The interactions of bacterial pathogens with host cells have been investigated extensively using in vitro cell culture methods. However as such cell culture assays are performed under aerobic conditions, these in vitro models may not accurately represent the in vivo environment in which the host-pathogen interactions take place. We have developed an in vitro model of infection that permits the coculture of bacteria and host cells under different medium and gas conditions. The Vertical Diffusion Chamber (VDC) model mimics the conditions in the human intestine where bacteria will be under conditions of very low oxygen whilst tissue will be supplied with oxygen from the blood stream. Placing polarized intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) monolayers grown in Snapwell inserts into a VDC creates separate apical and basolateral compartments. The basolateral compartment is filled with cell culture medium, sealed and perfused with oxygen whilst the apical compartment is filled with broth, kept open and incubated under microaerobic conditions. Both Caco-2 and T84 IECs can be maintained in the VDC under these conditions without any apparent detrimental effects on cell survival or monolayer integrity. Coculturing experiments performed with different C. jejuni wild-type strains and different IEC lines in the VDC model with microaerobic conditions in the apical compartment reproducibly result in an increase in the number of interacting (almost 10-fold) and intracellular (almost 100-fold) bacteria compared to aerobic culture conditions1. The environment created in the VDC model more closely mimics the environment encountered by C. jejuni in the human intestine and highlights the importance of performing in vitro infection assays under conditions that more closely mimic the in vivo reality. We propose that use of the VDC model will allow new interpretations of the interactions between bacterial pathogens and host cells.
25 Related JoVE Articles!
Encapsulation and Permeability Characteristics of Plasma Polymerized Hollow Particles
Institutions: The Pennsylvania State University.
In this protocol, core-shell nanostructures are synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We produce an amorphous barrier by plasma polymerization of isopropanol on various solid substrates, including silica and potassium chloride. This versatile technique is used to treat nanoparticles and nanopowders with sizes ranging from 37 nm to 1 micron, by depositing films whose thickness can be anywhere from 1 nm to upwards of 100 nm. Dissolution of the core allows us to study the rate of permeation through the film. In these experiments, we determine the diffusion coefficient of KCl through the barrier film by coating KCL nanocrystals and subsequently monitoring the ionic conductivity of the coated particles suspended in water. The primary interest in this process is the encapsulation and delayed release of solutes. The thickness of the shell is one of the independent variables by which we control the rate of release. It has a strong effect on the rate of release, which increases from a six-hour release (shell thickness is 20 nm) to a long-term release over 30 days (shell thickness is 95 nm). The release profile shows a characteristic behavior: a fast release (35% of the final materials) during the first five minutes after the beginning of the dissolution, and a slower release till all of the core materials come out.
Physics, Issue 66, Chemical Engineering, Plasma Physics, Plasma coating, Core-shell structure, Hollow particles, Permeability, nanoparticles, nanopowders
Microfluidic Co-culture of Epithelial Cells and Bacteria for Investigating Soluble Signal-mediated Interactions
Institutions: Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University.
The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a unique environment in which intestinal epithelial cells and non-pathogenic (commensal) bacteria coexist. It has been proposed that the microenvironment that the pathogen encounters in the commensal layer is important in determining the extent of colonization. Current culture methods for investigating pathogen colonization are not well suited for investigating this hypothesis as they do not enable co-culture of bacteria and epithelial cells in a manner that mimics the GI tract microenvironment. Here we describe a microfluidic co-culture model that enables independent culture of eukaryotic cells and bacteria, and testing the effect of the commensal microenvironment on pathogen colonization. The co-culture model is demonstrated by developing a commensal Escherichia coli
biofilm among HeLa cells, followed by introduction of enterohemorrhagic E. coli
(EHEC) into the commensal island, in a sequence that mimics the sequence of events in GI tract infection.
Microbiology, Issue 38, Host pathogen interactions, probiotics, inter-kingdom signaling
Characterizing Bacterial Volatiles using Secondary Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SESI-MS)
Institutions: University of Vermont.
Secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) is a method developed for the rapid detection of volatile compounds, without the need for sample pretreatment. The method was first described by Fenn and colleagues1
and has been applied to the detection of illicit drugs2
, the characterization of skin volatiles5
, and the analysis of breath6-7
SESI ionization occurs by proton transfer reactions between the electrospray solution and the volatile analyte, and is therefore suitable for the analysis of hetero-organic molecules, just as in traditional electrospray ionization (ESI). However, unlike standard ESI, the proton transfer process of SESI occurs in the vapor phase rather than in solution (Fig. 1), and therefore SESI is best suited for detecting organic volatiles and aerosols.
We are expanding the use of SESI-MS to the detection of bacterial volatiles as a method for bacterial identification and characterization8
. We have demonstrated that SESI-MS volatile fingerprinting, combined with a statistical analysis method, can be used to differentiate bacterial genera, species, and mixed cultures in a variety of growth media.8
Here we provide the steps for obtaining bacterial volatile fingerprints using SESI-MS, including the instrumental parameters that should be optimized to ensure robust bacterial identification and characterization.
Bioengineering, Issue 52, rapid analysis, mass spectrometry, SESI, bacteria, volatiles, metabolic profiling
A Simplified Technique for In situ Excision of Cornea and Evisceration of Retinal Tissue from Human Ocular Globe
Institutions: Fondazione Banca Degli Occhi del Veneto O.N.L.U.S. , Telethon Institute for Genetics & Medicine (T.I.G.E.M.).
Enucleation is the process of retrieving the ocular globe from a cadaveric donor leaving the rest of the globe undisturbed. Excision refers to the retrieval of ocular tissues, especially cornea, by cutting it separate from the ocular globe. Evisceration is the process of removing the internal organs referred here as retina. The ocular globe consists of the cornea, the sclera, the vitreous body, the lens, the iris, the retina, the choroid, muscles etc (Suppl. Figure 1
). When a patient is suffering from corneal damage, the cornea needs to be removed and a healthy one must be transplanted by keratoplastic surgeries. Genetic disorders or defects in retinal function can compromise vision. Human ocular globes can be used for various surgical procedures such as eye banking, transplantation of human cornea or sclera and research on ocular tissues. However, there is little information available on human corneal and retinal excision, probably due to the limited accessibility to human tissues. Most of the studies describing similar procedures are performed on animal models. Research scientists rely on the availability of properly dissected and well-conserved ocular tissues in order to extend the knowledge on human eye development, homeostasis and function. As we receive high amount of ocular globes out of which approximately 40% (Table 1
) of them are used for research purposes, we are able to perform huge amount of experiments on these tissues, defining techniques to excise and preserve them regularly.
The cornea is an avascular tissue which enables the transmission of light onto the retina and for this purpose should always maintain a good degree of transparency. Within the cornea, the limbus region, which is a reservoir of the stem cells, helps the reconstruction of epithelial cells and restricts the overgrowth of the conjunctiva maintaining corneal transparency and clarity. The size and thickness of the cornea are critical for clear vision, as changes in either of them could lead to distracted, unclear vision. The cornea comprises of 5 layers; a) epithelium, b) Bowman's layer, c) stroma, d) Descemet's membrane and e) endothelium. All layers should function properly to ensure clear vision4,5,6
. The choroid is the intermediate tunic between the sclera and retina, bounded on the interior by the Bruch's membrane and is responsible for blood flow in the eye. The choroid also helps to regulate the temperature and supplies nourishment to the outer layers of the retina5,6
. The retina is a layer of nervous tissue that covers the back of the ocular globe (Suppl. Figure 1
) and consists of two parts: a photoreceptive part and a non-receptive part. The retina helps to receive the light from the cornea and lens and converts it into the chemical energy eventually transmitted to the brain with help of the optic nerve5,6
The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for the dissection of corneal and retinal tissues from human ocular globes. Avoiding cross-contamination with adjacent tissues and preserving RNA integrity is of fundamental importance as such tissues are indispensable for research purposes aimed at (i) characterizing the transcriptome of the ocular tissues, (ii) isolating stem cells for regenerative medicine projects, and (iii) evaluating histological differences between tissues from normal/affected subjects. In this paper we describe the technique we currently use to remove the cornea, the choroid and retinal tissues from an ocular globe. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the dissection of the human ocular globe and the excision of corneal and retinal tissues. The accompanying video will help researchers to learn an appropriate technique for the retrieval of precious human tissues which are difficult to find regularly.
