts in these animals. In this paper we demonstrate the use of this method in a rodent model (cf. also ref. 5), the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), which is a well know model species for startle response research within the normal human hearing range (e.g. 6).
Neuroscience, Issue 68, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, otolaryngology, behavior, auditory startle response, pre-pulse inhibition, audiogram, tinnitus, hearing loss
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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