Medicine, Issue 64, Physiology, Human cadaver ocular globe, in situ excision, corneal tissue, in situ evisceration, retinal tissue
The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins
Institutions: Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e.
endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Endocytosis, recycling, plasma membrane, cell surface, EZLink, Sulfo-NHS-SS-Biotin, L-Glutathione, GSH, thiol group, disulfide bond, epithelial cells, cell polarization
Human Skeletal Muscle Biopsy Procedures Using the Modified Bergström Technique
Institutions: Appalacian State University, Appalachian State University, Carolinas Medical Center NorthEast.
The percutaneous biopsy technique enables researchers and clinicians to collect skeletal muscle tissue samples. The technique is safe and highly effective. This video describes the percutaneous biopsy technique using a modified Bergström needle to obtain skeletal muscle tissue samples from the vastus lateralis of human subjects. The Bergström needle consists of an outer cannula with a small opening (‘window’) at the side of the tip and an inner trocar with a cutting blade at the distal end. Under local anesthesia and aseptic conditions, the needle is advanced into the skeletal muscle through an incision in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fascia. Next, suction is applied to the inner trocar, the outer trocar is pulled back, skeletal muscle tissue is drawn into the window of the outer cannula by the suction, and the inner trocar is rapidly closed, thus cutting or clipping the skeletal muscle tissue sample. The needle is rotated 90° and another cut is made. This process may be repeated three more times. This multiple cutting technique typically produces a sample of 100-200 mg or more in healthy subjects and can be done immediately before, during, and after a bout of exercise or other intervention. Following post-biopsy dressing of the incision site, subjects typically resume their activities of daily living right away and can fully participate in vigorous physical activity within 48-72 hr. Subjects should avoid heavy resistance exercise for 48 hr to reduce the risk of herniation of the muscle through the incision in the fascia.
Medicine, Issue 91, percutaneous muscle biopsy, needle biopsy, suction-modified, metabolism, enzyme activity, mRNA, gene function, fiber type, histology, metabolomics, skeletal muscle function, humans
Analysis of Volatile and Oxidation Sensitive Compounds Using a Cold Inlet System and Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry
Institutions: Bielefeld University.
This video presents a protocol for the mass spectrometrical analysis of volatile and oxidation sensitive compounds using electron impact ionization. The analysis of volatile and oxidation sensitive compounds by mass spectrometry is not easily achieved, as all state-of-the-art mass spectrometric methods require at least one sample preparation step, e.g.
, dissolution and dilution of the analyte (electrospray ionization), co-crystallization of the analyte with a matrix compound (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization), or transfer of the prepared samples into the ionization source of the mass spectrometer, to be conducted under atmospheric conditions. Here, the use of a sample inlet system is described which enables the analysis of volatile metal organyls, silanes, and phosphanes using a sector field mass spectrometer equipped with an electron impact ionization source. All sample preparation steps and the sample introduction into the ion source of the mass spectrometer take place either under air-free conditions or under vacuum, enabling the analysis of compounds highly susceptible to oxidation. The presented technique is especially of interest for inorganic chemists, working with metal organyls, silanes, or phosphanes, which have to be handled using inert conditions, such as the Schlenk technique. The principle of operation is presented in this video.
Chemistry, Issue 91, mass spectrometry, electron impact, inlet system, volatile, air sensitive
Imaging of Biological Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Institutions: Georgia Institute of Technology.
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides untargeted molecular information with the highest specificity and spatial resolution for investigating biological tissues at the hundreds to tens of microns scale. When performed under ambient conditions, sample pre-treatment becomes unnecessary, thus simplifying the protocol while maintaining the high quality of information obtained. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is a spray-based ambient MSI technique that allows for the direct sampling of surfaces in the open air, even in vivo
. When used with a software-controlled sample stage, the sample is rastered underneath the DESI ionization probe, and through the time domain, m/z information is correlated with the chemical species' spatial distribution. The fidelity of the DESI-MSI output depends on the source orientation and positioning with respect to the sample surface and mass spectrometer inlet. Herein, we review how to prepare tissue sections for DESI imaging and additional experimental conditions that directly affect image quality. Specifically, we describe the protocol for the imaging of rat brain tissue sections by DESI-MSI.
Bioengineering, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Physics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Imaging, Mass Spectrometry, MS, MSI, Desorption electrospray ionization, DESI, Ambient mass spectrometry, tissue, sectioning, biomarker, imaging
Multi-step Preparation Technique to Recover Multiple Metabolite Compound Classes for In-depth and Informative Metabolomic Analysis
Institutions: National Jewish Health, University of Colorado Denver.
Metabolomics is an emerging field which enables profiling of samples from living organisms in order to obtain insight into biological processes. A vital aspect of metabolomics is sample preparation whereby inconsistent techniques generate unreliable results. This technique encompasses protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction as a means of fractionating metabolites into four distinct classes. Improved enrichment of low abundance molecules with a resulting increase in sensitivity is obtained, and ultimately results in more confident identification of molecules. This technique has been applied to plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid samples with volumes as low as 50 µl. Samples can be used for multiple downstream applications; for example, the pellet resulting from protein precipitation can be stored for later analysis. The supernatant from that step undergoes liquid-liquid extraction using water and strong organic solvent to separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Once fractionated, the hydrophilic layer can be processed for later analysis or discarded if not needed. The hydrophobic fraction is further treated with a series of solvents during three solid-phase extraction steps to separate it into fatty acids, neutral lipids, and phospholipids. This allows the technician the flexibility to choose which class of compounds is preferred for analysis. It also aids in more reliable metabolite identification since some knowledge of chemical class exists.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, plasma, chemistry techniques, analytical, solid phase extraction, mass spectrometry, metabolomics, fluids and secretions, profiling, small molecules, lipids, liquid chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
Simultaneous Synthesis of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in a Magnetically-enhanced Arc Plasma
Institutions: The George Washington University.
Carbon nanostructures such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and graphene attract a deluge of interest of scholars nowadays due to their very promising application for molecular sensors, field effect transistor and super thin and flexible electronic devices1-4
. Anodic arc discharge supported by the erosion of the anode material is one of the most practical and efficient methods, which can provide specific non-equilibrium processes and a high influx of carbon material to the developing structures at relatively higher temperature, and consequently the as-synthesized products have few structural defects and better crystallinity.
To further improve the controllability and flexibility of the synthesis of carbon nanostructures in arc discharge, magnetic fields can be applied during the synthesis process according to the strong magnetic responses of arc plasmas. It was demonstrated that the magnetically-enhanced arc discharge can increase the average length of SWCNT 5
, narrow the diameter distribution of metallic catalyst particles and carbon nanotubes 6
, and change the ratio of metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes 7
, as well as lead to graphene synthesis 8
Furthermore, it is worthwhile to remark that when we introduce a non-uniform magnetic field with the component normal to the current in arc, the Lorentz force along the J×B direction can generate the plasmas jet and make effective delivery of carbon ion particles and heat flux to samples. As a result, large-scale graphene flakes and high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes were simultaneously generated by such new magnetically-enhanced anodic arc method. Arc imaging, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to analyze the characterization of carbon nanostructures. These findings indicate a wide spectrum of opportunities to manipulate with the properties of nanostructures produced in plasmas by means of controlling the arc conditions.
Bioengineering, Issue 60, Arc discharge, magnetic control, single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene
Preparation of Neuronal Co-cultures with Single Cell Precision
Institutions: ISAS, University College London, University of Southampton.
Microfluidic embodiments of the Campenot chamber have attracted great interest from the neuroscience community. These interconnected co-culture platforms can be used to investigate a variety of questions, spanning developmental and functional neurobiology to infection and disease propagation. However, conventional systems require significant cellular inputs (many thousands per compartment), inadequate for studying low abundance cells, such as primary dopaminergic substantia nigra,
spiral ganglia, and Drosophilia melanogaster
neurons, and impractical for high throughput experimentation. The dense cultures are also highly locally entangled, with few outgrowths (<10%) interconnecting the two cultures. In this paper straightforward microfluidic and patterning protocols are described which address these challenges: (i) a microfluidic single neuron arraying method, and (ii) a water masking method for plasma patterning biomaterial coatings to register neurons and promote outgrowth between compartments. Minimalistic neuronal co-cultures were prepared with high-level (>85%) intercompartment connectivity and can be used for high throughput neurobiology experiments with single cell precision.
Neuroscience, Issue 87, microfluidic arraying, single cell, biomaterial patterning, co-culture, compartmentalization, Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, neurite outgrowth, high throughput screening
In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions
Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ
characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3
(bpy = bipyridine), onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ
time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ
IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.
Chemistry, Issue 88, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments
Institutions: Georgia Institute of Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA Johnson Space Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, University of California at San Diego.
In 1953, Stanley Miller reported the production of biomolecules from simple gaseous starting materials, using an apparatus constructed to simulate the primordial Earth's atmosphere-ocean system. Miller introduced 200 ml of water, 100 mmHg of H2
, 200 mmHg of CH4
, and 200 mmHg of NH3
into the apparatus, then subjected this mixture, under reflux, to an electric discharge for a week, while the water was simultaneously heated. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide the reader with a general experimental protocol that can be used to conduct a Miller-Urey type spark discharge experiment, using a simplified 3 L reaction flask. Since the experiment involves exposing inflammable gases to a high voltage electric discharge, it is worth highlighting important steps that reduce the risk of explosion. The general procedures described in this work can be extrapolated to design and conduct a wide variety of electric discharge experiments simulating primitive planetary environments.
Chemistry, Issue 83, Geosciences (General), Exobiology, Miller-Urey, Prebiotic chemistry, amino acids, spark discharge
Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, University of Southern California.
Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, liquid injection molding, reaction injection molding, molds, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, rapid prototyping, medical devices, low cost, low volume, rapid turnaround time.
Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection
Institutions: University College London.
The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity1-5
. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions.
Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures1,6,7
. We developed a new model1
which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd
) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p
) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~
10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of powerful agents to combat superbug infections.
Immunology, Issue 80, Engineering, Technology, Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Early Diagnosis, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Lipids, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, Chemical Actions and Uses, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Surface stress, vancomycin, mucopeptides, cantilever sensor
The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS), D-FENS, and D-FEND ALL: Novel Chlorine Dioxide Decontamination Technologies for the Military
Institutions: United States Army-Natick Soldier RD&E Center, Warfighter Directorate, University of Connecticut Health Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute.
There is a stated Army need for a field-portable, non-steam sterilizer technology that can be used by Forward Surgical Teams, Dental Companies, Veterinary Service Support Detachments, Combat Support Hospitals, and Area Medical Laboratories to sterilize surgical instruments and to sterilize pathological specimens prior to disposal in operating rooms, emergency treatment areas, and intensive care units. The following ensemble of novel, ‘clean and green’ chlorine dioxide technologies are versatile and flexible to adapt to meet a number of critical military needs for decontamination6,15
. Specifically, the Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) was invented to meet urgent battlefield needs and close critical capability gaps for energy-independence, lightweight portability, rapid mobility, and rugged durability in high intensity forward deployments3
. As a revolutionary technological breakthrough in surgical sterilization technology, the PCS is a Modern Field Autoclave that relies on on-site, point-of-use, at-will generation of chlorine dioxide instead of steam. Two (2) PCS units sterilize 4 surgical trays in 1 hr, which is the equivalent throughput of one large steam autoclave (nicknamed “Bertha” in deployments because of its cumbersome size, bulky dimensions, and weight). However, the PCS operates using 100% less electricity (0 vs. 9 kW) and 98% less water (10 vs. 640 oz.), significantly reduces weight by 95% (20 vs. 450 lbs, a 4-man lift) and cube by 96% (2.1 vs. 60.2 ft3
), and virtually eliminates the difficult challenges in forward deployments of repairs and maintaining reliable operation, lifting and transporting, and electrical power required for steam autoclaves.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, chlorine dioxide, novel technologies, D-FENS, PCS, and D-FEND ALL, sterilization, decontamination, fresh produce safety
Biosensor for Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Bacteria
Institutions: Auburn University , Keesler Air Force Base.
A structurally transformed lytic bacteriophage having a broad host range of Staphylococcus aureus
strains and a penicillin-binding protein (PBP 2a) antibody conjugated latex beads have been utilized to create a biosensor designed for discrimination of methicillin resistant (MRSA) and sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus
. The lytic phages have been converted into phage spheroids by contact with water-chloroform interface. Phage spheroid monolayers have been moved onto a biosensor surface by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique 3
. The created biosensors have been examined by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation tracking (QCM-D) to evaluate bacteria-phage interactions. Bacteria-spheroid interactions led to reduced resonance frequency and a rise in dissipation energy for both MRSA and MSSA strains. After the bacterial binding, these sensors have been further exposed to the penicillin-binding protein antibody latex beads. Sensors analyzed with MRSA responded to PBP 2a antibody beads; although sensors inspected with MSSA gave no response. This experimental distinction determines an unambiguous discrimination between methicillin resistant and sensitive S. aureus
strains. Equally bound and unbound bacteriophages suppress bacterial growth on surfaces and in water suspensions. Once lytic phages are changed into spheroids, they retain their strong lytic activity and show high bacterial capture capability. The phage and phage spheroids can be utilized for testing and sterilization of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Other applications may include use in bacteriophage therapy and antimicrobial surfaces.
Bioengineering, Issue 75, Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Infection, Medicine, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Anatomy, Physiology, Bacteria, Pharmacology, Staphylococcus, Bacteriophages, phage, Binding, Competitive, Biophysics, surface properties (nonmetallic materials), surface wave acoustic devices (electronic design), sensors, Lytic phage spheroids, QCM-D, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, assay
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Culturing and Maintaining Clostridium difficile in an Anaerobic Environment
Institutions: Emory University School of Medicine.
is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, sporogenic bacterium that is primarily responsible for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and is a significant nosocomial pathogen. C. difficile
is notoriously difficult to isolate and cultivate and is extremely sensitive to even low levels of oxygen in the environment. Here, methods for isolating C. difficile
from fecal samples and subsequently culturing C. difficile
for preparation of glycerol stocks for long-term storage are presented. Techniques for preparing and enumerating spore stocks in the laboratory for a variety of downstream applications including microscopy and animal studies are also described. These techniques necessitate an anaerobic chamber, which maintains a consistent anaerobic environment to ensure proper conditions for optimal C. difficile
growth. We provide protocols for transferring materials in and out of the chamber without causing significant oxygen contamination along with suggestions for regular maintenance required to sustain the appropriate anaerobic environment for efficient and consistent C. difficile
Immunology, Issue 79, Genetics, Bacteria, Anaerobic, Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods, Spores, Bacterial, Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections, Clostridium Infections, Bacteriology, Clostridium difficile, Gram-positive, anaerobic chamber, spore, culturing, maintenance, cell culture
Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles .
Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories
(BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection
(ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to:
● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media.
● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method.
● Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria.
● Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage.
● Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure.
● Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method.
Basic Protocols, Issue 63, Streak plates, pour plates, soft agar overlays, spread plates, replica plates, bacteria, colonies, phage, plaques, dilutions
The Synergistic Effect of Visible Light and Gentamycin on Pseudomona aeruginosa Microorganisms
Institutions: Bar-Ilan University, Bar-Ilan University, Bar-Ilan University, Bar-Ilan University.
Recently there were several publications on the bactericidal effect of visible light, most of them claiming that blue part of the spectrum (400 nm-500 nm) is responsible for killing various pathogens1-5
. The phototoxic effect of blue light was suggested to be a result of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by endogenous bacterial photosensitizers which mostly absorb light in the blue region4,6,7
. There are also reports of biocidal effect of red and near infra red8
as well as green light9
In the present study, we developed a method that allowed us to characterize the effect of high power green (wavelength of 532 nm) continuous (CW) and pulsed Q-switched (Q-S) light on Pseudomonas aeruginosa
. Using this method we also studied the effect of green light combined with antibiotic treatment (gentamycin) on the bacteria viability. P. aeruginosa
is a common noscomial opportunistic pathogen causing various diseases. The strain is fairly resistant to various antibiotics and contains many predicted AcrB/Mex-type RND multidrug efflux systems10
The method utilized free-living stationary phase Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa
strain PAO1), grown in Luria Broth (LB) medium exposed to Q-switched and/or CW lasers with and without the addition of the antibiotic gentamycin. Cell viability was determined at different time points. The obtained results showed that laser treatment alone did not reduce cell viability compared to untreated control and that gentamycin treatment alone only resulted in a 0.5 log reduction in the viable count for P. aeruginosa
. The combined laser and gentamycin treatment, however, resulted in a synergistic effect and the viability of P. aeruginosa
was reduced by 8 log's.
The proposed method can further be implemented via the development of catheter like device capable of injecting an antibiotic solution into the infected organ while simultaneously illuminating the area with light.
Microbiology, Issue 77, Infection, Infectious Diseases, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Bacteria, Photodynamic therapy, Medical optics, Bacterial viability, Antimicrobial treatment, Laser, Gentamycin, antibiotics, reactive oxygen species, pathogens, microorganisms, cell culture
Vascular Occlusion Training for Inclusion Body Myositis: A Novel Therapeutic Approach
Institutions: University of São Paulo, University of São Paulo.
Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. It is known to produces remarkable muscle weakness and to greatly compromise function and quality of life. Moreover, clinical practice suggests that, unlike other inflammatory myopathies, the majority of IBM patients are not responsive to treatment with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs to counteract disease progression1
. Additionally, conventional resistance training programs have been proven ineffective in restoring muscle function and muscle mass in these patients2,3
. Nevertheless, we have recently observed that restricting muscle blood flow using tourniquet cuffs in association with moderate intensity resistance training in an IBM patient produced a significant gain in muscle mass and function, along with substantial benefits in quality of life4
. Thus, a new non-pharmacological approach for IBM patients has been proposed. Herein, we describe the details of a proposed protocol for vascular occlusion associated with a resistance training program for this population.
Medicine, Issue 40, exercise training, therapeutical, myositis, vascular occlusion
Laser-Induced Chronic Ocular Hypertension Model on SD Rats
Institutions: The University of Hong Kong - HKU.
Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness in the world. Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor. Laser photocoagulation induced ocular hypertension is one of the well established animal models. This video demonstrates how to induce ocular hypertension by Argon laser photocoagulation in rat.
Neuroscience, Issue 10, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, rat
Building a Better Mosquito: Identifying the Genes Enabling Malaria and Dengue Fever Resistance in A. gambiae and A. aegypti Mosquitoes
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University.
In this interview, George Dimopoulos focuses on the physiological mechanisms used by mosquitoes to combat Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infections. Explanation is given for how key refractory genes, those genes conferring resistance to vector pathogens, are identified in the mosquito and how this knowledge can be used to generate transgenic mosquitoes that are unable to carry the malaria parasite or dengue virus.
Cellular Biology, Issue 5, Translational Research, mosquito, malaria, virus, dengue, genetics, injection, RNAi, transgenesis, transgenic
Permeabilization of Adhered Cells Using an Inert Gas Jet
Institutions: McGill University, Montreal Heart Institute.
Various cell transfection techniques exist and these can be broken down to three broad categories: viral, chemical and mechanical. This protocol describes a mechanical method to temporally permeabilize adherent cells using an inert gas jet that can facilitate the transfer of normally non-permeable macromolecules into cells. We believe this technique works by imparting shear forces on the plasma membrane of adherent cells, resulting in the temporary formation of micropores. Once these pores are created, the cells are then permeable to genetic material and other biomolecules. The mechanical forces involved do run the risk of permanently damaging or detaching cells from their substrate. There is, therefore, a narrow range of inert gas dynamics where the technique is effective. An inert gas jet has proven efficient at permeabilizing various adherent cell lines including HeLa, HEK293 and human abdominal aortic endothelial cells. This protocol is appropriate for the permeabilization of adherent cells both in vitro
and, as we have demonstrated, in vivo
, showing it may be used for research and potentially in future clinical applications. It also has the advantage of permeabilizing cells in a spatially restrictive manner, which could prove to be a valuable research tool.
Bioengineering, Issue 79, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Transfection, Permeabilization, transfection, shear stress, adherent cells, SEM, cell, microscopy, imaging